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tooltip="20. CRICKET FROG -- Flash and F-32 provided full depth of field for this small warty frog climbing upon a mound of moss by a stream in the Rulo Bluffs Preserve in southeast Nebraska. It has extreme variation in pattern of coloration, but two color patterns are always present: a dark triangle between the eyes and an irregular dark stripe on the inside of the thigh. The 60mm lens at 1:2 ratio was used for this image on Velvia 50 film. ">Open Image width="695" height="487"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg548024265101..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="20-50. CRICKET FROG -- This is a photo of Blanchard's Cricket Frog (¾-1½ in.) on matted algae near the edge of a pond in Lancaster County, Nebraska. It is a non-climbing species in the treefrog family Hylidae. Cricket frogs have evolved from active tree climbing to living on land as active hoppers eluding predators. Natural selection has pretty much eliminated toe and finger adhesive pads for climbing in favor of hopping in this species, but poorly developed pads are still present. Note the triangle between the eyes and the dark and light bars on the upper jaw. A 60 mm lens, F-8, 1:2 ratio, tripod, and electronic release put this image on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="700" height="473"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg5480242652701..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="20-51. CRICKET FROG -- During one summer drought in Lancaster County, Nebraska a pond nearly dried up. That fall, hundreds of cricket frogs were hopping on the dried cracked mud. This individual shows the variation in coloration and warty-skin texture that helps camouflage this frog from its predators in a dried mud environment. Natural selection probably evolved a skin color and texture camouflage variation favorable to survival of these frogs by selecting a beneficial phenotype (phenotypic plasticity) as an adaptive response to environmental factors probably similar to selection of the process of annual change to white coat color in winter of some dark colored animals in response most likely to a photoperiod environmental factor. Also, note (in this photo) the extensive webbing between the two toes of the hind leg which is a characteristic among all 5 toes on the hind legs of this species. Natural selection evolved this adaptation for efficient swimming under water. A 60 mm lens, F-8, 1:5 ratio, and tripod with electronic release put this image on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="700" height="473"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg548024265501..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="20-52. WESTERN STRIPED FROG -- These frogs, also known as chorus frogs, are the first to be heard around ponds and streams during March and April in Nebraska in the spring. It is frustrating to hear their loud calls, but when coming close to an individual "singing" frog, they stop calling and it is nearly impossible to find and see one. This small frog (¾-1½ in.) usually has three dark stripes running down its back, or as in this individual, they are broken up and not as dark as the prominent lateral stripe. Note that the dark, broad lateral stripe runs from the snout, passes through the eye, and on to the groin. There is always a light line along the upper lip. A 60 mm lens, F-11, 1:3 ratio, and fill flash put this image on Provia F-100 film.">Open Image width="700" height="473"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg548024265601..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="20-53. SPRING PEEPER -- Males begin a chorus of high-pitched, trill-whistling, jingle-bell-like calls early in spring from shrubs and trees near or overhanging water. This individual was found beside a forest path in Scenic State Park in northern Minnesota in the fall. Note the light lower part of an X on its back, a key characteristic of this species. Herpetologist have recently reclassified the Spring Peeper from the genus Hyla (larger true treefrogs) into the genus Pseudacris (same genus as the Western Striped Frog). Pseudacrids are strictly North American, ranging from the Gulf of Mexico to Arizona and north into Canada almost to the Arctic Circle. In the South they are "winter frogs" where they breed from November to late winter during cool rains "singing" day and night. A 60 mm lens and fill flash put this image on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="700" height="473"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg548024265701..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="20-54. NORTHERN LEOPARD FROG -- A rather large (over 4 in.) brownish individual crawling on a rock in the Sturgeon River in northern Minnesota. This photo gives a background view of their natural habitat. A 28 mm lens, F-16 at 1½ ft., and fill spot flash put this image on Provia F-100 film.">Open Image width="700" height="473"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg548024265801..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="20-55. PLAINS LEOPARD FROG -- It is slightly larger and stockier than the Northern Leopard Frog. It also has a light line along the upper jaw and usually a dark spot on the snout. Note the distinct small light spot in the center of the tympanum. Note the key characteristic of a short segment of the dorsolateral ridge line that is offset near the rear end. Males have no vestigial female oviducts. This leopard frog of plains and prairies was photographed near a pond in Lancaster County, Nebraska. A 400 mm lens with extension tube, F-8, at 9 ft., and fill flash put this image on Provia F-100 film.">Open Image width="700" height="473"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg548024265901..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="20-56. NORTHERN LEOPARD FROG -- A green or brown frog (2-3½ in.) with dark irregular or oval spots with light boarders on its back (dorsal). A dorsolateral, light ridge line runs from the eye to the rear end (posterior). There is a light line on the upper jaw, usually a dark spot on the snout, and many round spots on its side (lateral). There is no small light spot in the center of the tympanum (eardrum). Males usually have vestigial female oviducts. These frogs range in most of the northern half of the U.S. and most of the southern half of Canada. Photographed near the Big Fork River in northern Minnesota with a 60 mm lens, F-11, 1:4 ratio, and fill flash on Velvia 50 film. ">Open Image width="700" height="473"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg5480242651001..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="20-57. BULLFROG -- This is the largest frog (3½-8 in.) in North America. The bullfrog is in the typical true frogs family-Ranidae. Frogs in this family are present in all continents except Antarctica, and the largest genus Rana has about 270 frog species. Bullfrogs will eat virtually anything it can swallow that moves. Unfortunately, humans have introduced bullfrogs into habitats where they do not naturally occur causing rapid reduction or even extirpation of populations of native frogs, garter snakes, and small turtles. Their original range was pretty much the eastern half of the U.S., but the western limit is hopelessly confused because of much human introduction into British Columbia, California, Mexico, and even Cuba, Jamaica, and other countries.">Open Image width="700" height="473"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg5480242651101..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="20-58. BULLFROG TADPOLE -- The deep, low-pitched "jug o' rum" call of the male bullfrog (next photo) can be heard over a half mile away. During the spring breeding season the male aggressively defends his calling station territory by mounting, pushing, kicking, bumping, or biting intruding males. Breeding males have enlarged thumbs and swollen forelegs. When a female inters a calling station territory, the male will mount on top of the female's back and grab her with his forelegs tightly holding behind her forelegs and begin amplexus (sexual embrace). As the female lays her eggs in a wide floating mass one egg deep, they are fertilized by sperm from the male. Over 20,000 eggs about 1 mm in size can be produced and they hatch in 4 or 5 days into tiny tadpoles. The tadpoles grow quickly (4-6 ¾ in.) feeding on algae. Some tadpoles may take almost 2 years to metamorphose into froglets. Note nearly fully formed hind leg and a bud of the foreleg on this tadpole. Photographed in a small aquarium at 1:4 ratio, F-8 with a 60 mm lens on Kodachrome 25 film. ">Open Image width="700" height="473"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg5480242651201..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="20-59. SPOTTED FROG -- A large (1¾-4 in.) grayish-brown frog with irregular, large patterned spots consisting of small black spots. Note that the eyes are turned slightly upward. This frog was photographed in a meadow near Bear Valley Creek in Idaho. Their voice call is a series of rapid, low-pitched clicks similar to clicking ones tongue up against the roof of the mouth, and occasionally they call under water. The Spotted Frog is disappearing from some areas and the Bullfrog appears to be the main factor causing near extinction especially in western Oregon and Washington state. A 60 mm lens put this image on Fuji 100 film.">Open Image width="700" height="473"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg5480242651301..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="20-60. WOOD FROG -- This is the frog (1¼-2¾ in.) with a robber's mask. A dark patch below and backward from the eye is always present. They breed very early in the spring and the males voice call sounds like quacking ducks. Most of their range is from northeastern U.S. through Canada to Alaska. There are also isolated populations in other western and southern states. The Wood Frog along with a dozen or so species of amphibians and reptiles can withstand freezing. Evolution has produced physiological adaptations resulting in the liver producing special glucose compounds for osmoregulation of water that pulls more than 60 percent of the water from cells into intercellular spaces between cells and in the frog's body cavity. There the water freezes without damaging the cells. Their cells can tolerate shrinking by dehydration and loss of oxygen when the heart stops pumping and they stop breathing. This freezing process occurs down to 21 degrees F. which is usually the lowest temperature about an inch into the soil below the forest floor leaf litter where these frogs hibernate. In the spring, frozen solid frogs reverse the freezing process and become physiologically and behaviorally functional in a day or two. Natural selection has made it possible for these frogs to be the first to lay eggs in the shallow water of early spring because other hibernators deep in the soil or pond bottoms are slower to become active in the spring. This quick-thaw selective advantage makes it possible for Wood Frogs to be the only frogs that survive above the Arctic Circle. The warm season way up north is short and their adaptations make it possible for this "explosive" breeder's life cycle from eggs to tadpoles to young adult frogs to be very short before temperatures drop again in early winter. Their life cycle in Alaska is pushed so much to the extreme limit that they are cannibalistic eating their own offspring and young adult frogs in order to have enough nutrition to survive another freezing process. Southern Wood Frogs are not cannibals. Photographed near the Big Fork River with a 60 mm lens, F-11/8, 1:1 ratio, and fill flash on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="700" height="473"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg5480242651401..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="20-61. GRAY TREEFROG -- The commonly named Gray Treefrog (1¼-2 in.) is in fact not one species, but two species. The one species, Hyla versicolor, has twice as many chromosomes (tetraploid) as Hyla chrysoscelis (diploid). They range from southeastern Canada to the Gulf Coast where both of their ranges overlap (sympatric species). They are identical in appearance and because their ranges overlap extensively, the only way to tell them apart is by their voice calls. Their calls are a musical, flute-like trill similar to that of the red-bellied woodpecker. The difference in calls is best described as a slow trill (versicolor) and a fast, higher-pitched trill (chrysoscelis). According to Harding, 1997, H. versicolor probably evolved from H. chrysoscelis when polyploidy occurred in some egg masses during a Pleistocene "ice age". The tetraploid population was isolated long enough because of glaciation to evolve divergent male calls for effective reproduction isolation from diploid populations. When the climate warmed and the species ranges overlapped, they remained separate species. There are sticky adhesive pads on the tips of their fingers (seen in this photo) and the tips of their toes. The evolution of pads by natural selection enables treefrogs to climb or rest on vertical surfaces. This is accomplished by the secretion of a mucous layer from the pad cells which make use of natural physical cohesive forces of attraction to hold the mucous together, and the surface tension of natural physical adhesive forces of attraction to hold the mucous and surface molecules together. Natural selection increased the effectiveness of pads by evolving extra flexible cartilage between the last two bones of the toe and finger tips to allow them to swivel backwards, forwards, and sideways keeping the pad flat against the surface. A 60 mm lens, F-11/8, 1:3 ratio, and fill flash put this image on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="700" height="473"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg5480242651501..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="20-62. GRAY TREEFROG -- This green Gray Treefrog was placed on a purplish-pink thistle flower for dramatic color effect. Individual treefrogs vary in color from gray, brown, green or even white depending on changes in its activities or environmental variables. Usually there is a light spot below the eye and yellow mottled with black on the underside of thighs (showing in the previous photo). They spend most of their time foraging and resting in small trees or shrubs near or standing in shallow water bodies. A 60 mm lens, F-11, 1:1.5 ratio, and fill flash put this image on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="700" height="473"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg5480242651601..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="20-63. GREAT BASIN SPADEFOOT -- This is a rather small toad (1½-2½ in.) of the Great Basin semi-desert shrub lands habitat. Natural selection has evolved a hardened, black, wedge-shaped spade (not showing in this photo) on each hind foot for digging backwards down into burrows in sandy soil and a glandular boss (hump seen in this photo) between the eyes probably for protection of the head when it pushes up through the soil. Spadefoot toads have vertical eye pupils and no visible parotoid glands (long oval humps behind the eyes). Because of their dry habitat and infrequent rains producing ephemeral rain puddles, natural selection has produced an adaptation of shortened time period from egg to tadpole to young toad in as little as 2 weeks. This spadefoot was photographed in the Killpecker Sand Dunes of the Red Desert in southwestern Wyoming. A 60 mm lens, F-22, 1:3.5 ratio, and fill flash put this image on Provia F-100 film.">Open Image width="700" height="473"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg5480242651701..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="20-64. SPADEFOOT TOAD TADPOLE -- This tadpole (to about 2½ in.) was caught by hand from a shallow rain puddle in the Wyoming Red Desert. Note the 4 narrow rows of labial teeth below the mouth. These labial tooth rows and mouth parts are described for species identification of both toads and frogs. Tadpole mouth parts are used primarily for scraping up algae and detritus for food. In some populations of spadefoot toads, natural selection has evolved a beaked upper jaw, a notched lower jaw, and enlarged jaw muscles to produce a predacious and cannibalistic tadpole carnivore. A 60 mm lens, F-11, 1:2 ratio, and fill flash put this image on Provia F-100 film.">Open Image width="700" height="473"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg5480242651801..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="20-65. AMERICAN TOAD -- It is commonly known as the "hoptoad" (2-4 in.) of the Northeast. It ranges in most of the eastern half of the U.S. and Canada. This is a photo of a rather small two inch, colorfully patterned, young adult near the Big Fork River in northern Minnesota. A 60 mm lens F-11, 1:1 ratio, and fill flash put this image on Velvia 50 film. ">Open Image width="700" height="473"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg5480242651901..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="20-66. AMERICAN TOAD -- An in your face close-up of a larger rust-colored American Toad. Note the prominent parotoid gland behind the eye, and that true toads have a horizontal pupil opening. It's interesting to note that internal female reproductive structures similar to male leopard frogs in the Ranidae family are present in male toads of the Bufonidae family. Male toads have a rudimentary female ovary that will become functional if the male testes are damaged or removed! A 60 mm lens, F-8, 1:1 ratio, 1/125 sec., tripod, and available light put this image on Provia F-100 film.">Open Image width="700" height="473"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg5480242652001..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="20-67. WESTERN TOAD -- A light dorsal line down the middle of the back and no cranial crest ridges framed around the eyebrows identifies this toad (2½-5 in.). The raised, oval parotoid gland behind the eye is clearly visible in this photo as well as the round tympanum below the front of the gland. The warts tinged with a rust color project from dark blotches on the skin. Its voice call is similar to the peeping of baby chicks. Photographed in its natural habitat beside Bear Valley Creek in Idaho with a 60 mm lens, f-11, 1:5 ratio, and fill flash on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="700" height="473"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg5480242652101..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="20-68. WESTERN TOAD -- An in your face close-up of the individual in the previous photo. This close-up shows that cranial crests framing around the eyebrows are clearly absent, and shows the warty texture in the skin of this toad. It ranges from southeast Alaska to southern California and Colorado. A 60 mm lens, F-32, 1:1.5 ratio, and fill flash put this image on Velvia 50 film. ">Open Image width="700" height="473"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg5480242652201..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="20-69. WOODHOUSE'S TOAD -- Toads have dry warty skin compared to frogs' relatively moist smooth skin. Contrary to a popular myth, a person does not get warts from touching toads, but their skin-glands secrete toxins that irritate one's eyes and mouth. Natural selection has evolved a defense against predators in some species of toads by producing a sticky white toxin secreted from the parotoid glands (raised oval areas behind the eyes) and warts on the skin that can paralyze or kill dogs and other predators. General handling of toads, however, is not dangerous, but it is important to wash one's hands after handling them. This large toad (2-5 in.) was named after Dr. Woodhouse, a surgeon and naturalist who explored the U.S. in the mid-19th century. It ranges throughout most of the U.S. It has a white line down the middle of its back, and prominent, raised cranial crest ridges that frame around the eyebrow. Photographed in its natural habitat in the Sand Hills of Nebraska with a 60 mm lens, F-11, and fill flash on Provia F-100 film.">Open Image width="700" height="473"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg5480242652301..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="20-1. MINK FROG -- During the first week of October this frog was found on the side of a road near Scenic State Park in northern Minnesota. Note the relatively large eardrum. Its skin can produce a musky, mink-like odor. The 60mm lens, F 11/8, 1:3 ratio, and fill flash put this amphibian on Velvia 50 film. ">Open Image width="700" height="485"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg548024265201..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="20-2. BLUE-SPOTTED SALAMANDER -- During the first week of October this amphibian was found in Scenic State Park in northern Minnesota. Forest floor maple leaf litter provided colorful background for this photo. The U.S. has the greatest diversity of salamanders with about 40 percent of the world's total species. The 60mm lens, F-8, 1:3 ratio, and fill flash put this dark salamander on Velvia 50 film. ">Open Image width="690" height="480"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg548024265301..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="20-21. BLUERIDGE TWO-LINED SALAMANDER -- This salamander (2¾-4¼ in. from snout to vent) was dip netted from a brook about 2½ miles from the start of the Appalachian Trail north of Amicolola Falls State Park in Georgia. It was photographed on moss beside the brook and then released back into the water. Note that the long black line on the side of the body breaks up into dots half way down the tail, and the tail is about 60 per cent of its total length. A 60 mm lens, F-11/8, 1:3 ratio, and fill flash put this image on Velia 50 film.">Open Image width="700" height="473"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg5480242652401..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="20-22. MOUNTAIN DUSKY SALAMANDER -- There are several distinguishing features helpful in identifying this salamander (2¾-4 in.). There is a light diagonal stripe from the eye angled to the rear of jaw, the hind legs are larger than the front legs, and they have a round tail (sometimes wider at the base than the height) about ½ their total length. Mountain Dusky Salamanders are more terrestrial than other Dusky Salamanders and they are jumpers, leaping forward several times their body length trying to avoid predators. They can climb trees and shrubs to forage for food. Populations as well as young adults vary greatly in color and pattern. Old individuals can become plain dark brown with no pattern. This young adult individual was found and photographed about 2½ miles from the start of the Appalachian Trail north of Amicolola Falls State Park in Georgia. A 60 mm lens, F-11, 1:1 ratio, and fill flash put this image on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="700" height="473"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg5480242652501..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="20-23. TIGER SALAMANDER -- The black spots on a light olive background color of this captive individual indicate it is the Gray Tiger Salamander (7-8 in.), Ambystoma tigrinum diaboli. They are the World's largest terrestrial salamanders, and are classified in the amphibian family Ambystomatidae known as the mole salamanders. Just like moles, they are underground most of the time. This salamander is sometimes found in old dug wells, basements, and cellars. They feed on any animal small enough to swallow such as earthworms, spiders, insects, slugs, snails, mice, and other amphibians. They breed in early spring and even late winter in water of ponds and wetlands. Courtship involves males and females rubbing together with lots of tail thrashing. Unlike male frogs which clasp the females from behind in amplexus (sexual embrace) to fertilize the eggs as they are released from the female, the male salamander moves away from the female after courtship and the female follows him keeping her head close to his reproductive cloaca opening. The male eventually deposits a spermatophore (sperm packet) through his cloaca underwater on the mud bottom, and the female quickly puts her cloaca over the spematophore to pick it up inside her. Her eggs are fertilized with sperm from the spermatophore as they pass through her cloaca to the water outside. Tiger salamanders range throughout most of the U.S., parts of southern Canada, and some of northern Mexico. A 60 mm lens, F-8, and fill flash put this image on Provia F-100 film at a Loess Hills Seminar near Onawa, Iowa.">Open Image width="700" height="473"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg5480242652601..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="20-3. NORTHERN LEOPARD FROG -- A green or brown frog with rows of irregular rounded dark spots with light borders. Usually always has a dark spot on top of snout. This large brown frog (4-5”) was found on the banks of the Sturgeon River in northern Minnesota during the fall in the middle of October. In the spring the croaking call of the male sounds similar to the sound produced by rubbing a wet thumb across the surface of a balloon. Hudson’s publication reports the following about leopard frog calls in Wright’s handbook (1933): “The males croak either on the surface of the water or beneath it on the bottom.” World-wide, 90 percent of amphibian species are frogs, but in the U.S. only about 40 percent are frogs. Most amphibians in the U.S. are salamanders. The Las Vegas Leopard Frog (Rana fisheri) is the only U.S. amphibian known to be extinct. Recent research on the affect of herbicides on sexual development of leopard frogs indicates that atrazine at very low levels somehow helps convert the male sex hormone testosterone to the female sex hormone estrogen. This has caused male frogs to have both male and female sex organs. The 300mm Nikkor lens, F-5.6, and fill flash put this frog on Provia F100 film. ">Open Image width="613" height="487"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg548024265401..jpg"> height="29"/>height="33"/> tooltip="E0421. Bison and Aspen in Yellowstone (Image from 700 mm lens, F-5, tripod, and electronic release on Provia 400X film)">Open Image width="698" height="464"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg872606747801..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0422. Deer in Natural Background (Image from 500 mm lens, F-4, 1/60 sec, tripod, and electronic release on Provia 400X film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg872606747901..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0423. Deer by Vernal Pool in Red Desert (Image from 85 mm lens, F-8, 1/250 sec, and tripod on Provia 100F film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg8726067471001..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="15-1. PRONGHORN -- This mammal is found only in North America. Both sexes have true horns made of sheaths of matted hair that are shed each year. This is one of the fastest running animals in the world. Speeds of 70mph for 3-4 minutes have been clocked, and 30mph is an easy cruising speed over long periods of time. In the summer, it grazes on grasses, forbs, and cacti; in winter, it browses on sagebrush. In his book Built for Speed: A Year in the Life of Pronghorn, 2003 John Byers tells us “Natural selection can shape the brain to make anything that contributes directly to reproduction feel like fun.” After giving birth the mother pronghorn eats up the placenta followed by several weeks of chowing down on her fawn’s feces. (It tastes good!) A decaying placenta could attract predators and eating her fawn’s feces apparently helps produce disease-fighting antibodies for her offspring through the mother’s milk. The 400mm telephoto at F-5.6 and 1/500 sec. shutter speed put this Pronghorn antelope on Provia 100F film. ">Open Image width="694" height="483"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg872606747101..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="19-5. ORNATE BOX TURTLE -- This female Ornate Box Turtle is in her natural habitat in the Sandhills of the Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge in Nebraska. It takes her more than 10 yrs before she can reproduce, and then only 3 to 4 eggs per clutch. It will take her decades to produce only one surviving offspring to replace her. In spite of this, the commercial pet and food trade carelessly took over 60,000 ornate box turtles (voluntary reporting) from the wild in Nebraska between 1994 to 2000 after the Turtle Bill passed in 1993. Finally, after 30 years hard work by Angelica Turtle Lady Byorth and many volunteers, legislation to protect all reptiles and amphibians from commercial exploitation was passed in Nebraska in 2002. The 28mm lens and fill flash put this natural scene on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="609" height="483"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg872606747201..jpg"> height="29"/>height="33"/> tooltip="20-3. NORTHERN LEOPARD FROG -- A green or brown frog with rows of irregular rounded dark spots with light borders. Usually always has a dark spot on top of snout. This large brown frog (4-5”) was found on the banks of the Sturgeon River in northern Minnesota during the fall in the middle of October. In the spring the croaking call of the male sounds similar to the sound produced by rubbing a wet thumb across the surface of a balloon. Hudson’s publication reports the following about leopard frog calls in Wright’s handbook (1933): “The males croak either on the surface of the water or beneath it on the bottom.” World-wide, 90% of amphibian species are frogs, but in the U.S. only about 40% are frogs. Most amphibians in the U.S. are salamanders. The Las Vegas Leopard Frog (Rana fisheri) is the only U.S. amphibian known to be extinct. Recent research on the affect of herbicides on sexual development of leopard frogs indicates that atrazine at very low levels somehow helps convert the male sex hormone testosterone to the female sex hormone estrogen. This has caused male frogs to have both male and female sex organs. The 300mm Nikkor lens, F-5.6, and fill flash put this frog on Provia F100 film. ">Open Image width="608" height="483"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg872606747301..jpg"> height="29"/>height="33"/> tooltip="57-31. PLAINS KILLIFISH -- This small fish is in the Fundulidae family. The Plains Killifish's back and head are flattened above and the mouth is upturned with a band of teeth on its jaws that are all adaptations for feeding at or near the water surface. Their habitat is shallow running water, pools, and backwaters in the upper reach of creeks and small rivers. This fish is tolerant of extremely salty and alkaline water, and sometimes buries itself headfirst in sand, mud or debris on the bottom of shallow water so that only their mouth and eyes are visible. The reason for this curious behavior is still unclear. Burying may help to hide them from view to avoid predators, it may help them to avoid detection by their prey, it may help to rid them of ectoparasites, it may protect them from intense sunlight of the Great Plains to avoid overheating in shallow water, or it may help to protect them from desiccation when water levels become extremely low. One must be aware that correlation does not necessarily mean causation. Which ever one of the above reasons was the initial cause of the burying behavior, it would seem that other beneficial effects are coincidental to the original cause. If one were to imagine being a small fish in shallow water, I would speculate that the most pressing cause of this burying behavior would be the ?scary” threat of predators, both above the water surface (birds), and in the water (larger predatory fish). The other reasons can be eliminated in other ways: for example, avoiding overheating by moving into shaded areas, extremely lowered water levels would not occur nearly as frequently as the threat of predators, removing ectoparasites could be more effectively accomplished by brushing against twigs, grass or rocks in the stream bed, and their prey food of small invertebrates and insects is usually abundant, so hiding in ambush would be unnecessary. In any case, evolution of burying behavior most likely occurred through the process of natural selection. It could possibly have been from an inadvertent behavior as a consequence of ?panic” in a school of killifish scattering at the sight of a predator. As the fish dart away to avoid a predator, some may have randomly plunged into a bottom mound of debris, mud or sand, and were less likely to be eaten compared to fleeing fish that continued to dart away in water. The differential survival of buried fish compared to the increased predation of fleeing fish in water under heavy predation pressure could over time result in increased survival of burying fish reproducing more offspring. The process of natural selection could then gradually result in the non-random accumulation of inherited behavioral traits from random inherited behavior traits of reproducing burying killifish—a tendency toward burying by offspring from many generations over time of interbreeding populations of killifish. (Of course, this does not mean that natural selection proceeded with foresight and purpose toward a goal of burying behavior in killifish so that they could "outwit" predators, but rather it is actually a gradual, natural, materialistic, mechanistic process of non-random accumulation of random inherited behavioral traits from many generations over time of reproducing populations of killifish. Thus, natural selection could produce a burying behavior adaptation in Plains Killifish.) They range from the Platte River watershed of Nebraska, Wyoming, and Colorado, south throughout most of Kansas and Oklahoma, to the Colorado River watershed, and the Pecos River in New Mexico and Texas. They have been introduced into many areas. Photographed in the same manner and location as # 57-10 with a 60 mm lens, F-11/8, 1:3 ratio, and fill flash on Velvia 50 film. ">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg8726067471701..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0424. Slug on Dead Leaf (Image from 60 mm lens, F-32/22, 1:1.5 ratio, and fill flash on Velvia 50 film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg8726067471101..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0425. Land Snail on Lichens (Image from 60 mm lens, F-32, 1:1 ratio, and fill flash on Velvia 50 film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg8726067471201..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0426. Slug on Green Leaf (Image from 60 mm lens, F-11, 1:1.8 ratio, and fill flash on Velvia 50 film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg8726067471301..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0427. Land Snail and Red Fungi (Image from 60 mm lens, F-16, 1 sec exposure, 1:1 ratio, and fill flash on Kodachrome 25 film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg8726067471401..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E042. Whitetail Jackrabbit">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg872606747501..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E043. Cottontail Rabbit Camouflage">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg872606747601..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E002a. Two Coyotes in Yellowstone National Park">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg872606747701..jpg"> height="29"/>height="28"/> tooltip="E001a. Columbian Ground Squirrel">Open Image width="478" height="708"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg1381294369101.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="E001c. Red Fox (Image from 500 mm lens, F-5.6, tripod, and electronic release on Ectachrome 100VS film)">Open Image width="478" height="708"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg1381294369201.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="E001. Gorgone Checkerspot on dewy Big Bluestem grass">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg1528384963101..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E002. Cecropia Moth">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg1528384963201..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E003. Comma Butterfly">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg1528384963301..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E004. Dragonfly">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg1528384963401..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E005. Carpenter Ant">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg15283849631501..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E006. Ash Borer">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg1528384963601..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E007. Spittle Bug">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg1528384963701..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="42-8. MOURNING CLOAK -- This butterfly is basking on the red autumn foliage of a burning bush. Adults estivate in summer, feed and grow fat in the fall, hibernate in winter, and mate in the spring. Supposedly, its name comes from its somber color that is similar to the dark funeral shawl worn by widows. The 60mm lens at F-11 and fill flash put this insect on Velvia 50 film. ">Open Image width="690" height="483"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg15283849635001..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="43. DELAWARE SKIPPER -- Skippers are identified by the bent club of the antenna. This bright orange skipper is identified by the black veins on the upperside of its wings. The 60mm lens, F-8, 1:3 ratio, and fill flash found this butterfly on a lavender-colored flower for Velvia 50 film. ">Open Image width="697" height="483"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg15283849635101..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="46-1. MOSQUITO -- It was an extremely wet, early spring in northern Minnesota. While on vacation during the second week in May, 2001, the first three days of that week very few mosquitoes were around. But then, in one day huge "clouds" of mosquitoes over the river and everywhere produced continuous whining sounds from mosquito wings 24 hours day and night and never let up. Ochleratatus canadensis not only surrounded every part of the human body, but would fly up one's pant legs. Its long proboscis is capable of piercing three layers of clothing! There was no relief in knowing that only females pierce the skin for a blood meal necessary to lay their eggs. Extension tubes on a 60mm Nikon lens and two flashes produced this 3x life size image on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="620" height="483"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg15283849635201..jpg"> height="29"/>height="33"/> tooltip="E024. Domestic House Spider on Lichens">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg15283849631101..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E025. Tick">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg15283849631201..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E004a. Familiar Jumper">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg15283849631301..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E003a. Three Acrobat Ants">Open Image width="604" height="483"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg15283849631401..jpg"> height="29"/>height="34"/> tooltip="E0822. DEWY SPIDER WEB -- The upper side of a Banded Argiope spider on dewy spider silk web in early morning. (Image from a 60 mm lens, tripod, and mirror lockup with early morning sun back light on Fuji 100 film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg15283849633201..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0823. BANDED ARGIOPE -- The underside of a Banded Argiope on spider silk web. (Image from a 60 mm lens, F-11, 1:2 ratio, 1/30 sec, tripod, and mirror lockup on Velvia 50 film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg15283849633301..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0824. MALE CELLAR SPIDER ON WIDE GRAIN WOOD (Image from a 60 mm lens, F-32, and flash on Kodachrome 25 film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg15283849633401..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0825. MALE CELLAR SPIDER ON NARROW GRAIN WOOD (Image from a 60 mm lens, 2X extension tubes, F-32, and double flash on Velvia 50 film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg15283849633501..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0826. FEMALE CELLAR SPIDER (Image from a 60 mm lens, 3X extension tubes, F-32, and flash on Kodachrome 25 film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg15283849633601..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0827. FAMILIAR JUMPER -- Jumping spiders are in the family Salticidae. They are small, compact, and rather cute spiders. Note the iridescent hairs on top of its head. (Image from a 60 mm lens, 2X extension tubes, and double flash on Velvia 50 film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg15283849633701..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0828. WOLF SPIDER ON GREEN LEAF (Image from a 60 mm lens, F-11, 2X extension tubes, and double flash on Velvia 50 film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg15283849633801..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0820. WOLF SPIDER WITH EGG CASE (Image from a 60 mm lens, 3X extension tubes, F-32, and double flash on Velvia 50 film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg15283849633901..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0830. ORB-WEAVER HANGING ON ITS SILK ORB-WEB (Image from a 60 mm lens, F-11, and flash on Fuji 100 film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg15283849634001..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0831. CROSS ORB-WEAVER HANGING ON ITS SILK ORB-WEB (Image from 85 mm lens, extension tubes, F-11, 1:1 ratio, and flash on Velvia 50 film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg15283849634101..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0832. TICK (Image from 60 mm lens, 3X extension tubes, F-11, and double flash on Velvia 50 film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg15283849634201..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0833. RED VELVET MITE (Image from a 60 mm lens, 3X extension tubes, F-11, and double flash on Velvia 50 film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg15283849634301..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0834. RINGLET BUTTERFLY ON DAISY FLEABANE (Image from a 60 mm lens, 1:3 ratio, F-11, tripod, and mirror lockup on Provia 100F film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg15283849634401..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0835. TAILED BLUE BUTTERFLY WINGS (Image from a 60 mm lens, 3X extension tubes, F-11/8, and double flash on Velvia 50 film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg15283849634501..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0836. WOOD NYMPH BUTTERFLY (Image from a 60 mm lens, F-8, 1:4 ratio, and fill flash on Velvia 50 film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg15283849634601..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0837. ANISE SWALLOWTAIL ON TULIP (Image from a 60 mm lens, F-8, and fill flash on Provia 100F film) ">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg15283849634701..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0839. ZEBRA LONGWING BUTTERFLY -- Heliconius sp. is resting on a Heliconia plant in a butterfly garden in Ecuador, South America. Photographed with a 35-70 zoom lens at macro and fill flash on Provia 100F film. ">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg15283849635301..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0840. BIRDWING BUTTERFLY (male) -- Photographed in the butterfly garden of the Henry Doorly Zoo in Omaha, Nebraska with an 85 mm lens, extension tube, F-11, and fill flash on Provia 100F film.">Open Image width="698" height="455"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg15283849635401..jpg"> height="29"/>height="27"/> tooltip="E0841. Lupine Blue butterfly on sage.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg15283849635501..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0842. Orange Sulfur (Alfalfa Butterfly, female white form alba) resting on a Blanket Flower.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg15283849635601..jpg"> height="29"/>height="28"/> tooltip="45-4. NEBRASKA CONE-HEAD -- The generic name of the scientific name, Neoconocephalus nebrascensis, describes the head of this katydid rather well. The species name indicates it was first named in Nebraska. The 60mm lens, F-16, double flash, and extension tubes put this 2x life size image on Velvia 50 film. ">Open Image width="490" height="705"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg2095496853301.jpg">Open Image width="29" height="42"/> tooltip="E025-1. Alfalfa Butterfly and Crab Spider">Open Image width="490" height="617"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg2095496853201.jpg">Open Image width="33" height="42"/> tooltip="E0270. Rural Farm Scene Under Clouds near Cromwell, Minnesota (Image from lens and film unknown)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg8818168871001..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0271. Rural Farm Scene near Cromwell, Minnesota (Image from closeup of E0270 with 135 mm lens, F-5.6, polarized filter, 1/30 sec, tripod, and mirror lockup on Velvia 50 film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg8818168871101..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0272. Rural Farm Scene North of Moscow, Idaho (Image from 135 mm lens, F-11, 1/15 sec, tripod, and mirror lockup on Velvia 50 film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg8818168871201..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="29. WINTER BARN -- This photo was taken of an old barn on the Rulo Bluffs Preserve in southeast Nebraska during the winter of 1996. The old barns of our country farm heritage are vanishing from America's landscape. Two years after this photo was taken, this old barn was demolished. The 35-135 zoom lens at 35mm F-8 recorded this image on Velvia 50 film. ">Open Image width="569" height="380"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg881816887101..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E026. White barn in winter near Lincoln, Nebraska">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg881816887201..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E028. White barn with windmill shadow near Lincoln, Nebraska">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg881816887401..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E027. Red barn in northwest Montana">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg881816887301..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0261. White Barn in Winter (Image from 60 mm lens, F-11, hazy sun, tripod, and mirror-lockup on Kodachrome 25 film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg8818168871701..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0262. White Barn with Tree Shadow (Image from 105 mm lens, F-11, tripod, and mirror-lockup on Velvia 50 film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg8818168871801..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0278. Blue-roof White Barn (Image from 50 mm lens, F-11, low-light sun, tripod, and mirror-lockup on Kodachrome 25 film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg8818168871901..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0279. Old Barn Near Kearney, Nebraska (Image from 300 mm lens, F-5.6, overcast light, tripod, and mirror-lockup on Provia 100F film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg8818168873501..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0280. Gable Barn and Silo near Hope, Minnesota (Image from 105 mm lens, F-8, tripod, and mirror-lockup on Kodachrome 25 film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg8818168872001..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0281. Double Barn near Superior, Nebraska (Image from 135 mm lens, F-8, tripod, and mirror-lockup on Velvia 50 film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg8818168872101..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0282. Old Barn in Plowed Field (Image from 105 mm lens, F-8, 1/125 sec, tripod, and mirror-lockup on Velvia 50 film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg8818168872201..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0283. Old Log Barn in Montana (Image from 135 mm lens, F-8, 1/125 sec, tripod, and mirror-lockup on Provia 100F film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg8818168872301..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0284. Gray Barn near St. Maries, Idaho (Image from 60 mm lens, F-11, 1/30 sec, tripod, and mirror-lockup on Kodachrome 25 film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg8818168872401..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0285. Gray Tile Barn and Silo near Austin, Minnesota (Image from 105 mm lens, F-8, tripod, and mirror-lockup on Kodachrome 25 film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg8818168872501..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0286. Round Barn near St. Maries, Idaho (Image from 70 mm lens, F-11, 1/60, tripod, and mirror-lockup on Velvia 50 film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg8818168872601..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0287. Round Barn near Red Cloud, Nebraska (Image from 24 mm lens, F-11 1/60 sec, tripod, and mirror-lockup on Kodachrome 25 film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg8818168872701..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0288. Old Buildings in Eastern Wyoming (Image from 200 mm lens, F-8, 1/60 sec, and propped on post on Velvia 50 film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg8818168872801..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0273. Red Barn near Rulo, Nebraska (Image from 135 mm lens, F-8, tripod, and mirror-lockup on Kodachrome 25 film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg8818168873401..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0274. Barn in Lancaster County, Nebraska (Image from 60 mm lens, F-8, tripod, and mirror-lockup on Kodachrome 25 film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg8818168871301..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0275. Red Tile Barn and silo near Austin, Minnesota (Image from 70 mm lens, F-8, tripod, and mirror-lockup on Kodachrome 25 film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg8818168871401..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0276. Red Barn near Kettle River, Minnesota (Image from 60 mm lens, F-11, tripod, and mirror-lockup on Kodachrome 25 film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg8818168871501..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0277. Broken Barn near Austin, Minnesota (Image from 70 mm lens, F-11, tripod, and mirror-lockup on Kodachrome 25 film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg8818168871601..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E029. Short barn in northwest Minnesota">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg881816887501..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E030. Stone-base barn in northwest Minnesota">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg881816887601..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E031. Interior of barn near North Platte, Nebraska">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg881816887701..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0310. Foot Bridge in Katheryn Albertson Park in Boise, Idaho (Image from 35 mm lens, F-11, and tripod on Velvia 50 film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg8818168872901..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0311. Windmill and Rainbow in Eastern Wyoming (Image from 200 mm lens, F-5.6 on Velvia 50 film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg8818168873001..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0312. Sunset Windmill (Image from 85 mm lens, F-8, tripod, and mirror-lockup on Kodachrome 25 film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg8818168873101..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0313. Sideoats Grama Grass (Image from 60 mm lens, F- 5.6, tripod, and mirror-lockup on Velvia 50 film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg8818168873201..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0314. Wooly Plantain (Image from 85 mm lens, extension tube, F-8, tripod, and electronic release on Velvia 50 film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg8818168873301..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0315. Fluffy Milkweed Seeds (Image from 60 mm lens, F-2.8, 1/250 sec, and tripod on Kodachrome 25 film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg8818168873601..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E033. Stacked firewood in winter">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg881816887901..jpg"> height="29"/>height="28"/> tooltip="E0321. Vermilion River Barn in Northern Minnesota (Image from 120 mm lens, F-8, and tripod on Velvia 50 film)">Open Image width="478" height="708"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg1469909986401.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="E034. Sunrise Windmill">Open Image width="478" height="708"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg1469909986201.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="E035. Cloud-filled sky and aer-motor windmill">Open Image width="478" height="708"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg1469909986301.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="E0351. Two Windmills (Image from 105mm lens, F-8, polarized filter, tripod, and mirror-lockup on Kodachrome 25 film)">Open Image width="478" height="708"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg1469909986501.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="E0352. Old Wooden Windmill (Image from 35 mm lens, F-8, 1/30 sec, and propped on post on Velvia 50 film)">Open Image width="478" height="708"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg1469909986601.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="E0353. Old Wooden Windmill (Image closeup from E0352 with 35 mm lens, F-5.6, 1/60 sec, and propped on post on Velvia 50 film)">Open Image width="478" height="708"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg1469909986701.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="E032. Old barn wood with knot and nails">Open Image width="478" height="708"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg1469909986101.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="E0321. Old Barn Wood (Image from 60 mm lens, F-8, overcast light, tripod, and mirror-lockup on Velvia 50 film)">Open Image width="478" height="708"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg1469909986401.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="E0322. Old Barn Wood and Knot (Image from 60 mm lens, F-11, 1:3 ratio, tripod, and mirror-lockup on Velvia 50 film)">Open Image width="478" height="708"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg1469909986801.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="54. OLD RED BARNWOOD -- Midday, overcast light provided natural lighting for this barnwood on the north side of an old barn in the Rulo Bluffs Preserve in southeast Nebraska. The 60mm lens, F-8 at 1:7 ratio and 1/4 second shutter speed on a tripod were used for this image on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="490" height="697"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg14699099861101.jpg">Open Image width="30" height="42"/> tooltip="E0323. Autumn Big Bluestem Grass (Image from 105 mm lens, F-5.6, 1/30 sec, tripod, and mirror-lockup on Velvia 50 film)">Open Image width="478" height="708"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg1469909986901.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="E0324. Crested Wheat Grass (Image from 85 mm lens, F-5.6, tripod, and mirror-lockup on Velvia 50 film)">Open Image width="478" height="708"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg14699099861001.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="1. MALE CARDINAL -- This photo was taken through a basement window of a male Cardinal in winter snow at a bird feeder. This nonmigratory bird, named after the red robes of Roman Catholic cardinals, has extended its range to the north and slightly to the south in the U.S. The 400mm Telephoto at F-11 and fill flash were used for this image on Provia 100 film. ">Open Image width="696" height="483"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg984618662401..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="2. FEMALE CARDINAL -- This photo was taken through a basement window of a female Cardinal at a bird feeder. Toward the end of winter with the reawakening of sexual behavior, the males tolerate the females at bird feeders and sometimes directly feed them. The female usually builds the nest and incubates the eggs alone. The 400mm telephoto at F-11/8 and fill flash were used for this image on Velvia 50 film. ">Open Image width="596" height="475"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg984618662501..jpg"> height="29"/>height="33"/> tooltip="3. BLUE JAY -- This photo was taken through a basement window of a Blue Jay at a bird feeder. This jay adds much color and sound to any area. However, it's a notorious stealer of eggs and nestling birds and thus a hazard to other breeding songbirds. The 400mm telephoto at F-11 and fill flash were used for this image on Fujichrome 100 film. ">Open Image width="696" height="483"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg984618662701..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="3-1. RUFOUS-SIDED TOWHEE -- This photo was taken through a basement window of a towhee at a bird feeder. The name, "Towhee", is an imitation of the voice call by this bird. Not only do the calls of these birds vary greatly geographically, but their appearance varies greatly, with the eastern "Red-eyed or White-eyed" and western towhee freely interbreeding as the same species. The 400mm telephoto at F-16/11 and fill flash were used for this image on Fujichrome 100 film.">Open Image width="693" height="483"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg984618662801..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="4. MALE HOUSE FINCH -- Fill flash highlighted this suspicious male finch perched on a Blue Spruce branch at the kitchen window bird feeder. This finch is originally from the Western U.S. and was introduced in the east in the 1940's, where its range has been expanding especially in urban areas. The 60mm lens at F-11 produced this image on Fujichrome 100 film.">Open Image width="690" height="483"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg984618662901..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="5. FEMALE HOUSE FINCH -- Fill flash highlighted this curious female finch perched on a Blue Spruce branch at the kitchen window bird feeder. This finch nests in trees only about 5-7 ft. above ground, but in cities nests are on high ledges or cavities in buildings. Only the female incubates the eggs and broods the young, but females frequently begin nesting for a second brood while followed by her first brood still begging for food. The 60mm lens at F-8 produced this image on Kodachrome 25 film.">Open Image width="691" height="483"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg9846186621001..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="5-1. PINE SISKIN -- Fill flash captured this contented Pine Siskin resting on a Blue Spruce branch at the kitchen window bird feeder. A reduced seed crop in the boreal forests can cause many of these northern finches to winter in the U.S. The 60mm lens, F-11 at 1:5 ratio put this bird on Fujichrome 100 film. ">Open Image width="689" height="483"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg9846186621101..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="6. SCREECH OWL -- A gray phase Screech Owl perched in the opening of a natural birdhouse constructed in a backyard tree posed for this photo. These owls fearlessly defend their nest often striking a person on the head if passing by too close at night. They feed a surprising variety of prey to nestlings including insects, crayfish, salamanders, mammals, warblers, sparrows, phoebes, tanagers, and other songbirds. The 400mm telephoto at F-11 and fill flash were used for this image on Fujichrome 100 film. ">Open Image width="697" height="483"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg9846186621201..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="20-30. WESTERN SCREECH OWL -- Screech owls are in the typical owls family Strigidae. The screech owl is misnamed because its voice call is a soft, musical, pleasing trilling sound. A small owl with yellow eyes, usually a dark bill, and noticeable ear tuft feathers when raised. Note in this photo, with a little imagination, the flat face looks very similar to owl eye mimic patterns on moth wings. In one study over 70 small birds of 18 species, small mammals, salamanders, crayfish, many insects, and other prey were fed to a young brood of screech owls. They range from extreme Western Canada to the western one third of the U.S. down into Mexico. Photographed in the Tom Thorne and Beth Williams Wildlife Habitat Area in Wyoming with a 300 mm lens, F-8, and flash on Provia 100F film.">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg9846186629301..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="20-31. GREAT HORNED OWL -- It is the largest (about 2 ft. long and 4 lbs with a wingspread of 4-5 ft.), most powerful, and ferocious of all nocturnal birds of prey. Its name comes from the long feather tufts "horns" on top of the head that probably help to break up the round head outline for better camouflage. Note the tufts in this photo are slightly bent to the right because of high wind. Great Horned Owls are the only animal that regularly kills and eats skunks! They also kill and feed on other owls, Osprey nestlings, both young and adult Peregrine Falcons, and crows. Their diet is mostly small mammals and rabbits, but also geese and herons too. Their nesting begins amazingly early already in January in temperate zones, and incubation begins as soon as the first egg is laid, most likely because of cold weather at this time. Unlike the high on the head placement of Woodcock eyes (see pop-up explanation in photo # 10-41.), owl eyes are both in the front in the head's flat face for binocular vision and excellent triangulation to pinpoint prey location. Their highly flexible 14 vertebrae neck allows complete 360 degree range of vision by quickly turning the head more than 180 degrees left and right. Their wing flight feathers have special soft filaments that result in flying that is virtually silent presumably so that prey can't hear an attacking owl's flight approach. However, one must be careful about correlation and causation. Owls also have excellent hearing enhanced by parabolic disk-shaped facial feathers to collect faint sounds channeled to asymmetrically located ear openings on their head. Perhaps natural selection forged silent flight as a response to not interfere, while in flight attack, with hearing that pinpoints faint sounds of rodents not readily visible in loose forest floor litter or under snow. (Of course, the science of evolutionary biology tells us that the process of natural selection evolved this wondrously adapted bird through a materialistic, mechanistic, gradual non-random accumulation of random inherited traits over time of many generations of breeding owls without a goal or purpose toward a specific predetermined endpoint.) They range throughout all of North America, and much of Central and South America. Photographed in Thayer County, Nebraska with a 400 mm lens at F-5.6 on a county road from a car window at about 60 ft. and 1/500 sec on Provia 100F film. ">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg9846186629401..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="20-32. LONG-EARED OWL -- This owl is much smaller than the Great Horned Owl. Note the long feathered tufts on head, longitudinal streaking on underside instead of crosswise barring, long wings to the tip of tail, and this owl's ability to stretch its body to look long and thin. When threatened, this owl goes into a fearsome-looking defensive mode at the nest by spreading its wings behind its back, or it pretends to be injured to draw an intruder away. They feed on small rodents. These owls tend to be gregarious forming flocks that roost together during winter and migrations. They range throughout most of Canada and the U.S., into Mexico, and in Eurasia and north Africa. Photographed in a tree wind break planting in Lancaster County, Nebraska with a 400 mm lens, F-11/8, and fill flash at 30 ft. on Ectachrome 100S film.">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg9846186629501..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="20-34. LONG-EARED OWL PELLETS -- Owls swallow their food in large chunks or whole. They apparently do not digest most of the hair or bones in their diet of small rodents as seen in these regurgitated pellets. Note mostly hair, a skull above a leg bone, and below the leg bone incisor teeth of an embedded skull in these pellets. Photographed on the forest floor of the same wooded area of the previous two photos with a 60 mm lens, F-11, 1:3 ratio, and flash on Velvia 50 film. ">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg9846186629601..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="20-36. BARRED OWL -- A large gray-brown, chunky, puffy-headed woodland owl with a barred pattern across the chest, lengthwise streaks on lower breast, and white spots on its back. Note the dark eyes in this owl along with only 3 other dark-eyed owls, the Spotted, Barn, Flammulated Owls, all other owls in North America have yellow eyes. Note a characteristic feature of the owl family Strigidae: the usually feathered feet with the outer toe reversible as seen in this photo with 2 toes on one side and 2 toes on the other side of the branch this bird is perched on. One can pretty well learn to imitate the voice call of this owl by repeating a series of hoots to rhyme with "who cooks for you", and ending last series in "who cooks for you all" with "all" as a drawn out "hoo-ah", sometimes followed with a throaty "gawk". With a little practice one can call back and forth with these owls. They range throughout the eastern U.S. to the eastern Midwest up into southern, central, and northwestern Canada down into the Pacific Northwest of the U.S. to the detriment of the Spotted Owl. The more aggressive Barred Owl will kill the more passive Spotted Owl. Photographed in dense woodland in the riparian area of the Big Fork River in northern Minnesota with a 400 mm lens, F-5.6, and fill flash at 30 ft. in early morning on Fuji 100 film. ">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg9846186629801..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="20-37. BURROWING OWL -- The only small owl (little larger than a screech owl) in the Western Hemisphere that lives on the ground. Key features are light, large spots on the upper side, brown bars on the underside of adults, a blackish collar above white chin stripe, round head, stubby tail, and very long legs for an owl. They are the most diurnal of all owls, and nocturnal too, fly undulating low to the ground, and often in a hovering flight. This early morning photo shows an adult Burrowing Owl standing by a prairie dog burrow in a prairie dog town (their preferred habitat). They favor nesting in abandoned prairie dog burrows, but badger and tortoise excavations are also used. They can even dig their own nesting burrows up to 9 ft. long usually lined with vegetation and dried manure. Most of the time they line their burrow entrance with dried manure probably to help hide their scent from predators.">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg98461866211101..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="20-371. BURROWING OWL CHICKS -- These two baby owls are waiting near their prairie dog burrow entrance for the adult in the previous image to feed them insects and small rodents. About one month after hatching, the chicks are capable of short flights and begin to leave their burrow nest. The parents continue feeding the chicks for 1 to 3 months after the chicks leave the nest. Burrowing Owls are endangered in Canada, threatened in Mexico, and a species of special concern in the western U.S. (It is endangered in Colorado). The major reason for declining populations of Burrowing Owls is loss of habitat because of unnecessary "control" programs for killing prairie dogs.">Open Image width="697" height="469"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg98461866211201..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="20-38. BARN OWL -- This owl is in the barn owls family Tytonidae with only one subspecies in North America. Its key distinguishing feature is that it is the only owl with a heart-shaped feathered face, and contrary to popular belief, this owl does not hoot like typical owls, but unlike the screech owls, the Barn Owl does screech and has a screaming voice. The female produces a "snoring" sound when greeting a male and this stimulates copulation. Other distinguishing features are their long legs that are completely feathered down to their feet, and a peculiar serrated comb on the talon of the middle toe, found only in herons and goatsuckers. They nest in natural cavities, crevices, and old crow nests, but much of the time in abandoned buildings, old barns, or roof tops. Much of the time no nest is built and the eggs are just laid on a flat layer of substrate, debris, and regurgitated owl pellets. They feed on mice and rats and a nesting pair of adults can eat and feed their young more than a 1000 rodents per year. This is one of the most nocturnal owls with large dark eyes adapted for excellent night vision, and they have a keen sense of hearing to pinpoint rodents making the faintest noise in debris or leaves. Like most wild animal species, they have a method of birth control. When food is not plentiful, few eggs are produced or they do not breed at all. Their range is pretty much worldwide in temperate and tropical regions, and in the Western Hemisphere from southern Canada to Southern South America. Photographed at a World Bird Sanctuary-St. Louis, Missouri Bird Avery Show with a 300 mm lens, F-5.6, and flash on Provia 100F film. ">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg98461866210001..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="7. YELLOW-RUMPED WARBLER -- This migrant was photographed in the wild at Burchard Lake State Recreational Area in southeast Nebraska. The male warbler has a yellow rump, yellow sides, yellow crown, and usually a yellow throat. The variable song is a slow, trilling warble that may rise or fall at the end. The 400mm telephoto at F-11 and fill flash were used for this image on Fujichrome 100 film. ">Open Image width="597" height="476"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg9846186621301..jpg"> height="29"/>height="33"/> tooltip="20-39. COMMON NIGHTHAWK (male) -- It is in the goatsuckers and nightjars family Caprimulgidae. Key features noted on the male in this photo are a prominent white throat and part of the white narrow band, prominent on the underside and near the end of a notched tail when in flight, on the tail of this resting bird. Both sexes have a broad white band on the underside of their wings in flight. The female has no narrow white band on tail and no white throat. Contrary to their name, they do not feed at night, but only in the evening after sunset and very early in the morning. Their nest is pretty much any flat surface where the female lays 2 eggs that are often moved around during incubation as much as 6 ft. from their original position. Research studies of stomach contents have shown that in one day one bird ate 500 mosquitoes and another bird ate 2,175 flying ants. They range from Canada, the U.S., and down to Panama, wintering in South America. Photographed in the Crescent Lade National Wildlife Refuge in the Sand Hills of Nebraska with a 400 mm lens, F-11 at 10 ft. on Provia 100F film.">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg98461866210101..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="20-40. BLACK-CHINNED HUMMINGBIRD (male) -- All hummingbirds (over 300 species) are in the 2nd Largest bird family Trochilidae and are found only in the New World Americas (see Costa Rica section of website for more hummingbirds and find an explanation for evolution of hummingbirds only once in the New World and not in the Old World in text of #10-44 Downy Woodpecker) ranging from Alaska to the southern tip of South America. Only 15 species are found in North America, and the greatest diversity of species is in northern South America. They are a tiny, colorful bird with a unique hovering flight capable of flying in any direction, even backwards. They will not walk even a few inches on a branch, they always fly. They pretty much get all their high energy food from nectar in flowers, and insects and spiders provide proteins for growing young nestlings. Adult hummingbirds require at least half their body weight in food every day! This is probably the highest metabolic rate of any know animal, except for shrews. These birds get their name from the humming sound produced when their wings beat 75 to 90 times per second. The muscles powering the wings average between 25 to 30 percent of their total weight of from 2 grams (weight of a dime) to 20 grams. The male's iridescent throat feathers, called a gorget, may look black in low light. The beautiful iridescent colors of hummingbirds are produced mostly by the microscopic structures of the feathers rather than by pigments. Photographed in a campground near the Poudre River in Colorado with a 60 mm lens, F-11, 1:5 ratio, and fill flash on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg98461866210201..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="20-41. BROAD-TAILED HUMMINGBIRD (female) -- The speckled throat, pale cinnamon on side of body, and large, broad greenish-dark tail with rusty color on outer feathers at base indicate this is a female Broad-tailed Hummingbird. Photographed in a campground by the Poudre River in Colorado with a 60 mm lens, F-11, 1:4 ratio, and fill flash on Velvia 50 film. ">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg98461866210301..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="20-42. CALLIOPE HUMMINGBIRD (female) -- The green upper side, the side tinged with cinnamon, the spotted throat, and its short tail indicate this is a female Calliope Hummingbird. This is North America's smallest bird. Photographed in our backyard in Boise, Idaho feeding on a Red Yucca flower with a 300 mm lens, F-8, auto-focus, tripod, and fill flash on Provia 100F film. ">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg98461866210401..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="8. GREAT BLUE HERON -- Threatening morning clouds began breaking up allowing a stream of sunlight to spotlight this large bird standing below a small waterfall in Kathryn Albertson Park in Boise, Idaho. These birds nest in large colonies called heronries. The nests, usually more than one per tree, are in tall trees sometimes more than 100 ft. above the ground. The 400mm telephoto at F-8 on a tripod was used for this image on Ektachrome 100S film. ">Open Image width="599" height="476"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg9846186621401..jpg"> height="29"/>height="33"/> tooltip="10-08. DOUBLE-CRESTED CORMORANT AND GREAT BLUE HERON -- This photo shows two birds nesting near each other out of a group of 6 cormorants and 6 herons nesting together in nearby trees beside Crane Lake in the Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge in western Nebraska. The double-crested name comes from the rarely visible two tufts of feathers on the crown of its head, and cormorant is derived from Latin corvus marinus meaning "sea crow". This cormorant is a large, slender-bodied, dark colored, long necked bird with a hooked bill and an orange throat pouch that is much smaller than the pelican's pouch. Note that the larger gray-blue heron has a much larger nest than the black cormorant. A 400 mm lens, F-5.6, and tripod put this image on Provia F-100 film. ">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg9846186622901..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="10-09. GREAT BLUE HERON -- Early one morning while waiting in a homemade, pop-up, one person blind beside a small wetland, an adult Great Blue Heron landed right in front of me. This large blue-gray bird stands about 4 ft. tall. Note the black stripe above the eye, the white fore-neck streaked with black, the ornate plumes on head, neck, back, and the yellowish spear-like bill of this breeding adult. This heron is poised for a strike at prey below the water surface. Just after I clicked off this image, this bird's quick strike plunged its bill into the water. I immediately clicked off another image right after the strike (that image of this same heron is in the gallery bird section #EO 41. of this website). Photographed in Lancaster County, Nebraska with a 400 mm lens, F-8, remote release, and tripod at 10:30 AM on Ectachrome 100S film. ">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg9846186623001..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="10-10. GREAT BLUE HERON -- Early one morning while sitting on a collapsible chair behind my camera and lens covered with a camouflage shirt, a tripod covered and draped with a camouflage jacket, and I with a camouflage face mask, shirt, and pants, this wild heron landed so close (about 15 ft.) in front of me that only a head shot could be framed by very slowly moving the camera/lens into position only when the bird moved forward to help prevent detection of my movements by its keen eyesight. I was lucky to capture this image. In this instance, only one shot was allowed because the sound of the camera shutter click sent this bird flying away. Photographed on the banks of the Republican River at the Kansas/Nebraska border with a 500 mm auto-focus lens, F-5.6, electronic release, and tripod at 1/250 sec. On Provia 400X film. ">Open Image width="697" height="461"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg9846186623101..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="10-15. SANDHILL CRANE AND CHICK -- Note the sideways turned head of this adult keeping an eye on a circling Golden Eagle after just fending off an attack by the eagle threatening to carry off the chick. This adult crane used its long bill as a "sword" to fight off a diving Golden Eagle trying to get at the chick that stood between the legs of the crane during the fight to save its life. Photographed near Bear Valley Creek, Idaho with a 400 mm lens, F-5.6, and polarizer filter on Fuji 100 film. ">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg9846186623501..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="10-16. SANDHILLS CRANES ROOSTING -- Migrating Sandhill Cranes find safety from predators at night by beginning roosting during late evening and sundown in the middle of the shallow Platte River. It is still possible to see some semblance of the long ago existence of great numbers and populations of Sandhill Cranes when they used to breed over most of the interior of the U.S. These cranes still migrate in great flocks and congregate in large numbers (about 90 percent of the world's Sandhill Cranes or about 500,000 birds) in central Nebraska near the Platte River in the spring. Cranes are omnivorous feeding on plant material forbs and corn (90 percent of their migration diet is waste corn) to accumulate fat reserves for long distance flying, and insects, earthworms and snails (10 percent animal diet) for protein and egg production before they migrate up North to their breeding grounds. Unlike herons, cranes fly with head and neck outstretched straight away. Photographed in the Central Platte River Valley of Nebraska with a 400 mm lens.">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg9846186623601..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="10. SANDHILL CRANE -- Bright, midday sunlight gave a clear view of this crane lurking in the green shrubs along Bear Valley Creek in the Boise National Forest of Idaho. Human activities have drained and filled wetlands, and that has reduced nesting populations in the U.S. The densest Rocky Mountain population occurs at Gray's Lake National Wildlife Refuge in southern Idaho. The 400mm telephoto at F-5.6 recorded this image on Fujichrome 100 film.">Open Image width="596" height="477"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg9846186621501..jpg"> height="29"/>height="34"/> tooltip="10-01. COMMON LOON -- This large, long-bodied, low-riding when swimming, and diving bird with a thick, straight dagger-like bill is in the family Gaviidae. There are only 5 species in this family and all can be found in North America. Their summer breeding plumage is all black around the head and neck except for a band of narrow white stripes on the neck. In summer the bill and back are black with rows of rectangular white spots on the back. Their far-carrying voice calls are wails, yodels, and maniacal quavering laughing sounds that are mesmerizing to hear in nature, especially on calm clear nights. Natural selection has evolved an efficient diving adaptation in water by locating powerful, swimming feet so far back in the rear of their body that they cannot walk. On land loons use their feet to push themselves forward on their breast. This is an example of how natural selection can proceed into a highly specialized mode of locomotion in water that results in overall survival success with a tradeoff of inefficient locomotion on land. ( Of course, natural selection did not proceed with purpose or foresight toward a specific goal of evolving and excellent diving bird, but rather it is a materialistic, mechanistic, gradual non-random accumulation of random inherited traits over time of many generations of breeding loons.) Loons have been caught in nets as deep as 200 ft. below the water surface. They feed mostly on fish and also mollusks, frogs, and aquatic insects. Photographed on Coon Lake in Scenic State Park in northern Minnesota with no record of type of lens or film. ">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg9846186622201..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="10-02. COMMON LOON (winter) -- There is quite a difference in winter plumage compared to summer breeding plumage of this loon. Note the white notch at mid-neck into the dark backside of neck, and the gray bill instead of black in the winter loon. Photographed on the Pacific Coast in a bay near Blaine, Washington in November with a 300 mm lens, F-4, 1/250 sec., tripod, and very windy conditions on Provia F-100 film. ">Open Image width="697" height="461"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg9846186622301..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="10-03. PIED-BILLED GREBE -- Grebes are aquatic diving birds with thin necks, small heads, lobed toes instead of webbed toes of ducks, and a no tail appearance in the family Podicipedidae. All grebes have white wing patches and thin pointed bills except the Pied-billed Grebe with no wing patches and a thick stubby bill. Both male and female look alike. Pied-billed Grebes have a puffy white rear end, and in summer breeding birds have a black throat patch and a black band around their whitish bill. In winter, the black throat patch and black bill band are absent. However, note that the photo of these two birds swimming in a side channel of the Colorado River was taken in January in Arizona. Note that one of the Pied-billed Grebes is still in summer plumage! They feed on small fish, crustaceans, aquatic insects and plant material, but prefer crayfish. They range from southern Canada to southern Argentina. Photographed on the Colorado River in the Needles Wilderness Area near Lake Havasu City, Arizona in January with a 400 mm lens, F-8, 1/160 sec., tripod, and electronic release on Provia F-100 film. ">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg9846186622401..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="10-04. AMERICAN COOT -- Coots are in the family Rallidae. They are somewhat ducklike except their heads are smaller, they have a forehead shield, and a white chicken-like bill. Most of the time they swim with lobed toes, but sometimes dive in water. They also feed on land near water. They range from southern Canada to northern South America. Photographed in the Needles Wilderness Area on the Colorado River in Arizona with a 400 mm lens at F-5.6 on Provia F-100 film.">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg9846186622501..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="10-05. WINTER RING-BILLED GULL -- Gulls are in the family Laridae with about 45 species world-wide. They are excellent long-winged fliers, good webbed-feet swimmers, have a slightly hooked bill, and have square or rounded tails. Note the black ring around the bill and yellowish or pale greenish legs. This gull ranges from Canada and northern U.S. to wintering in Mexico and Cuba. Gulls are omnivorous feeding on marine plants and animals, refuse, and carrion. Photographed in Ann Morrison Park in Boise, Idaho with a 400 mm lens, F-8, and tripod on Fuji 100 film.">Open Image width="697" height="449"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg9846186622601..jpg"> height="29"/>height="27"/> tooltip="10-06. BREEDING HERRING GULL -- Gulls are in the family Laridae with about 45 species world-wide. They are excellent long-winged fliers, good webbed-feet swimmers, have a slightly hooked bill, and have square or rounded tails. This gull is known as the large so-called common "seagull". They have black wing ends with white spots that show in the photo of this swimming bird. They have a red spot (very faint red in this photo) on the lower front part of the yellow bill. It ranges in most parts of the Northern Hemisphere, and breeds from Alaska and Greenland south to Carolina and in Eurasia. It feeds on marine plants and animals, dropping clams on rocks or parking lots to break then open, scavenges refuse and garbage, and eats carrion. Photographed in Voyagers National Park in northern Minnesota with a 400 mm lens, F-5.6 at 1/500 sec., and tripod on Provia F-100 film.">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg9846186622701..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="10-07. WHITE PELICAN -- The White Pelican is in the family Pelecanidae. This is a photo of a non-breeding pelican. The breeding pelican has a bright orange bill with a conspicuous, raised fibrous plate about a 3rd of the way up from the tip of the bill on the upper side. The plate is shed after egg laying and the chick-feeding adult's head becomes grayish. Their large throat pouched bill is an adaptation for dipping below the water surface and scooping up through a school of fish to capture its prey, but they take in water as well. They then close their bill with a slight crack opening, hold the bill vertical to drain water out, and then they swallow their food whole. Usually pelicans are in flocks and they fly in lines, flapping wings several times alternating with gliding with their head held back. Breeding birds fly up to 150 miles from their nest to feed. In the fall White Pelicans may be found almost anywhere in their range of west, central and southeast North America. Photographed in the fall on Jeffery Reservoir in south-central Nebraska with a 500 mm lens at F-5.6 on Provia F-100 film">Open Image width="697" height="458"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg9846186622801..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="10-12. CATTLE EGRET -- The orange-buff feathers on the crown and breast, and light orange bill indicate an early stage of a breeding adult. Note the tip of the one front toe is split. They are often seen feeding on insects that livestock's feet scare up, and often they sit on the backs of livestock pecking off insects. This bird is from the Old World, spreading from Africa to South America, then to Florida in the 1950's, then to southern Canada in the 1960's, and is still spreading in North America. Photographed on a farm pond in Lancaster County, Nebraska with a 500 mm lens, F-5.6, electronic release, and tripod on Provia F-100 film. ">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg9846186623201..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="10-13. GREAT EGRET -- Note the black legs that identify it from the somewhat larger "Great White Heron" with yellow legs. This bird has had many common names: American, Common, Large and White Egret, and Great White Heron. It has always had one scientific name: Casmerodius albus. The Great Egret was on the brink of extinction forever because of over-hunting for its plume feathers for womens' hats. It feeds alone like the Great Blue Heron by walking slowly in shallow water stalking fish, frogs, crayfish, and snakes. Photographed from the banks of the Republican River at the Kansas/Nebraska border with a 500 mm lens, F-5.6, electronic release, and tripod on Provia F-100 film.">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg9846186623301..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="10-14. GREAT EGRET -- This is a photo of the previous egret image in flight.">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg9846186623401..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="11. RESTING MALLARDS -- A sunny midmorning found these ducks resting with their reflections at water's edge in Kathryn Albertson Park in Boise, Idaho. This is one of the most widespread, adaptable species of ducks and it is the ancestor of the common white domestic duck. The 400mm telephoto at F-8 on a tripod was used for this image on Ektachrome 100S film. ">Open Image width="691" height="483"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg9846186621601..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="11-13. WESTERN MEADOWLARK -- This is most likely a Western Meadowlark because the yellow color of the throat extends up the side of its face behind the lower half of the bill as can be seen in this photo. In the Eastern Meadowlark, the yellow of the throat does not extend up the side of its face. The best way to distinguish between these two species is by the males' readily recognizable song. Key characteristics are a bright yellow breast with a prominent black V, and when walking, its short wide tail flicking open and shut exposing white patches on the sides of tail. Clear cutting of eastern North American ancient forests has extended the range of Western Meadowlarks from southern Canada, western U.S., and northern Mexico eastward beyond the Great Lakes. The two species of meadowlarks are so similar, it was not until 1844 that John James Audubon noted their difference, and because of this overlooked error he named the Western Meadowlark the neglecta species. The scientific name for the Eastern Meadowlark is Sturnella magna and the Western Meadowlark is Sturnella neglecta, and they are in the blackbirds, orioles, etc. family Icteridae. Throughout their range of overlap, the eastern bird chooses moister areas and the western bird drier areas of meadows. There is very little or no hybridizing of these two species in the wild because apparently the females invariably mate with (but perhaps not necessarily choose--see explanation in text of #20-20 Greater Prairie Chicken) males of their own species supposedly based on their songs rather than the males' visual appearance or behavior. It may be that natural selection produced a double protection of reproductive isolation for these two species (Of course, not on purpose, but inadvertently). Perhaps, the males' different songs add extra protection onto their natural behavior of seeking moist and dry habitats in meadows to ensure reproductive isolation of these overlapping species. The songs function may be directed to other males to keep them out of a male's territory rather than attracting a female. Thus, perhaps the sexual selection theory that females' choose a male for their song is an illusion because in the habitat she naturally prefers, the male of her species is the only one there and his song is directed to other males, and not to attract her (read more about illusions in My Philosophy section). Photographed in western Nebraska with a 700 mm lens, F-5.6, 1/1000 sec, tripod, and electronic release on Provia 400X film. ">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg98461866219101..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="10-20. MALLARD -- This duck is in the swans, geese, and ducks family Anatidae. Key features are the male's metallic green head and neck, yellow bill, narrow white collar, chestnut breast, and black central tail feathers curled up. Both sexes have a white tail, orange feet, and bright blue speculum feathers bordered in white on their wings. Females have a mottled brown plumage with an orange bill marked with black. The common white domestic duck descended and evolved through the process of artificial selection by humans from a mallard ancestor. Wild Mallards still breed with the domestic duck and also hybridize with wild species (Black Ducks and even Pintails). Mallards are strong fliers reaching remote oceanic islands where isolated populations have evolved into new species such as the Hawaiian Duck. Photographed on the Republican River by the Kansas/Nebraska border with a 500 mm lens, F-5.6, and tripod on Provia F-100 film. ">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg9846186624301..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="10-21. WOOD DUCK -- Note the highly colorful male with a prominent, swept-back crest of feathers on its head and distinctive facial pattern. The female has a more drab color and a large, white teardrop-shaped eye patch. Unlike most ducks, the Wood Duck's nest is above ground in tree cavities that may be more than 50 ft. high. These birds lay large clutch sizes from 6 to 40 eggs, and when ready, the hatched babies jump out from their high nest to float harmlessly to the ground or water to be with their mother. They range from parts of southern Canada, throughout most of the U.S., and into Mexico and Cuba in forested wetlands habitat. They feed on seeds, acorns, fruits, and aquatic and terrestrial invertebrates. Photographed on the Republican River near the Kansas/Nebraska border with a 500 mm lens, F-5.6, and tripod on Provia F-100 film. ">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg9846186624401..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="10-22. AMERICAN WIGEON -- Note the male's white forehead patch, green eye/ear patch, and the small white patch on wing in this photo is part of the large white-forewing patch visible in flight. The female is mottled brown and there is no white forehead patch. Both sexes have pale blue bills and feet. They range from Alaska, all of Canada, most of the western U.S. in breeding season, along East and West Coasts, and south into Central America and the West Indies in winter. Wigeons steal food from other diving ducks when they reappear at the water surface. They also feed in grain fields and graze grasses in meadows like geese. Photographed in Ann Morrison Park in Boise, Idaho with a 400 mm lens, F-5.6, and tripod on Fuji 200 film.">Open Image width="697" height="459"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg9846186624501..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="10-23. RING-NECKED DUCK -- Note the male on the left has a white ring near the tip of its pale gray bill, and a narrow vertical white patch of feathers in front of its wing. The cinnamon colored neck-ring is hard to see in the field. This bird should have been named the "Ring-billed Duck". Note the female on the right is brownish with a light area on front and lower head area, and an eye ring can be faintly seen in this photo. The duck in the middle is probably a first winter or a breeding female Barrow's Goldeneye as noted in the photo, a yellowish bill and prominent white wing patch. Ring-necked Ducks are diving birds and feed on seeds, aquatic plants, snails, and insects. They range year round in eastern Alaska, most of Canada, and the Great Lakes. They breed in the U.S. Northwest, and winter on the West and East Coasts, southern U.S. and south to Mexico and the West Indies. Photographed on a small lake in the Cloud Peak Wilderness Area of the Big Horn Mountains in Wyoming with a 400 mm lens, F-5.6, tripod, and electronic release on Provia F-100 film.">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg9846186624601..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="10-24. BUFFLEHEAD -- A female Bufflehead with six baby ducklings. These birds were photographed on the same lake as the previous Ring-necked Duck photo. Note that a white cheek patch on sides of its head is a key feature of a female Bufflehead. They nest in tree cavities, usually woodpecker holes, up to 20 ft. above ground. They are year round residents of Alaska, throughout Canada, and into parts of Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming. Photographed with a 400 mm lens at F-5.6, tripod, and electronic release on Provia F-100 film.">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg9846186624701..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="10-25. HARLEQUIN DUCK -- The male is a colorful blue-gray with chestnut flanks and distinctive irregular white patches on the head and body. The female is a brownish color with three whitish spots on each side of its head. Their voice call is a mouse-like squeak and thus called locally a "Sea Mouseā€¯. They live mostly on salt water, but for breeding they go inland on freshwater. They range year round in Alaska and part of northeast Canada. They winter on the West and East Coast of the U.S. They are adapted to feeding in rugged seacoast habitat where few other species of ducks can feed. Harlequins can ride high ocean waves up against rocks and quickly pick loose snails, limpets, and barnacles. They are a diving duck also feeding on small shrimp, crabs, and fish. Photographed on the coast of San Juan Island in the Pacific Northwest with a 300 mm lens at F-5.6 while propped on a rock on Provia F-100 film.">Open Image width="697" height="463"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg9846186624801..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="10-26. COMMON MERGANSER -- A female swimming with baby chicks on her back. Common Mergansers are large diving ducks with a slim neck and a thin, hooked, saw-edged red bill. Females have a dark rust colored crested head and neck with a white chin. The saw-edged bill is an adaptation for catching slippery fish. They range from Alaska throughout Canada and the U.S., and into Mexico on both lakes and streams usually in flocks of 10 to 20 birds. Photographed in Scenic State Park in northern Minnesota with unreported lens or film. ">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg9846186624901..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="10-27. BLUE-WINGED TEAL -- This small duck is most common in the Central U.S. on potholes and ponds of wetland prairies. Key features in males are a conspicuous white crescent on each side of its head in front of the eyes and a blue shoulder patch on its wings. Females are mottled brown without the white crescent and also have the blue shoulder patch. Teal are dabbling ducks feeding mostly on aquatic vegetation and seeds and some aquatic invertebrates. They range from Alaska throughout Canada and the U.S., and winter on the southern coasts of the U.S. into northern South America. Photographed on a farm pond in Lancaster County, Nebraska with a 500 mm lens, F-5.6 and tripod on Provia F-100 film.">Open Image width="697" height="467"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg9846186625001..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="10-28. GREEN-WINGED TEAL -- A small duck with a dark rust colored head with a green eye/ear patch, and a wing patch with iridescent, deep green, speculum feathers. The males body plumage is beautifully designed alternating narrow black and white irregular vertical stripes. The female is dark mottled brown with a green speculum on its wings. They range throughout Alaska and northern North America, and winter from the southern U.S. to Central America and the West Indies. Teal are dabbling ducks feeding mostly on aquatic vegetation and seed, and some aquatic invertebrates. Photographed on a farm pond in Lancaster County, Nebraska with a 500 mm lens, F-5.6, and tripod on Provia F-100 film. ">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg9846186625101..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="10-29. TRUMPETER SWAN -- This swan is in the swans, geese, and ducks family Anatidae. A key feature of this swan is the black facial skin tapering to a wide point in front of its eye with the forehead sloping at the same angle straight to the top of its black bill. They tend to swim with a straight upright neck kinked back at the base of the neck. Their diet is similar to geese and they also graze vegetation on land. Trumpeter Swans nearly became extinct forever by over hunting and habitat destruction. They are now pretty common in a few of their remaining breeding areas and are being reintroduced in some former breeding areas. They range mostly in Alaska and western Canada. Photographed in Yellowstone National Park with a 400 mm lens at F-8 and tripod on Provia F-100 film. ">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg9846186625201..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="10-30. KILLDEER (mating) -- This common shore bird apparently got its name from its voice call, a loud "kill-DEER". This bird is abundant and conspicuous in open country of farm fields, airfields, lawns, shores, and river banks, but its loud voice call attracts attention. Their nests are not well concealed on open bare ground, and usually on gravel. Natural selection has evolved a curious behavioral adaptation that obviously increases the probability of passing this bird's genes on to future generations. If an intruder approaches too near their nest, the adult Killdeer feigns an injury of a broken leg or wing by hobbling around with wings dragging on the ground and allowing the intruder to come uncomfortably close before flying a short distance to repeat the ploy. Most of the time the intruder is lured away from the nest of eggs or young, and then the Killdeer "recovers" flying off a safe distance calling loudly (Its scientific name is Charadrius vociferus) as if to announce its success. They breed throughout Canada and the U.S., and south to the West Indies and Peru. Note these two birds were caught in the act of mating. This photo is the first of 3 frames shot at about one second per frame. Photographed on the shore of a farm pond in Lancaster County, Nebraska with a 500 mm lens, F-4, auto-focus, tripod and electronic release at 1/250 to 1/340 sec on Velvia 50 film">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg9846186625301..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="10-31. KILLDEER (mating) -- This is the 2nd frame in a series of 3 frames shot at about 1 sec each.">Open Image width="697" height="465"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg9846186625401..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="10-32. KILLDEER (mating) -- This is the 3rd frame in a series of 3 frames and it was all over in about 3 seconds!">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg9846186625501..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="10-33. WILSON'S PHALAROPE -- This bird is in the sandpipers and phalaropes family Scolopacidae with only 3 species of phalaropes in North America. Note key features of a dark top on head and back in contrast to a white underside, a black stripe passing through the eye and neck, and a long rust-colored patch on the side of neck and breast (more prominent in females). The bird in this photo is probably a breeding male or a juvenile. Natural selection has evolved a unique feeding behavior in phalaropes. They spin round and round like a top at many revolutions per minute with their feet stirring up food in shallow water. As they turn, they quickly pick up food floating to the surface by water surface tension drawn to their long, very thin bill to move food toward their bill and mouth. They feed on invertebrates, larvae, crustaceans, and insects including mosquito larvae. (I find it hard to imagine a beneficial selective value for this spinning behavior in any other bird species except shallow water wading birds. It probably evolved in other bird species too, but it was most likely detrimental as a survival adaptation and thus not selected for by natural selection in other birds. And, of course, this spinning behavior was not selected with foresight as a goal by natural selection for a preordained purpose of this specific feeding behavior, but rather it was the result of a materialistic, mechanistic process over time of non-random accumulation of random inherited traits over many generations of breeding phalaropes. However, it does raise a question: why has not natural selection evolved this twirling feeding behavior in more species of shallow water wading birds? Find an answer to this question in text of # 10-44 Downy Woodpecker.) Photographed on a vernal pool near the Killpecker Sand Dunes in the Red Desert of Wyoming with a 400 mm lens, F-5.6, auto-focus, and tripod on Provia F-100 film.">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg9846186625601..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="10-34. WILSON'S PHALAROPE (female) -- A breeding female Wilson's Phalarope taking off in flight. Unlike most birds, phalaropes have evolved gender roles of the sexes that are reversed. The females are larger and more colorful than the males and the females initiate courtship. Females are pretty much polyandrous, mating with several different males, but sometimes they form a pair bond with one male. Not only do the males build the nest, they incubate the eggs and rear the young without help from the females. Photographed on the same vernal pool as the previous image with a 400 mm lens, F-5.6, auto-focus, and tripod on Provia F-100 film. ">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg9846186625701..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="10-35. AMERICAN AVOCET -- It is in the stilts and avocets family Recurvirostridae with only 2 species in North America. A key feature is a long, thin bill recurved (up turned) near the tip (note the thin tongue extending from the bill tip in this photo). Also, note the family name and its scientific name (Recurvirostra americana) describe this bird's bill. Avocets are slim, sleek, graceful wading birds with a striking black and white plumage. The cinnamon-colored wash on the head and neck of the bird in this photo indicates a juvenile avocet. A breeding adult has a solid rust-colored head and neck. Avocets feed by sweeping their bills from side to side at the water surface picking up aquatic insects, crustaceans, and floating seeds. They range from southcentral Canada throughout the western half of the U.S., and winter in the southern U.S. coast and Central America. Photographed in a vernal pool near the Killpecker Sand Dunes of the Red Desert in Wyoming with a 400 mm lens, F-8, and tripod on Provia F-100 film. ">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg9846186625801..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="10-36. WHITE-FACED IBIS -- It is in the ibises and spoonbills family Threskiornithidae. Key features of this long-legged, heron-like wading bird are a long decurved (down turned) reddish bill and red legs. A key feature in identifying the White-faced Ibis from the Glossy Ibis is the narrow band of white feathers bordering red facial skin alongside the bill that extends behind the eyes, up on the forehead, and around under the chin. They have dark plumage that reflects a glossy purple and green iridescence. They feed on crustaceans, small fish, and insects. They range from southern Canada throughout the western two-thirds of the U.S. and south to Argentina. The Old World Glossy Ibis (Plegadis falcinellus) evidently invaded the New World a long time ago and then a Western U.S. population of the birds became reproductively isolated from the Eastern population. After enough time of isolation, a separate new species evolved into the White-faced Ibis (P. chihi). Photographed in Gray's Lake National Wildlife Refuge with a 400 mm lens and unrecorded film. ">Open Image width="697" height="465"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg9846186625901..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="10-37. SPOTTED SANDPIPER -- It is in the sandpipers and phalaropes cosmopolitan family Scolopacidae with about 80 species worldwide. The half-round, splayed dark spots on its white underside identify it as a breeding Spotted Sandpiper. They have a curious habit of continually bobbing their rear end up and down, and a distinctive flight pattern of short bursts of sudden rapid wing-beats alternating with brief glides. They range throughout Alaska, Canada, and the U.S., and winter south to South America. Photographed in the Frank Church River-of-no-Return Wilderness Area in Idaho with a 400 mm lens, extension tube, F-11, fill flash, and tripod on Provia F-100 film.">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg9846186626001..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="10-39. LONG-BILLED CURLEW -- A key feature of this rather large bird (20-26 in. long) is the very long, down-curved bill (about 8 in. long) with an abrupt downturn near the tip. It has a 3 part beautiful voice call composed of a loud "cur-lee" with a high pitched second note, a rapid whistled "kli-li-li-li", and a trilled, liquid "curleeeeeeeeuuu". Their prolonged musical sounds carry far and proclaim the arrival of spring. It was once a plentiful game bird in the Great Plains and into the former extensive prairies of the eastern U.S., but over-hunting so severely depleted their numbers that they must now be protected by law. On grasslands they feed on grasshoppers, crickets, and beetles, but when migrating by shores and beaches they feed on small crustaceans, mollusks, berries, and seeds. They range from southwestern Canada, in most of the western half of the U.S., and winter into Central America. Photographed in Gray's Lake National Wildlife Refuge with a 400 mm lens on Provia F-100 film.">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg9846186626201..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="10-40. COMMON SNIPE -- A pretty common brownish shorebird with striped head and back, a long bill, and short legs. When flushed, they have an explosive takeoff and a zigzagging flight. All male snipes have an amazing courtship flight that circles high in the air and then suddenly zooms down over the female on the ground with a unique sound of air rushing through wing and tail feathers. They use their wings to dampen the eerie buzzing, whistling sound produced by rapid vibration of their tail feathers. Females are polyandrous, mating with several males before forming a pair bond with one mate. Their range is circumpolar where they are found throughout most of North America and northern Eurasia, and they winter south to Brazil and in central Africa. Photographed in Gray's Lake National Wildlife Refuge with a 400 mm lens and fill flash on Provia F-100 film.">Open Image width="697" height="459"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg9846186626301..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="10-41. AMERICAN WOODCOCK -- This is a chunky, short-neck and short-legs bird with a long bill, large bulging eyes very near the top of the head, dark wide bars on the crown of its head, and a dead leaf pattern on its back providing excellent camouflage. Natural selection has evolved woodcock eyes that remind one of Pronghorn eyes in that they appear to give this bird not only Pronghorn's nearly 360 degree range of vision around the sides, front and back of its head, but most likely nearly a 180 degree range of vision over the top of its head. (Perhaps, this over-the-head vision is an adaption for avoiding a threat from above of predatory owls on a nocturnal bird spending most of the time with its bill poking underground unable to turn its head sideways to see above?) They feed mostly on earthworms (note worm in bill of this bird) and when probing deep in the muck of their moist woodlands habitat, they have the ability to open only the end of their long bill to grab worms underground! Woodcocks are seldom seen during the day and when flushed underfoot, they burst into flight zigzagging through bushes and trees making whistling sounds with their wings. In early spring during early morning or late evening, males perform spectacular flight displays on their courtship, territorial "singing grounds". They fly spiraling up high in the air, hover in flight with twittering wing sounds, and then fly zigzagging back to the ground making liquid trilling sounds. Males are polygynous and attempt to mate with any females entering their territory. They range from the extreme southeastern half of Canada, and throughout the eastern half of the U.S. Photographed in Scenic State Park in northern Minnesota at night with a 400 mm lens and flash on Fuji 100 film.">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg9846186626401..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="20-01. BALD EAGLE -- The national bird of the U.S. is one of the success stories of the Endangered Species Act. Just a few decades ago some eagles, hawks, and falcons were headed for extinction forever because of pesticides, primarily DDT. Pesticides build up in ecosystem food webs and interfere with calcium metabolism resulting in thin-shelled and infertile eggs. Since the banning of these pesticides, Bald Eagle numbers have rebounded and they are now off the endangered species list. Key features of a mature adult are a white head, white tail, and huge yellow bill. They are primarily scavengers feeding on dead fish. They range throughout most of North America. Photographed in the Squaw Creek National Wildlife Refuge in Missouri with 400 mm lens on Fuji 100 film.">Open Image width="697" height="463"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg9846186626501..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="20-02. BALD EAGLE (immature) -- An immature 1st or 2nd year Bald Eagle looks similar to an immature Golden Eagle. Note the huge yellowish bill and whitish head of this individual. Bald Eagles are in the kites, hawks, and eagles family Accipitridae. This is a family of worldwide birds of prey with hooked bills and powerful talons. Note how well this bird is camouflaged perched on top of a snag against the forest background. Photographed beside the Big Fork River in northern Minnesota with a 400 mm lens, F-5.6, 1/125 sec, tripod, and mirror-lockup on Provia 400 film (Also available for enlargement in vertical format on Provia 100F film). ">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg9846186626601..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="12. CANADA GOOSE FAMILY -- These geese were swimming in the late sunny afternoon on a farm pond in Lancaster County, Nebraska. An estimated 4-5 million nonmigratory goose population has evolved an adaptation to human civilization year-round. Because of overpopulation, this wonder of nature has become a pest, an aberration of the DNA of a wild species, and a polluter of land and water. The 400mm telephoto at F-8 captured this image on Fujichrome 100 film. ">Open Image width="693" height="483"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg9846186621701..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="10-17. CANADA GOOSE -- Note the thick reddish tongue of this alarmed honking goose in the wild. This goose is in the swans, geese, and ducks family Anatidae. They feed on plant material in water and graze on land. The Canada Goose is more beautiful in the wild than on golf courses and city parks where they tend to become semi-domesticated, non-migratory, and locally over populated. They have acclimated too well to the human built environment and can become a nuisance when over populations of geese strip bare grassy areas, and when their many droppings cover walk/bike paths and lawns. Photographed in the Rice Beds Creek Wildlife Area in Wisconsin with a 400 mm lens, F-5.6, and tripod on Provia F-100 film.">Open Image width="697" height="464"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg9846186623701..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="13. SNOW GEESE -- Tens of thousands of Snow Geese on a sunny day in the Rainwater Basin of Nebraska. These geese are at overpopulation levels of over three million birds. Snow Geese are destroying not only their nesting habitat near Hudson Bay, but the habitat for other species of birds as well. Biologists tell us that this goose population must be reduced to around a million birds or there will soon be an ecological disaster for Snow Geese and numerous other species. The 400mm telephoto at F-8 recorded this image on Velvia 50 film. ">Open Image width="679" height="483"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg9846186621801..jpg"> height="29"/>height="30"/> tooltip="10-18. SNOW GEESE -- Flocks of mostly white snow geese have among them some dark individual blue snow geese. Until recently, the blue snow goose was considered a separate species, but the science of genetics reveals they are actually one species. The two color phases (morphs) are the result of genetic polymorphism. Blue-morph birds are produced by a dominant gene and white-morph birds by a recessive gene. A single dominant blue-morph gene on a chromosome with a single recessive white-morph allele gene on the other paired chromosome produce a blue goose (except in instances of incomplete dominance-see photos #10-192 and 10-193). Two recessive white-morph allele genes on paired chromosomes produce a white goose. Great flocks of snow geese migrate south in the fall from their breeding grounds in the North to the South-Central states of the U.S. to feed on abundant waste grain left behind from agriculture harvests. This has greatly increased their winter food supply and their winter survival rates resulting in an over population of snow geese. This has resulted in severe degradation of their breeding sites near ponds and streams in northern tundra areas. Snow geese are strictly vegetarian eating aquatic plants, grasses, and grains. Photographed in the Whooping Crane Trust area south of Grand Island, Nebraska with a 400 mm lens at F-8 on Provia F-100 film.">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg9846186623801..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="10-19. A BLUE AND A WHITE SNOW GOOSE -- Note that the blue goose morph phenotype is the result of a two dominant blue-morph gene allele genotype, or a completely dominant blue-morph gene and a recessive white-morph gene allele genotype. Note that the white snow goose morph phenotype is the result of a two recessive white-morph gene allele genotype. Photographed in the Squaw Creek National Wildlife Refuge in Missouri with a 400 mm lens at F-5.6 on Fuji 100 film.">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg9846186623901..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="10-191. WHITE SNOW GOOSE -- A white Snow Goose poised and ready for flight take-off.">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg9846186624001..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="10-192. SNOW GOOSE MORPH -- Closeup of an individual Snow Goose that apparently is a phenotype of incomplete dominance of the blue-morph gene with the white-morph gene allele locus on the chromosomes.">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg9846186624101..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="10-193. SNOW GOOSE MORPH -- Closeup of another individual Snow Goose that apparently is a phenotype of incomplete dominance of the blue-morph gene with the white-morph gene allele locus on the chromosomes. ">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg9846186624201..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="14. BROWN THRASHER -- Fill flash highlighted this adult bird in the wild hiding in the shadows of an apple tree. They usually nest in dense thickets less than 5 ft. above the ground. When feeding on the ground, thrashers wildly scatter debris with their beaks in search of insects. The 400mm telephoto at F-11 put this bird on Fujichrome 100 film. ">Open Image width="690" height="483"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg9846186621901..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="14-1. RED-TAILED HAWK -- This Great Plains bird preys on animals (controlled conditions). The large hooked beak is adapted for eating meat. The Red-tailed Hawk gets its name from the reddish color on the uppertail. Fill flash eliminated the shadows from this hawk as it fed on a rabbit on a sunny day. The 60mm lens at F-8 put this hawk and prey on Velvia film. ">Open Image width="694" height="483"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg9846186622001..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="20-03. RED-TAILED HAWK FOOT -- Closeup image (controlled conditions) of a Red-tailed Hawk foot showing the scaly skin and large talons. This is a photo of the foot of the bird in the previous image. Photographed in Lancaster County, Nebraska with a 60 mm lens, F-8, 1:5 ratio, and fill flash on Velvia 50 film. ">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg9846186626701..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="20-05. PRAIRIE FALCON -- This bird of prey is in the falcons and caracaras family Falconidae. They are excellent strong hunters and unlike hawks, falcon wings are narrow, pointed, and bent back at the wrist. Key features distinguishing the Prairie Falcon from the Peregrine Falcon are paler brown plumage, narrow facial markings, and dark patches in the wing pits. Note the narrow facial mark and dark patch in wing pit of the bird in this photo. Their prey is mostly birds and small mammals. They range from southwestern Canada throughout western U.S. and most of Mexico. Photographed in the Ferris Mountains of Wyoming with a 400 mm lens, F-6.1, and tripod on Provia 100F film.">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg9846186626801..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="20-06. SHARP-SHINNED HAWK -- A small hawk with short rounded wings and a long tail square at the end with a narrow white band at the tip (The larger Cooper's Hawk has a long tail rounded at the end with a wider white band at the tip.). This is most likely a photo of an adult male Sharp-shinned Hawk. Note the slate-gray upper side, breast barred with red-brown, and red eyes of this male. The adult female is almost twice the weight of the male. I have seen a Sharp-shinned Hawk flying so fast through a dense tree-wooded area maneuvering to avoid many tree branches, and yet flying pretty much in a straight line, that I could barely turn my head quickly enough for my eyes to follow this bird's swift flight! It's painfully hard to imagine that in the 1930's before Hawk Mountain, Pennsylvania became the world's first birds of prey sanctuary, hundreds of Sharp-shinned Hawks were shot and killed each year from constructed shooting stands on Hawk Mountain. They feed mostly on small birds. They range throughout most of North America south to Central America. Photographed through a basement window in Lancaster County, Nebraska with a 300 mm lens, F-8, fill-flash, and tripod on Provia 100F film. ">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg9846186626901..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="20-07. SHARP-SHINNED HAWK -- This may be an immature blue morph Sharp-shinned Hawk (Accipiter striatus ventralis). Note the blue-gray streaked feathers of the head and breast. I was fortunate to witness a successful swift attack on a Cardinal by a Sharp-shinned Hawk in the dense-tangled branches of the much more leaf-covered shrub in this photo. I noted that for some time there were no birds around eating at the bird feeders. Then I saw a hawk alight and calmly sit near the ground on a natural-log bird feeder about 10 ft. away from this shrub. I was pretty certain in looking at the shadows of the interior of this shrub that no birds were there and the hawk would soon fly away. But to my surprise, the hawk quickly flew in a blurred-streak straight away into the interior of the shrub, and there was a big puff of feathers floating in the air. In an instant the hawk jumped out of the shrub and there before me in full view was a Sharp-shinned Hawk standing 10 ft. away with a female Cardinal, gasping in certain death, clutched in the talons of the hawk's one foot. I will never forget that natural moment! It is hard to imagine how natural selection could evolve such an extraordinary bird of prey! But the evidence from the science of evolutionary biology and millions of years of deep time most certainly assures us this is how it happened. Photographed through a basement window in Lancaster County, Nebraska with a 300 mm lens, F-11, fill flash, and tripod on Provia 100F film.">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg9846186627001..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="20-08. SHARP-SHINNED HAWK -- Note the feathers of the head and breast are red-brown streaked indicating an immature (a beautiful yellow eye) Sharp-shinned Hawk in this closeup photo about 5 ft. away. Photographed through a basement window in Lancaster County, Nebraska with a 300 mm lens, F-8, auto-focus, fill flash, and tripod on Provia 100F film. ">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg9846186627101..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="20-09. SHARP-SHINNED HAWK (and the sad demise of a Yellow-shafted Flicker) -- After working several days on a joint venture project (Western Nebraska Resources Council, Sierra Club, The Nature Conservancy, Nebraska Game and Parks) to restore rare Aspen groves along the Niobrara River in western Nebraska, I took some time off early one morning to photograph wildlife in an Aspen grove. After waiting some time sitting camouflaged on my collapsible chair, I was startled by a loud screaming sound behind me. I finally pinpointed the screaming coming from near the top of a tall pine tree. A Sharp-shinned Hawk was hanging upside down clutching the head with one foot and talons, and the other foot and talons in the breast of a Yellow-shafted Flicker. A close examination of this photo will reveal these two birds. The hawk tried several times to fly away with its prey, but became frustrated when it could not pull the flicker away because of an entangled leg to a branch. (The clear monofilament fishing line can be seen against a dark pine branch just to the left of the yellow primary flight feather in this photo) It is sad that many wild animals must suffer from entanglement with discarded fishing line because it is preventable by not discarding any type of fishing line or at least clipping it into 6 to 12 inch pieces. It is interesting to note that the hawk did not eat its prey in this situation, and the flicker was still hanging entangled in the pine tree several days later. Photographed in an Aspen grove east of Smith Falls State Park, Nebraska with a 500 mm lens at F-5.6, electronic release, and tripod on Provia 100F film.">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg9846186627201..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="20-10. OSPREY -- There is only one world-wide species of this bird of prey in the family Pandionidae, and it is found on all continents except Antarctica! Its distinctive leg and foot with a heavily short-feathered, long thigh, the remaining leg bare of feathers, and unlike all other birds of prey, the four toes of their foot are equal in length. Not only are Osprey's toes equal in length, but like owls, the outer toe is reversible for a better two toes with talons in front and two in back grip on prey in addition to pads on the underside of the foot with short, stiff spicules to help hold slippery prey. Ospreys are never far from water where they soar in circles up to 200 ft. high until it sights a fish (below the water surface!), then it plunges feet first often disappearing completely under water to re-emerge with a fish in its talons. In the moment just above the water surface, it shakes itself to remove water out of its plumage and flies off with the fish held head first for the least air resistance transport of its prey to a tree, rock, or nest to eat. They live pretty much entirely on fresh live fish caught in water. Note the long branch, sometimes up to 5 ft. long, carried by the flying bird to the huge nest on top of the snag in this photo. There are records showing one nest being occupied each year for more than 40 yrs., an probably by the same pair of Ospreys! The process of natural selection has produced some marvelous adaptations in this one and only bird species in this family. Photograph beside the Middle Fork Boise River near Willow Campground in Idaho with a 700 mm lens, F-5.6, electronic release, and tripod on Provia 400X film.">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg9846186627301..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="20-11. OSPREY -- Adult Ospreys spend a considerable amount of time with their wings slightly spread shading their young in the nest from the heat of midday sun as seen in this photo. Photographed at the same location and with the same equipment as the previous photo except this photo is on Provia 100F film.">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg9846186627401..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="20-12. SPRUCE GROUSE (male) -- It is in the grouse and ptarmigans family Tetraonidae of ground-dwelling birds with feathered nostrils, short bills, and short, rounded wings capable of brief, strong flight. Males in this family perform elaborate courting displays, and in some species the birds gather together on courtship strutting grounds called leks every year in early spring. Key features of males are red skin combs above eyes, a black throat and breast, white barring on the sides, and dark tail with rusty tip. These wild birds are extremely tame, easily approached, and have been killed using only a stick. They feed mostly on conifer needles and buds, but growing young need an insect diet for more protein. They range throughout most of Alaska and Canada, and into much of the northeastern edge of the U.S. Photographed in Scenic State Park in northern Minnesota with a 300 mm lens, F-5.6 on Ectachrome 100VS film. ">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg9846186627501..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="20-13. SPRUCE GROUSE (female) -- Key features of the female Spruce Grouse are a smaller orange skin comb above eyes, mottled rusty-brown upper side with pronounced barred plumage underside, and a dark shorter tail with rusty tip. Photographed in the Blue Bunch Mountains of the Boise National Forest in Idaho with a 400 mm lens, F-8, and tripod on Astia 100 film.">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg9846186627601..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="20-14. SPRUCE GROUSE (chick and adult) -- On the log in this photo is a baby chick to the left and an adult to the right. This photo was taken a short time later at the same location as the previous photo.">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg9846186627701..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="20-15. RUFFED GROUSE (male) -- Key features of the male Ruffed Grouse are a brownish chicken-like bird, a small crest on crown of head, two ruffs (dark feathers on the sides of the neck) that are conspicuously raised during courtship display, and a multi-banded tail with a wide, dark band near the tip. Note that the male in this photo is performing a rare early morning courtship display in the fall rather than the usual spring time. As winter approaches, natural selection has evolved a beneficial structural adaptation on the toes of this bird. Comb-like rows of bristles grow on the sides of their toes to act like snowshoes for efficient locomotion on soft snow. A variation of natural selection know as sexual selection has evolved drumming behavior in the courtship of both Spruce and Ruffed Grouse, but the drumming of the Ruffed Grouse is by far of much higher quality and quantity. After some dispute of the exact mechanism causing this loud drumming sound, slow-motion video technology has resolved the actual source of the sound. It is the sound effect produced by the cupped wings quick upward, then forceful downward and forward motion in the air as it stands motionless braced back on its tail on a log (It's not beating its wings on a log!). The wing beat starts out slow, quickly accelerates in frequency, increases from a muffled thumping to a loud whir, and produces an exquisite, rhythmic drumming sound that permeates a calm early morning in the northern forests. Photographed in Scenic State Park in northern Minnesota in the fall with a 28-210 zoom Vivitar lens at 210 mm on either Ectachrome or Fuji 100 film.">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg9846186627801..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="20-16. RUFFED GROUSE (female) -- Key features of the female Ruffed Grouse are pretty much the same as a non-displaying male except the ruffs are less prominent and the dark band is incomplete at the middle near the tip of the tail. One bird reference reports that like the Spruce Grouse, the Ruffed Grouse is monogamous. However, recent research on so-called monogamous birds reveals that they are pretty much monogamous only most of the time. Ruffed Grouse diet is 90 percent vegetable and 10 percent arthropods by feeding mostly on coniferous buds and needles, shrub buds and berries, and insects. They range in much of Alaska, throughout most of Canada, and much of the northern U.S. Photographed in Scenic State Park in northern Minnesota with a 28-210 zoom Vivitar lens on Ectachrome 100 film.">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg9846186627901..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="20-17. SAGE GROUSE (males) -- Key features are a very large size, a blackish belly area, and long pointed tail feathers. Adult males are larger (reach 2Ā½ ft. long and up to 8 lbs.) than females, have a yellow-skin comb over the eyes, have a black throat and bib, and a large, long, draping ruff of white feathers on its breast. In early spring many males gather together on decades-old established annual "strutting grounds" called leks in open sagebush steppe land where they display by inflating and deflating yellowish bare-skin air sacs lined with the conspicuous white ruff feathers producing "booming" sounds. Note the two distant displaying males highlighted against the snow bank in the photo. Females are attracted to the leks where they usually mate only with one "master cock" typically dominating the other displaying males. They originally ranged over half of the western half of the U.S., and they are never found far from sagebush year round. Sadly, for several reasons, sagebrush habitat is being severely degraded, fragmented, and destroyed. Introduced non-native Cheatgrass shortens the normal burn cycle causing more frequent burns of sagebrush steppe land reducing its habitat area. "Chaining" sagebrush to kill it and planting another non-native Crested Wheat Grass to raise cows on our public sagebrush land with too much poor cattle grazing practices that degrade and destroy the sagebrush ecosystem is still an ongoing serious problem that must be addressed. And finally, big oil and gas developments tend to strive for excessive profits by ignoring requirements of wildlife and ecosystems rather than development of oil and gas fields that are more compatible with maintaining Sage Grouse and abundant wildlife with reasonable profits. The Sage Grouse needs to be listed as endangered before it is lost forever! Photographed near Battle Mountain and Jackson Creek in the Owyhee Canyon Lands of southeastern Oregon with a 500 mm lens, F-5.6, tripod, and electronic release in a pop-up blind on Provia 100F film.">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg9846186628001..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="20-18. SAGE GROUSE (female) -- Note the absence of the black throat indicating this is a female Sage Grouse. After mating on the strutting ground lek, the female makes a nest some distance from the lek to incubate about 8 eggs for about 10 days. When the chicks hatch, they are precocial and ready to immediately run with their mother who quickly moves her brood to areas of high insect populations for nutritious food and proteins for their rapid growth. Under favorable conditions of seasonal moisture producing plentiful insects, the chicks will fledge in 2 weeks. They will stay with their mother for most of the summer, but as winter approaches, all Sage Grouse must head for lower elevations that may be 50 miles or more from nesting areas. These birds are able to live through winter on a diet of pretty much only sagebrush leaves and buds protruding above the snow level. Unlike most birds, Sage Grouse do not have a muscular gizzard to break down hard seeds. Photographed in the Big Sagebrush ecosystem of the Red Desert in Wyoming with a 500 mm lens, F-4 at 1/500 sec on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg9846186628101..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="20-19. SAGE GROUSE (chick) -- A photo of a recently hatched precocial chick in its typical instinctive response to a threatening situation (It was separated from the rest of the brood when backpackers were hiking in the area.). Natural selection has produced a behavioral response of "freezing" by remaining motionless to avoid being detected by predators. (Of course, this behavioral adaptation was not evolved in anticipation of a goal for the purpose of avoiding predators, but rather it is a materialistic, mechanistic non-random accumulation of random inherited traits over time of many generations of breeding Sage Grouse.) This behavior also has a side benefit of allowing a photographer to hold the camera very close to a motionless bird for a sharp closeup image! Photographed in the same region as the previous photo with a 28 mm lens at F-11 on Provia 100F film.">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg9846186628201..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="20-20. GREATER PRAIRIE CHICKEN -- Note key features of the two male birds in this photo facing off in courtship display on their "booming" strutting grounds. Key features are a dark brown and cinnamon heavily barred plumage, an all dark outer tail, very long dark neck feathers ("horns") erected above the head to expose the yellow-orange inflated air sacs on the neck, and yellow-orange skin combs above the eyes. The "booming" sound produced from their air sacs is similar to blowing air across the top of an empty bottle. Their elaborate dancing display includes much rapid stomping of the feet so hard on bare ground that the sound can be heard over 100 ft. away! It is interesting to note that one evolutionary biologist, Joan Roughgarden, in her book Evolution's Rainbow, 2004, is convinced that Darwin's theory of sexual selection is faulty and needs to be replaced with a better theory of "social selection" that better explains social-inclusionary traits, homosexuality, and the array of gender diversity so prevalent in nature. For example, displays on strutting grounds by males may be intended for the attention of other males rather than for females, and the visible air sacs, the "horns", the sounds produced, and the elaborate dancing may be traits valued as "medals" by other males rather than ornaments valued by females. She also makes a persuasive argument that mating is much more than just sperm transfer between sexes in nature. Their range has been severely fragmented into small patches in the Central U.S. (a subspecies, the Heath Hen, was extant in the eastern U.S., but sadly became extinct forever in 1931) with only two large areas remaining in central Nebraska/South Dakota and eastern Kansas. Photographed at Burchard Lake State Park in southeastern Nebraska with a 400 mm lens, F-5.6, and tripod in a pop-up blind on Fuji 100 film.">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg9846186628301..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="20-21-2. CALIFORNIA QUAIL -- Note these quail have a gray and brown upper side with a conspicuous, large comma-shaped plume projecting from the top of the head, and white scale marking on the underside distinguish it from the Gambel's Quail with a similar head color pattern and plume. The male is on the left and the female on the right is not showing her head plume. They are gregarious forming coveys of up to 200 birds. They range in the extreme western area of the U.S. from southern British Columbia through California, parts of Idaho and Nevada, and down to the Baja peninsula. Photographed in the foothills of Boise, Idaho with a 500 mm lens, F-5.6, and tripod on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg98461866210801..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="20-22-2. CALIFORNIA QUAIL (male) -- Note this is a two-plumed male with the characteristic white stripe around forehead, black throat feathers, and chestnut colored patch of feathers on its belly. Photographed in the foothills of Boise, Idaho with a 500 mm lens, F-5.6 at 1/500 sec, tripod, and electronic release on Ectachrome 100VS film.">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg98461866210901..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="20-23-2. WILD TURKEY (male) -- This is the largest game bird in North America. Over hunting nearly drove this bird to extinction forever, but science-based game management, enforced game law regulations, and reintroductions have increased turkey populations now found throughout much of the U.S. and into northern Mexico. Turkeys are indigenous to the New World with 7 fossil species dating back more than 40 million years, and all are from American deposits. Benjamin Franklin had good reasons to favor a thoroughly native, useful, and beautiful plumage-colored bird as our national symbol rather than the Bald Eagle, a scavenger of dead fish, and native also to Canada and northeastern Asia. Note the nearly completely blue-pink bare skin around the head and upper neck, a red wattle on the front of neck, black breast feather tuft, and iridescent bronze body plumage. Photographed on the banks of the Republican River at the Kansas/Nebraska border with a 500 mm lens, F-7.1, tripod, and electronic release at 10:30 AM on Provia 100F film.">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg98461866211001..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="20-24. WILD TURKEY (female) -- Note the female is smaller, less iridescent, has a smaller head, and less likely to have the breast feather tuft. Wild turkeys are a bird of the open forest foraging on the ground for seeds, nuts, acorns and insects. They roost high in tall trees, even in cold windy weather. They can run very fast with their head and neck extended straight away, and with their tail feathers gathered together straight back, and they look very much like the animated swift-running dinosaurs on TV specials. Photographed in Lancaster County, Nebraska with a 500 mm lens, F-5.6, auto-focus, and tripod on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg9846186628701..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="20-25. WILD TURKEY (closeup) -- A closeup photo of a female turkey's head. This photo was taken from indoors through a basement window with a 700 mm lens, F-5.6, auto-focus, fill flash, and tripod on Velvia 50 film in Lancaster County, Nebraska.">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg9846186628801..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="20-26. MOURNING DOVE -- This dove is in the pigeons and doves family Columbidae. It is the most widespread and common wild dove in North America ranging from southeastern Alaska to southern Canada, throughout the U.S., and south to Panama. It has gray-brown plumage with pinkish wash color on undersides, some iridescence around the neck area, black spots on the upper side of wings, and a long, pointed tail with white tips on outer tail feathers. Its common name comes from the mournful voice call: oowoo-woo-woo-woo. They eat seeds, waste grain, fruits, and insects, and the adults feed their young regurgitated, partially digested food called "pigeon milk". Photographed in Katheryn Albertson Park in Boise, Idaho with a 400 mm lens, F-8, and fill flash on Ectachrome 100S film.">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg9846186628901..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="20-27. INCA DOVE -- This dove forages on the ground, and a key characteristic is the raised feathers giving a scaly look to its plumage. Its range has extended north from Central America and Mexico into the U.S. during the last 100 yrs. It now breeds in the Southwest of the U.S., and is commonly found in cities, towns and farms. Photographed in Lake Havasu City, Arizona with a 500 mm lens, F-9, tripod, and fill flash on Provia 100F film.">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg9846186629001..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="20-28. YELLOW-BILLED CUCKOO -- This bird is in the cuckoos and allies family Cuculidae. Key features are a slender body, feet zygodactyl (2 toes in front, 2 toes in back), a long tail with large white elongated spots on underside, a grayish-brown upper side, a white underside, and a downward curved bill with a yellow underside. This shy, elusive bird tends to produce its distinctive voice call of many hollow notes kaw or kawp repeatedly especially on cloudy days or during approaching rain storms. The adult birds gather nesting material by breaking off small branches and carry them one by one to the nest. Evidently both sexes incubate the eggs and feed the young. The young hatch at long intervals and after the older young birds leave the nest, the recently hatched younger birds are often neglected or starve. In addition to rearing most of the fledglings in their own nest, in North America both Black and Yellow-billed Cuckoos occasionally lay eggs in other birds' nests in brood parasitism of other species, and in other cuckoo species nests and even their own species nests. The Old World Yellow-billed Cuckoo species consistently reproduce by brood-parasitism in other bird species' nests. Both Yellow-billed and Black-billed Cuckoos prefer eating hairy caterpillars and help to control plant damaging tent caterpillars. They range throughout the U.S. except in the Northwest and upper Central, and range into Mexico. Photographed in Lancaster County, Nebraska with a 400 mm lens, F-11, fill flash at 22 ft. on Astia 100 film. ">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg9846186629101..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="20-29. BLACK-BILLED CUCKOO -- It is similar to the Yellow-billed Cuckoo, but has an all black bill, less conspicuous white markings on underside of tail, and has a narrow red eye-ring. Their incubation period of eggs on the nest is short and the black skinned young grow extremely fast so that in 6-7 days after hatching, they leave the nest and are agile climbing about limbs eluding most predators. The young birds can fly about 2 weeks later. Cuckoos are numerous in years of heavy tent caterpillar infestations providing abundant hairy caterpillars, one of their favorite foods. They range from most of southern Canada to most of the northern U.S. Photographed in Lancaster County, Nebraska with a 400 mm lens and fill flash on Fuji 100 film.">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg9846186629201..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="10-43. BELTED KINGFISHER (female) -- This is a solitary, stocky bird with a large head, a big dagger-like bill, and small but strong syndactyl feet (2 front toes partially joined). It is in the kingfishers family Alcedinidae. It is among the few species of birds where the female is more brightly colored (a rust belly band and flanks) than the male. Both sexes help in digging a nesting burrow usually into a vertical stream bank by chiseling with their bills and scraping soil out with their small, but strong feet using their fused toes as a pretty efficient scoop. The 3 to 4 inch round burrow is about 5 ft. above ground level, usually about 5 ft. long (but can be up to 15 ft. long), that ends in a rounded chamber where the eggs are laid on bare soil, and it may take up to 3 weeks to complete the excavation. Both parents incubate and feed the young that are often raised on a pad of littered fish bone, scales, food scraps, and disgorged food pellets. Small fish about 3 to 4 inches long make up more than half their diet. Kingfisher nestlings eat up to 1 and 3/4 their own weight in fish per day. When the fledged young are first able to fly, they stay near the nest for a few days while their parents "teach" them how to catch fish. The adults hover over water or perch on trees looking down into water, then plunge headfirst below the surface of the water to catch fish between their open and closed bill, grasping their prey tightly. The captured fish is beat repeatedly on the bird's perch until it is severely injured and drops back into the water. The young then "practice" by catching the easy slow-moving, injured fish and gradually learn to catch active, uninjured fish. It ranges throughout most of North America. Photographed near the Republican River at the Nebraska/Kansas border with a 500 mm lens, F-5.6 at 30 ft., tripod, and electronic release on Provia 100F film. ">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg98461866219201..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="10-44. DOWNY WOODPECKER (male) -- Most males in the woodpeckers' family Picidae, with about 200 species, have some red on their head. Natural selection has evolved adaptations of woodpeckers to a life centered around the realm of tree trunks and large branches to a greater extent than any other bird. There are 4 groups of adaptations: first, the adaptation for drilling holes in live wood with a strong chisel-like bill, special feathers to protect nostrils from sawdust, and a special connection between the base of the bill and thick skull to absorb the shock of pounding by strong head and neck muscles; second, adaptations for perching vertically on a tree trunk include stiff, spiny tail feathers with strong muscles to prop it up when climbing, and short, strong zygodactyl feet (2 toes front and 2 toes back in most woodpeckers) with long, curved pointed toe claws to hold the bird onto a tree; third, adaptations of the tongue for feeding include an extremely long, extensible, flexible tongue longer than its bill, a pointed tip with barbs on the tongue to spear and hook insect larval, borer grubs and pull them out of bored tunnels under bark, and salivary glands that secrete a gluey material around the tongue that helps adhere insects to it; and fourth, woodpeckers have tough skin to protect them from insect bites and the stress of continual hard pounding of its bill. In the thought provoking Chapter 12 of his book, The Third Chimpanzee, Jared Diamond makes an important point concerning the not so inevitable probability of convergent evolution of the wood pecking life-style on Earth, and the not so inevitable probability of an extraterrestrial advanced technical civilization with radio communication technology! For example, even though most of the elaborate adaptations of woodpeckers described above have animal precedents for convergent evolution to extend on, these precursor adaptations already present in other birds and animals on remote landmasses with abundant tree habitat did not evolve to produce wood pecking and consequently no woodpeckers evolved on Australia, New Guinea, or New Zealand. Ornithologists tell us that all woodpeckers are more closely related to each other than to any non-woodpecker, which is solid evidence that wood pecking evolved only once, in birds. In other words, even when a plentiful tree habitat opportunity is available, there is no guarantee that natural selection will inevitably proceed to converge and evolve birds into a terrific, wood pecking life-style niche with suitable habitat and a dependable abundant larval insect food supply-no guarantee, not even once! Furthermore, just because woodpeckers did evolve once on Earth, does not mean that natural selection was destined to produce woodpeckers. It is just as likely that woodpeckers (and intelligent life) are an unlikely, improbable fluke of evolution-actually, we are both lucky to even be here! Photographed through a basement window with a 400 mm lens, F-11, tripod, and fill flash on Fuji 100 film.">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg98461866219301..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="10-45. DOWNY WOODPECKER (female) -- Note that the female does not have the red nape patch on the back of head. The Downy Woodpecker (6 3/4 inches from tip of bill to tail tip) is essentially a miniature version of the larger Hairy Woodpecker (9 1/4 inches). It is the smallest North American woodpecker and is nonmigratory, spending all year near their breeding area. In spring, both sexes search for suitable nesting sites, tapping and drumming on trees to signal to each other for favored nesting sites, then both parents help excavate a nesting hole in the tree, but usually the female does most of the work. The male helps with egg incubation and spends the night on the nest. In 2 weeks the nestling young can climb up to the nest entrance tree hole to be fed, and in less than 4 weeks after hatching, the fledged birds are ready to fly. After the breeding parents pair bond breaks down, each sex excavates new fresh roosting holes in trees for winter use, and each forages on their own. They feed on insects, spiders, and larval borers on, in, and under the bark of dead and live trees. They also eat fruits, seeds, and other vegetation. They range throughout most of North America. Photographed through a basement window with a 400 mm lens, F-11/16, tripod, and fill flash on Fuji 100 film. ">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg98461866219401..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="10-46. RED-BELLIED WOODPECKER (male) -- Note the male has a red crown and nape, while the female has a red nape only on the back of head. The slight tinge of a reddish patch on its abdomen is not readily visible. Dead trees, dead stubs on trees, and rather soft deciduous trees are used as nesting sites. At the start of drilling a hole in tree wood for nest excavation, the courtship of female and male begins with mutual bill tapping on a tree. This is followed with what is called "reverse mounting", meaning that the female mounts on top of the male's back first, and then the male mounts on top of the female's back for copulation to transfer sperm into her cloaca to fertilize the eggs. Both sexes incubate the eggs in the nest, and both share in feeding the nestlings. Again, as with Downy Woodpeckers, the male Red-bellied Woodpecker occupies the nest at night. They feed on a vast variety of wood borer insect larvae under tree bark by using their bill to drill into bark and tree wood. They forage for ants, grasshoppers, and other insects, as will as acorns, nuts and fruits. They also habitually store food. They are mostly nonmigratory and range throughout most of the eastern half of the U.S. Photographed through a basement window with a 400 mm lens, F-5.6, tripod, and fill flash on Fuji 50 film. ">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg98461866219501..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="10-47. CLOSEUP OF HEAD OF RED-BELLIED WOODPECKER (male) -- Note the red crown on top and red nape on back of head in the male bird. Also, note the bristle-like feathers over the nostril opening (to keep sawdust out) where the upper bill joins the head. Photographed through a basement window with a 400 mm lens, F-16, 1:4 ratio at 5 ft., tripod, and fill flash on Provia 100F film.">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg98461866219601..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="10-48. REDHEADED WOODPECKER">Open Image width="697" height="449"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg98461866227001..jpg"> height="29"/>height="27"/> tooltip="10-49. LEWIS' WOODPECKER -- This bird is named in honor of Meriwether Lewis who collected it on the Lewis and Clark expedition of 1804-06. Key characteristics of this bird are an iridescent greenish-black head, tail and back, a light grayish neck collar, and reddish underside. It ranges in the western third of U.S. and extreme SW. Canada where it prefers old growth Ponderosa Pine forest trees. In the breeding season, a male produces a harsh voice call either directed to other males to defend its nest site territory, or to attract breeding mates (see #20-20 Greater Prairie Chicken text, suggesting the theory of sexual selection should be replaced with a better theory of "social selection" by evolutionary biologist Joan Roughgarden). Usually in this species, as is common in other woodpecker species, "reverse mounting" of female on male's back precedes copulation of male mounting on female's back to transfer sperm into her cloaca to fertilize the eggs. Typically, previous years nest cavities are used, thus little excavation work is needed. Both sexes share in incubation of eggs and caring for nestlings during the day, and the male stays on the nest at night. It forages for acorns, nuts and fruits, and also frequently aerial catches and eats flying insects. Photographed on a Ponderosa Pine beside the Middle Fork Boise River in Idaho with 700 mm lens, F-5.6, tripod, and electronic release on Velvia 100 film. ">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg98461866219701..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="10-50. BLACK-BACKED WOODPECKER (?) -- The white stripe markings on the side of this bird's head indicate it is probably a Black-backed Woodpecker. It has a specialized feeding technique of sideways leverage movements of its bill, rather than drilling with its bill, to remove large flakes of bark from conifers, especially in burned forest areas, and it has a specialized diet of eating larvae of wood- boring beetles in the tree wood beneath the bark. Photographed near Bear Valley Creek in the Boise National Forest in Idaho with a 400 mm lens, F-11/8, and fill flash at 24 ft. on Astia 100 film.">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg98461866219801..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="10-51. NORTHERN FLICKER (red-shafted form) -- Note this image shows both red "mustaches" on the side of head of the male while he is at a snag tree hole leading to the nest cavity. Also, note reddish shafts of the wing and tail feathers. The male Yellow-shafted Flicker has a red nape on the back of its head and his "mustaches" are black. Females have no red on their head and no "mustaches". They range throughout most of North America (northern populations frequently migrate), Mexico and Central America, and the West Indies. Where the ranges of North American forms overlap, there is interbreeding producing confusing intermediate color patterns. Some references tell us there are 5 subspecies: red-shafted, yellow-shafted, and gilded in southwestern U.S., Guatemalan, and Cuban flickers. These subspecies are considered one species by the American Ornithologist Union because apparently the interbred hybrids breed and produce viable offspring. Unlike other North American woodpecker, Northern Flickers spend a lot of time on the ground probing into the soil with their slightly curved bill (also unusual in woodpeckers) foraging for ants (about 45 percent of their diet), and beetle larvae to eat. Their sticky coated tongue can go out 2 inches beyond the bill to catch insects. The highly alkaline sticky material is secreted from the salivary gland and probably helps neutralize the formic acid from ants. They also eat fruits, berries (including Poison Ivy), seeds, and nuts. At the beginning of the breeding season, the males usually arrive first to stake out a nesting site and many times it is the previous years nest cavity. If a new site is selected, the nest cavity excavation is done mostly by the male. After copulation, both sexes incubate the eggs and brood the nestlings. The male stays on the nest at night. A decline in Northern Flickers is occurring because of too few snags for nesting and competition from the introduced alien, aggressive European Starling that takes over nesting cavities. Photographed in the Tom Thorne and Beth Williams Wildlife Habitat Area in Wyoming with a 500 mm lens, F-5.6, fill flash and 37 ft., tripod, and electronic release on Provia 100 F film.">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg98461866219901..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="10-52. FLYING RED-SHAFTED NORTHERN FLICKER (male) -- Note that not only are the feather shafts reddish in color, but the feathers too. Also, note this flying male is doing "house keeping duties" by carrying a chick's defecated fecal sac in its bill away from the tree hole of the nesting cavity (in some species the parent birds eat it!). Photographed in the same location as the previous image #10-51 with a 500 mm lens, F-7.1, 1/250 sec, fill flash, tripod, and electronic release on Provia 100F film.">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg98461866220001..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="3-2. MALE YELLOW-SHAFTED FLICKER -- This photo was taken through a basement window of a male flicker at a birdfeeder. The yellow-shafted and red-shafted flickers interbreed and are considered one species called the Common Flicker. The male does most of the nest excavation in a dead or decaying hardwood tree, and most of the nestling care feeding by regurgitation. The 400mm telephoto with extension tube at F- 11/18 put this bird on Provia 100 film.">Open Image width="690" height="483"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg9846186622101..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="10-54. FLYING EASTERN KINGBIRD -- This photo shows an Eastern Kingbird living up to its scientific name-Tyrannus tyrannus! It had its nest of young in a White Cedar overhanging the water near shoreline of a lake. While approaching an intended docking place for my rowboat, I happened to enter this kingbird's nesting territory when the voice call screaming and diving attacks came very close to my head. During the relentless attacks, I was able to get several shots with a manual focus 50 mm lens. This image was the best. I was much impressed with this feathered bundle of ferocity, an aggressive behavior typical of most tyrant flycatchers, and its tenacious diving attacks continued until I rowed far out of its territory. Kingbirds dash out fearlessly chasing birds much larger than themselves, including hawks, harassing them out of their territory. Native Americans called this bird "Little Chief". Note the seldom seen small red-orange patch of feathers on top of its head. Most tyrant flycatchers have a crest of crown feathers with a narrow band of red, yellow, or white on top of their head that they raise and expand to show color for display, intimidation, and in times of stress. My grandfather, who introduced me to bird identification at a very young age, claimed that the function of these bright colored feathers is to attract bees to eat. (I'm still searching for verification of this claim.) Another interesting behavior of the Eastern Kingbird is its ability to recognize parasitic cowbird's eggs in its nest, and its destruction of the eggs by breaking through the shell and membrane causing the eggs to dry out. Photographed in Northern Minnesota on the lake in Scenic State Park.">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg98461866220101..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="10-55. WESTERN KINGBIRD -- This flycatcher is about the same size (8-9 in. from tip of bill to tail tip) and shape as the Eastern Kingbird, but has instead a yellow underside, a gray head, and white feathers on the sides of its tail. Note this individual has bright red-orange feathers on the crown of its head that are raised while it is relaxed on its perch preening itself. I remember as a young kid, climbing up near the top of a tall cedar tree to see baby Western Kingbirds in their nest. I picked up one feathered fledgling and held it in my hand for less than a moment and immediately put it back because my entire hand was covered with 100s of crawling lice! Photographed 1 mile SW. of Byron, Nebraska in a Green Ash tree growing in a native mid-grass prairie with a 500 mm lens, F-5.6, +1 stop, 1/320 sec, and tripod on Provia 100F film.">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg98461866220201..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="10-56. EASTERN PHOEBE -- Its name is pronounced like its voice call of a harsh "fee-bee" accented on the first syllable. It is also in the family Tyrannidae and has the key characteristics of many tyrant flycatchers, a flat bill with a distinct hook on the upper bill, a wide bill at the base, and stout rather long bristles near the base of the bill that apparently help in catching flying insects. It has the frequent habit of spreading the tail feathers and pumping its tail up and down while on its perch. This phoebe arrives very early in spring and the female builds the nest, frequently on bridges, eaves, and ledges beside rafters on houses. She does all the incubating of eggs and the male helps feed the nestlings. It ranges throughout the eastern 2/3 of U.S. and much of central Canada. Photographed with a 500 mm lens, extension tube, F-8, tripod, and fill flash at 16 ft. on Provia 100F film.">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg98461866220301..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="10-57. SAY'S PHOEBE -- Similar to the Eastern Phoebe, it frequently spreads the feathers on its tail and pumps the tail up and down. This phoebe breeds farther north than any other flycatcher in the family Tyrannidae. It ranges in most of Alaska, western Canada, western U.S., throughout Mexico, and into Central America. Photographed with a 500 mm lens, F-5.6, tripod, and electronic release on Ectachrome 100VS film.">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg98461866220401..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="10-58. VIOLET-GREEN SWALLOW (male)">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg98461866227101..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="10-59. GRAY JAY -- Perisoreus canadensis canadensis is one of 3 basic subspecies classifications for Gray Jays (there are up to 11 subspecies). The other 2 are obscurus in northwestern North America and capitalis in the southern Rockies. They are in the jays, crows, and magpies family Corvidae. Key characteristics of subspecies canadensis are the white collar around the neck and white forehead, the dark nape on back of head extending onto the crown behind the eyes, the dark gray back, and the light gray underside. Juveniles of all subspecies have an all dark gray plumage color overall except faint whitish "mustache" streaks behind the bill. They forage for insects, spiders, berries, mushrooms, raid other birds' nests to eat their eggs and nestlings, and sometimes eat small amphibians, rodents and even carrion. Their sticky saliva mixes with manipulated pieces of food in the mouth to form a bolus (round mass) that is glued to trees and branches above snow line. This food cache storage behavior is most likely an adaptation to ensure a plentiful food supply for a bird that lives year round in the cold northern forests, and for very early spring nesting. Gray Jays begin nesting as early as February; building a bulky nest of sticks, twigs, bark strips, insect cocoons and spider webs, and line the inside with insulating feathers, fur and plant down material. The nest is often less than 10 ft. above ground on the south or southwest side of a tree to take advantage of warming sunshine and protection from north wind. Early nesting may be an adaptation for timing the rapid growth of Gray Jay's nestlings to fledged young with an additional food supply of raiding other bird's eggs and nestlings in late March and early April. How did these beneficial adaptations come about? (The most certain answer is the process of natural selection. Of course, natural selection did not proceed with foresight of purpose toward a goal of adapting Gray Jays to survive in cold northern forests, but instead it is a natural, materialistic, mechanistic process of non-random accumulation of inherited random variations in genetic DNA mutations and recombination of genes over time from many generations of breeding Gray Jays.) Photographed in northern Minnesota in Scenic State Park with a 400 mm lens and no record of film. ">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg98461866220501..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="10-60. BLACK-BILLED MAGPIE -- It is a loud voice calling, flashy, conspicuous black and white bird with a very long tail, and with black of iridescent green colors. It ranges in the northwestern quarter of North America from Alaska to the U.S. Midwest. It is a mystery why this bird does not range into eastern North America, and yet, it is the only jay species ranging in Eurasia. It is omnivorous, foraging on the ground for insects, worms, seeds, carrion, small rodents, and it will sit on the backs of large mammals picking off parasites to eat. Their massive nest of sticks are several feet across in dense bushes or thorny small trees. The nest has a side entrance leading to a mud cup lined with grass, small roots, and hair. Usually, a pretty much intact nest is not used again for nesting, so each year a new nest is built. In some regions this bird is a year-round resident, and then magpies will use old nests for night time roosting in cold weather. Even though both sexes help build the nest, it takes an unusually long time of 43 days on average to complete a nest. The female incubates the eggs while the male feeds her. Both parents feed the nestlings and in about one month the fledged young are ready to leave the nest. Photographed in the foothills of Boise, Idaho with a 500 mm lens, F-5.6, tripod, and electronic release on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg98461866220601..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="10-61. BLACK-CAPPED CHICKADEE (with sunflower seed) -- The name chickadee is derived from their raspy chick-a-dee-dee-dee voice call. It is in the titmice, verdins, and bushtits family Paridae. The Black-capped Chickadee is the most widespread and familiar of North American titmice. The name titmice has an Anglo-Saxon origin where "tit" means a very small object, and "mice" is a corruption of "mase" meaning several small birds. Typically, this chickadee is a year-round resident of an area in its range. It ranges pretty much in the northern half of the U.S., and the southern and southwestern half of Canada into most of Alaska. The process of natural selection has produced adaptations in the chickadee to survive cold winters by going into a state of torpor (drastically reducing its body temperature to enter into a controlled hypothermia) to decrease all metabolic processes to conserve energy while resting in a profound sleep at night. The resting heart rate of a chickadee is around 520 beats per minute (2 to 3 times higher when active), and body temperature of about 108 degrees F., but in torpor both resting heart rate and body temperature drop by about 20. Photographed through a window with a 300 mm lens, F-11, tripod, and fill flash at 5 ft. on Provia 100F film.">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg98461866220701..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="10-62. BLACK-CAPPED CHICKADEE (on spruce branch) -- Key characteristics of this bird's head region are a black cap extending down below the eyes, a black bib, a black short bill, and very white cheek feathers. They usually make their nests in old small woodpecker holes, but they can excavate their own cavity in soft rotted wood in dead stubs of living trees. Aspen groves and riparian area trees are favorite nesting sites. The female takes the lead in excavation a new nest cavity, but both sexes work at it off an on during the day. The completed nest cavity is lined with feathers, hair, and soft plant material. The female lays some eggs daily, covers them with nesting material, sleeps in the nest, but she does not start incubating until a clutch of 6 to 8 eggs are laid. The male feeds her, but does not incubate the eggs. After the eggs hatch both parents feed the nestlings. The fledged young forage on their own about 10 days after leaving the nest. They do most of their foraging in bushes and trees for insects and spiders, but in winter they eat mostly seeds and berries. Photographed through a window with 60 mm lens, F-11, 1:5 ratio, and fill flash on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg98461866220801..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="10-63. WHITE-BREASTED NUTHATCH (on snag) -- This photo shows a favorite position of North America's largest and most widely distributed nuthatch habitually foraging downward head-first on tree trunks in its favorite habitat of deciduous forests. More than our other year-round resident nuthatches, the White-breasted Nuthatch spends most of its time probing the furrows and cracks of bark, trunks, and branches for small insects and spiders to eat. They also eat seeds and nuts. This bird is on a standing dead aspen tree (snag) beside a knothole of a rotted out branch that is the entrance hole to its nest cavity, and the white tree trunk in the background is a live aspen tree in an aspen grove growing in a canyon near the Niobrara River in Nebraska. This acrobatic nuthatch moves erratically forward, backward, upside down, vertically, and horizontally on trees and it does it with its feet only. Unlike woodpeckers, nuthatches do not use a long, stiff, spiny muscular tail for climbing. Their tail is short, soft, squared or rounded, but they do have long,strong toes (3 in front,1 in back) with sharp claws for secure good footing on trees. Females choose nest sites in old woodpecker holes or a nest is excavated in rotted wood of dead trees, and she does all the nest building. Both sexes perform "bill-sweeping" arch-like movements of their bills holding an insect near the nest entrance. This behavior may produce offensive odors near the nest from insect bodies that may deter squirrels from nest raiding. Photographed with a 500 mm lens, F-5.6, tripod, and fill flash at 35 ft. on Provia 400X film">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg98461866220901..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="10-64. WHITE-BREASTED NUTHATCH (on spruce branch) -- Nuthatches, like their closest relatives, the titmice, have their greatest array of evolutionary radiation in the Old World into 20 species, and thus this is most likely their evolutionary origin. Only 4 species of nuthatches occur in the New World, and the largest (5 3/4 in. from tip of bill and tail tip) is the White-breasted Nuthatch ranging from central and southern Canada, throughout the U.S., and into Mexico with up to 11 subspecies in this range. The common name nuthatch comes from Old World species that wedge nuts in bark crevices and hack the nuts open with their sharp bill. The name is a corruption of "nuthack", and has nothing to do with hatching its eggs. The scientific name is sutta carolinensis in the nuthatches family Sittidae. Key characteristics are a black crown on top of head in males (gray in females) that does not extend down below the eyes as in chickadees, a black band on the nape of its neck (narrower in females), and a long, pointed chisel-like bill with slight up-turned attachment to head. ">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg98461866221001..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="10-65. RED-BREASTED NUTHATCH (male) -- It is the only North American nuthatch with a black eye stripe (dark blue-gray in females) extending through and back behind the eye. Other key characteristics of this small (4 1/2 in. from tip of bill and tail tip) bird are a black cap on crown of head in males (dark blue-gray in females), a white eye brow, a rusty-red underside, and a pointed chisel-like bill. They are pretty much year-round residents preferring coniferous forests ranging from southern Alaska, southern half of Canada, and throughout much of the U.S. Nests are in rotted parts of live trees where they usually excavate their own nesting cavities. The nest is lined with grass and feathers, and they have an unusual behavior of bringing sticky pine resin in their bills to spread above and below the nest entrance hole that may help deter rodents from entering the hole. Photographed through a window with a 300 mm lens, F-11, tripod, and fill flash at 5 ft. on Provia 100F film.">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg98461866221101..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="10-66. HOUSE WREN -- House Wrens often use human built birdhouses for nesting. An instruction for building a wren house is to not provide a perching peg below the 1 inch entrance hole. This photo captures a moment of one way a wren enters its nesting hole and shows why a peg is not necessary. This highly active, energetic small (4 1/2 in. from tip of bill and tail tip) brown bird is known as the small bird with a big voice. Both male and female sing and look alike. Males have a song for their territory, for mating and for nesting, and both sexes communicate with a variety of voice calls. They are solitary birds and do not form flocks, and they migrate, usually unseen, south of the U.S. breeding range in late summer and early fall. In spring, males fly back up north to breeding areas about a week before females to build as many as half a dozen nests in their territory. If a bird house is not available, wrens are not particular about where to build a nest and any small space in tree holes, tin cans, mailboxes, outbuildings, wasp nests, abandoned motor vehicles, or farm machinery may be packed with small sticks and twigs to make a nest. The female chooses one nest for brooding and other nests are used for roosting. During the nest building phase, House Wrens are very aggressive not only toward larger songbirds, but toward their own species. They tear down other birds' nest, puncture eggs destroying them, kill young birds, and occasionally even an adult bird larger than themselves. One House Wren parent was observed feeding a maturing fledgling 1,217 times from before sunup to sundown in one day, and that averaged to a feeding every 47 seconds! During the usual double brooding in a breeding season, there is much searching for more nesting sites and moving about of territories, and frequent switching of mates and most of the time wrens are not monogamous. House Wrens are commonly found in yards, gardens, and parks of cities, towns, on farms, and at edges of woodlands ranging from southern Canada southward throughout the Americas down to the southern tip of South America. Photographed with a 400 mm lens, F-16, and fill flash on Fuji 100 film.">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg98461866221201..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="10-67. ROCK WREN -- Photographed in its natural habitat in rocky landscape beside sagebrush in the Red Desert of Wyoming. When a person is near this bird it has an unusual behavioral habit of bobbing its head up and down and swaying from side to side as if to size up an approaching human. It has an even more unusual "odd" habit of "paving" the footpath entrance to its nest with small pebbles or chipped rocks. Of course, this behavior may seem "odd" because we humans have not figured out a possible natural selection function for this behavior! Their nests are usually in nooks and crannies among a jumble of rocks and boulders, or in cracks and crevices of rock outcrops in foothills habitats. Their nest among the rocks is a cup of grass lined with soft plant materials. This active, energetic bird is continually running, fluttering, and darting in and out of rock crevices searching for insects and spiders to eat. It is in the wrens family Troglodytidae with 19 genera and about 80 species worldwide. Their most abundant array of evolutionary radiation of species is in Central and South America, and thus this is most likely their evolutionary origin. Rock Wrens range from southwestern Canada, throughout the western half of the U.S., and south into Costa Rica. Photographed with a 300 mm lens, F-8, 1/640 sec in bright mid morning sun, tripod, and electronic release on Provia 100F film.">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg98461866221301..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="10-68. CACTUS WREN -- It is the largest (8 1/2 in. from tip of bill and tail tip) and most colorful of the Americas' wrens, but its populations are in decline because of land development for agriculture and housing in the arid Southwest of the U.S. Wildfires are also destroying desert habitat of thorny shrub and cacti habitat. Shrinking natural habitat is causing many Cactus Wrens to move into desert landscaping around homes in the outskirts of cities and towns. Evidence of Cactus Wrens presence is easy to see. They build many bulky globular nests with a side entrance of grass, reeds, leaves, and even string and cloth in cactus plants, but most are "dummy" nest not used for brooding nestlings. Most nests are used for roosting at night. It is amazing to see how these wrens maneuver among long pointed spines of cactus plants without becoming injured or impaled! Their scientific name (Campylorhynchus burnneicapillus) is pretty amazing too, but some knowledge of Greek and Latin root words helps to understand its long name. The first half of the genus name, Campylo, means curved, typically curved down in wrens, and the last half, rhynchus, means snout or beak referring to its bill. The first half of the species name, brunne, means brown, and the last half, capillus, means hair referring to the brown cap on the head. Photographed in a palm tree in Lake Havasu City, Arizona in January with a 500 mm lens, F-8, tripod, and reduced fill flash at 18 ft. on Provia 100F film.">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg98461866221401..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="10-69. RUBY-CROWNED KINGLET -- This is one of North Americas smallest birds (4 in.from tip of bill and tail tip). Note the incomplete light eye-ring at top of eye in this olive-green bird that is noted for constantly flicking its wings in and out when foraging for food, and for laying the largest clutch of eggs for a bird of its size, averaging 9-10 and up to 12 eggs in a nest. Because of the large number of eggs and such a small nest, the eggs are usually in two layers. The collection of nesting material in the bill of this bird indicates this is probably a female. Evidently, only the female builds the nest or does most of the nest building. The bulk of the nest consists of moss, grass, lichens, bark fibers, rootlets and spider silk webs, and an inner lining of feathers, hair and soft plant materials. Close examination of this slide with a 15X magnifier reveals strands of lichen, grass, spider silk, and plant debris embedded in a cottony plant material. This kinglet is insectivorous, but it feeds on fruits and seeds too. They hover in flight similar to a hummingbird when feeding on insect eggs on the underside of leaves. They range in coniferous forests in mountainous regions throughout most of Alaska and Canada, all of the U.S. and south into Central America. Photographed in the Platte River Wilderness in the Snowy Range Mountains in Wyoming with a 400 mm lens and fill flash on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg98461866221501..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="10-70. MOUNTAIN BLUEBIRD (male) -- Note the bright turquoise-blue color of the wings, back, tail, and head of the male. In the female only the wings are blue and the other plumage is gray-brown. It is in the thrushes, bluebirds, and solitaires family Turdidae. It has longer, narrower wings than other bluebirds and often hovers like a kestrel over meadows before it swoops down to pick up insects on the ground. It feeds mostly on crickets, grasshoppers, bees, caterpillars, and berries. Both sexes defend their breeding territory; the male defends the outer area and the female defends the nest site. They nest in old woodpecker holes, cavities in both live and dead trees, preferring aspen groves, sometimes cliff crevices, and will nest in birdhouses too. Only the female builds the nest and incubates the eggs, but both parents feed the nestlings. They range in grasslands, open canyons, scattered trees, alpine parklands, and coniferous forests from part of central Alaska, the southwestern third of Canada, and the western half of the U.S. Photographed in the Grays Lake National Wildlife Area in Idaho with a 400 mm lens and fill flash on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg98461866221601..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="10-71. EASTERN BLUEBIRD (male) -- The male is uniformly deep blue on the upper side and the female is a paler gray-blue. Note the grasshopper in its bill. These bluebirds appear somewhat hunched down when perched on a fence wire, and then drop down to the ground and pounce on to pounce on insects. Sometimes, they will fly from there perch to catch flying insects. They range in the southeastern part of Canada, the eastern half of the U.S., and down into Mexico. In the last several decades for some unknown reason, Eastern Bluebirds are not as common in the eastern U.S. as much as they used to be. (See Eastern Bluebird at natural tree hole and bird house in vertical section of birds in the website) Photographed with a 400 mm lens, F-11, and fill flash on Provia 100F film.">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg98461866221701..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="10-72. AMERICAN ROBIN (male) -- It is the largest (8-11 in. from tip of bill and tail tip), most familiar, and most abundant of the thrushes in North America. It is in the thrushes, bluebirds, and solitaires family Turdidae. Note the deep brick red underside, the dark head, and the incomplete, broken white eye-ring. The female is paler with a light orange underside,a gray head, and more complete white eye-ring. This is a photo of a very early spring arrival, typical of male robins, and it is feeding on left over berries still hanging on from winter. About a third of robins' diet is fruit, berries and seeds in winter, and the other two-thirds is insects, spiders, worms and grubs during the other seasons of the year. Before DDT pesticide was banned, it washed into the soil from rains, then it was absorbed by earthworms, and robins eating them would die a slow death. Many cities in the U.S. inadvertently wiped out entire populations of robins with the use of DDT pesticide. Back in 1913 in the eastern U.S., American Robins were shot for sport and sold for 60 cents a dozen for people to eat! Robins migrate south for the winter, but often they over winter even in northern states and sometimes they form large locks of thousands of birds in wetlands and cedar bogs. Similar to other bird species, they average about an 80 percent mortality rate. They range from most of Alaska and Canada, all of the U.S., and south to Guatemala in Central America. Photographed with a 400 mm lens, F-5.6, 1/1000 sec, and tripod in bright mid morning sun on Provia 100F film. ">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg98461866221801..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="10-73. HATCHLING BABY AMERICAN ROBIN -- This baby robin was the first to hatch of the typical 4 eggs per clutch in a nest. Pretty much all the time the female incubates the eggs. Note the small raised area at the tip of the upper bill that is used as an egg tooth to help the baby bird break out of the egg shell. The embryo inside the egg grows and develops in a curled up position with the underside of the head and bill tucked against the abdomen area and the upper bill with egg tooth up toward the egg shell. Near the end of incubation the large embryo is pressing against the shell and the muscles of the neck pull the head and bill up and back rubbing the egg tooth against the egg shell. The mature large embryo turns in the egg many times puncturing a series of holes in the shell with its egg tooth (the egg shell has been weakened by absorption of calcium from the shell into the developing embryo). The nearly encircled punctures of the blunt end of the egg shell is then pushed off and the baby nestling is hatched. The egg tooth is soon shed or absorbed by the nestling. A dried hatchling weighs about two-thirds the weight of the fresh whole egg it started in. Also, note the nearly complete lack of feathers and closed eyes of this baby nestling indicating this is an altricial baby bird. Altricial baby birds are undeveloped, naked and helpless, and need warmth, food, and complete parental care. This condition is in contrast to precocial hatchlings that hatch well developed with downy feathers and eyes open ready to walk and run almost immediately after hatching. Photographed with a 60 mm lens, macro, and fill flash on Fuji 100 film. ">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg98461866221901..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="10-74. FOUR GAPING-MOUTHED NESTLINGS ROBINS -- The gentle movement over the heads of nestlings by the female American Robin perching on the nest causes the nestlings to raise their gaping mouths upward begging for food. Adults tend to return to the area where they were reared, males usually establish territories they occupied the previous year, and both adults help in selecting a nest site. Males carry most materials to the nest and the female does the shaping of the mud nest mixed with grass and other plant material while the mud is wet, and when dry, the cup-shaped nest is lined with soft strands of grass. Nest building usually takes about 5 to 6 days, but sometimes they hurry and build a complete nest in one day. Robins almost always build their mud/grass nests in trees or on buildings with ledges such as window sills, but on treeless islands, nests are built on the ground. The nestlings grow into fledglings ready to leave the nest in about two weeks, and they are fed and cared for by the adults until the young birds are on their own in about 1 month. To demonstrate the amount of food growing baby robins can eat, researchers were able to feed one fledgling 14 ft. of earthworms (Allen, A. A., 1961). Most parents, even in northern areas, raise 2 broods of young. Photographed in a Blue Spruce tree with a 50 mm lens, snap ring, F-22, tripod, and flash on Kodachrome 25 film.">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg98461866222001..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="10-75. KILLED YOUNG FLEDGED AMERICAN ROBIN IN JAWS OF PET CAT -- Slippers, our family pet Manx cat (de-clawed) has just killed a fledgling robin in our back yard and hauled it onto the front deck of our house. Members of our family think Slippers will not be a happy cat unless he is outdoors part of the day. This was against my recommendation of keeping our cat indoors at all times. The moral of this story: domestic cats are not the cause of killing our wildlife-people are the cause! Owners of pet cats must keep cats indoors all the time in order to prevent unnatural predation of our native wildlife. The American Bird Conservancy provides reliable documentation about the killing of our native wildlife by the introduced, non-native, domestic cat predator. Here are 5 myths about "preventing" pet cats from killing wildlife: 1. well-fed cats will not kill wildlife; 2. a bell on a cat will prevent it from killing wildlife; 3. owner interrupting a cat attack allows wildlife to escape; 4. stray cat colonies are no danger to wildlife; and 5. my personal example in this photo of "de-clawed" cats do not kill wildlife. All of the above are wrong! They do not work! There are over 66 million pet cats in the U.S., and polls show that only about 35 percent are exclusively indoor cats. There are an additional 60 to 100 million stray and feral cats on the loose outdoors! Cats kill around 500 million birds and more than a billion small mammals each year in the U.S. Furthermore, these cat kills take prey away from our native predators making it more difficult for owls, hawks, and foxes to feed themselves and their young. Also, domestic cats transmit diseases to wildlife, and documented records show they attack and kill endangered species: 10 bird, 8 small mammal, and 2 reptile endangered species. Over the past 50 years, studies in Europe, North America, Australia, Africa, and 22 islands reveal that wildlife killed by domestic cats is about 65 percent small mammals, 25 percent birds, and 10 percent amphibians, reptiles, and insects. Specific cat predation studies in Wisconsin, Virginia, and Washington State are a few of many examples of verified devastation of wildlife by domestic cats. Photographed with a 60 mm lens and fill flash on Provia 100F film.">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg98461866222101..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="10-76. LOGGERHEAD SHRIKES FEEDING NESTLINGS -- The wider black mask through the eye on the side of its head indicates this is a Loggerhead Shrike. The Northern Shrike has a narrower black mask. The name shrike comes from a root word "shriek" referring to this bird's shrill voice call. It is the only one of 70+ species in the shrikes family Laniidae that is endemic (found nowhere else) to North America, and only two species are in the New World. Northern Shrikes are circumpolar and along with the other 70+ species in the Old World, this most certainly indicates that shrikes had their evolutionary origin in the Western Hemisphere. Shrikes are songbirds (Passeriformes classification) with a hook on the tip of the upper bill and they have a hawk-like behavior, but without talons to grip their prey securely. They perch high to see and swoop down on their prey, and to accommodate tearing their prey (small birds, rodents, and large insects) apart for eating, they impale the prey on thorns in trees or barbs on a wire fence. Note in the photo that both parents help in feeding the nestlings. This nest was built in a small Osage Orange hedge tree in open native grassland. The Northern Shrike ranges in nearly all of the northern half and the Loggerhead Shrike in the southern half of North America and into southern Mexico. There are no shrikes in Central or South America. Photographed in a native mid grass prairie in Kansas with a 400 mm lens, extension tube, F-11, tripod, and fill flash on Provia 100F film.">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg98461866222201..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="10-77. LOGGERHEAD SHRIKE TENDING NESTLING -- Note the freshly defecated nestling fecal sac in the bill of this parent bird. Also note how the nestling accommodates this "nest cleaning" behavior by raising its rear end up to facilitate access of the fecal sac to the parent. The parent flies off with the fecal sac and drops it some distance away from the nest (some parent birds eat it!). Photographed with a 400 mm lens, extension tube, F-11, tripod, and fill flash on Provia 100F film.">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg98461866222301..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="10-78. GRAY CATBIRD -- Key characteristics of this mostly all gray plumaged bird are the black cap on its head and the orange-red feathers under the tail. It was formerly called catbird, but its name had to be changed because a close relative with the same size, body shape, and habits ranges in southern Mexico, Belize, and Honduras with all glossy black plumage called the Black Catbird. The Gray Catbird is in the thrashers and relatives family Mimidae, named from a Latin root work meaning "to imitate". Its common name comes from its kitten-like meowing voice call. It can also imitate about 40 other bird species voice calls and songs, one frog call, and sounds from electronic equipment and traffic noise. The Gray Catbird also has the keen ability to recognize and remove brood parasite eggs of the Brown-headed Cowbird. It is mostly insectivorous, but also eats large amounts of berries and fruits. It ranges from southern Canada, throughout most of the U.S. except the far West, into Central America, and the West Indies. Photographed with a 500 mm lens, F-8, and tripod on Provia 100F film.">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg98461866222401..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="10-79. NORTHERN MOCKINGBIRD -- It belongs to the family of birds named in bird field guides as thrashers and relatives, mimic thrashers, or mockingbirds, catbirds, and thrashers family Mimidae with about 30 species. It is definitely an Americas family of birds that most likely evolved, along with wrens, from a thrush-like ancestor. There is much about the Mimidae family that is intermediate between wrens and thrushes: they build thrush-like, open-cup nests; they look like over-grown 8 to 12 inch long, slender-bodied wrens with long tails and slender, wren-like bill; the sexes look alike; and they are all very active, inquisitive, aggressive birds that live close to ground level with a diet of insects, fruits, and berries. Mockingbirds sing all year long from a high perch at unusual times during the day and even often at night during a full moon. In addition to wren-like voice calls, some individual mockingbirds have phrases of 100 different bird species' songs in their songs. The root words in their scientific name reveal their capacity for mimicking many other birds' songs in their throat (Mimus polyglottos). In some individuals, a perfect imitation of 30 different species of bird songs can be repeated in succession in their songs, and like catbirds, they can also imitate sounds from electronic equipment and traffic noise. There is an amazing example of local mockingbirds near the Bok Singing Tower in Florida that imitated the lovely, liquid notes of caged Nightingales brought in from Europe. Sophisticated electronic equipment revealed that the mockingbirds' songs were exact reproductions in all phrases and even sounds beyond the frequency of human hearing. Mockingbirds are highly territorial. In the fall when pair bonds break up, the females migrate south and establish their own non-breeding territories. In southern states, males stay on their territories even during the winter. In spring, females go back to male territories for breeding and nesting where the female alone incubates the eggs, the male guards the territory but does not feed the female, and both parents feed the young. Like catbirds, mockingbirds have the ability to recognize brood parasite eggs of the Brown-headed Cowbird. When the nestlings are fledged and leave the nest in 10-13 days, the young birds are fed and cared for by one or both parents for about a month before they are on their own. Mockingbirds' aggressive, territorial behavior is so strong that, like other birds, they will attack their reflection in a window, hub cap of a car, or a mirror with such force that they injure of even kill themselves. The Northern Mocking bird is the northern species of 9 species in the Mimus genus that ranges from the southern half and Northeast U.S., south to the West Indies, Mexico, and Central America to Argentina and Chile in South America, and the Galapagos Islands. Photographed in Lake Havasu City, Arizona in January with a 500 mm lens, F-8, tripod, and fill flash on Provia 100F film. ">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg98461866222501..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="10-80. BROWN THRASHER -- This adult is perched on its nest that is typically built of thorny twigs, weed stems, and a few leaves in trees, shrubs, or dense vines and thickets usually less than 5 ft. above the ground. The outside of the nest measures about 12 in. across, 4 in. high, and has a deep inner cup lined with soft grasses and rootlets. When looking at the nest at eye level, the deep cup usually puts the adult's body below the top edge of the nest so that only the eye region of the head with its slender, pointed, slightly down-curved bill and long tail are sticking up above the nest. Brown Thrashers and catbirds have similar habitats and sometimes catbirds are evicted from the thrashers territory. Like most thrashers, Brown Thrashers actually prefers running or hopping on the ground rather than flying. The name thrasher comes from their feeding habit of scattering ground litter and leaves wildly about with their bills when foraging for insects (preferably beetles), worms, seeds, and nuts. When nesting, incubation of the eggs is done primarily by the female, and she can recognize and remove eggs of the brood parasite, the Brown-headed Cowbird. Both parents help feed the nestlings, but sometimes soon after the eggs hatch, the female leaves the male to care for the young while she begins a second nest, and even sometimes changes mates between broods. Sometimes, however, each parent may take some of the fledged young away some distance from the nest to feed and care for them, and then after a short time the parents come back to the nest to rear a second brood. They range from most of southern Canada down throughout the eastern two-thirds of the U.S. Photographed with a 60 mm lens, F-16, tripod, remote release, and flash on Provia 100F film.">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg98461866222601..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="10-81. CEDAR WAXWING -- Note the sleek fawn-brown color, silky-smooth velvety appearance of its plumage, prominent crest and black mask on its head, red waxy tips on its inner secondary wing feathers, and a yellow band on the tail of this bird perched rather well-camouflaged on a branch of a sycamore tree. Its common name comes from the waxy red tips on the wings and a favorite food of cedar berries. It is in the waxwings family Bombycillidae with only a total of 3 species: the Cedar Waxwing nesting throughout the temperate woodlands of North America; the Bohemian Waxwing nesting in conifer and birch forests across northern Eurasia, and in northwestern North America from Alaska to Idaho; and the Japanese Waxwing nesting in taiga forests of eastern Siberia in spring, and then migrating to Japan and Korea. They sometimes share berry fruit when the berries at the end of a twig only carry the weight of one bird, several birds line up on the sturdier part of the twig and pass berries bird to bird in their bills up the line so that each bird eats some of the last berries on the twig. Adults can store berries in their crop located above the stomach, and they have been observed regurgitating as many as 30 choke cherries at one time into the gaping mouths of their nestlings. Another unique "non-behavior" is that waxwings are songbirds without a song! One of the functions of birds' songs is to defend a territory of food supply around a nesting area to assure sufficient food for adults and their young during the breeding season. Waxwings, however, are highly nomadic, following abundant food supplies throughout the year, and in North America as winter approaches, Cedar Waxwing flocks constantly follow their berry fruit food supplies south through Central America into South America. Because they are always near plentiful berries for food during the breeding season, there is no need to expend energy singing and defending a territory. I think this is an example of the process of natural selection eliminating a behavioral adaptation that no longer severs a beneficial function for individual birds of a species. Natural selection can proceed in two ways. It can operate to accumulate traits to produce beneficial adaptations, and it can operate to eliminate adaptations that are no longer useful. Almost certainly, the unit of selection is the individual bird in the species and not the species as a group (see in My Philosophy, expose illusions, an explanation of: "Is it a fast deer herd or a herd of fast deer?"). (Of course, natural selection did not proceed with foresight of purpose toward a goal of eliminating singing and defense of territory behavior because it was not necessary for survival, but instead it was a natural, materialistic, mechanistic process of non-random accumulation of inherited random variations in DNA and recombination of genes not carrying behavioral traits of singing and territory defense that were gradually selected over time from many generations of breeding Cedar Waxwings. Photographed with a 500 mm lens, F-4, tripod, and fill flash at 18 ft. on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg98461866222701..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="10-82. PHAINOPEPLA (male) -- Their common name is from Greek root words meaning a "shiny robe" that refers to its sleek, silky-smooth, black plumage. They are in the silky flycatchers family Ptilogonatidae that are closely related to the waxwings. It is a slender, glossy-black, bird with a prominent crest on top of its head and a long tail that can be seen from quite a distance as in this photo. The female is gray and both sexes have red eyes. They "sally" (see explanation in #10-53 Eastern Kingbird) like flycatchers catching flying insects and in flight, conspicuous white wing patches are pronounced against its black body. Although they eat insects, their diet is mostly juniper, grape, poison oak, elderberry, and especially berries of desert mistletoe. They are supposedly the only bird that has a specialized mechanism of food-grinding muscles in their gizzard that separate and pack the berry skins from the fruit for more efficient digestion in the intestine. Berry seeds pass through the digestive tract to be defecated in bird droppings to grow into more berry plants. It builds an open cup nest similar to waxwings in small trees or large shrubs. The male usually builds the nest, does most of the incubation of eggs, and the parents appear to raise only one brood per year. Their habitat is arid land of oak scrub, mesquite woodlands, and juniper patches in rocky areas. They range in the extreme Southwest of the U.S. and into Mexico. Photographed in the Bill Williams River National Wildlife Area in Arizona in January with a 500 mm lens, F-5.6, 1/500 sec, tripod, and electronic release on Provia 100F film.">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg98461866222801..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="10-83. WARBLING VIREO ON NEST -- Vireo gilvus is in the exclusive New World family Vireonidae with about 30 species in the genus vireo. There evolutionary origin is undoubtedly in the Americas. There are very few well-known birds whose scientific name becomes their common name as in the case of the vireos. Note key characteristics of vireos in this photo of a short bill with a slight hook at the tip of the upper bill, and the white eye brow with narrow white below the eye giving this bird the look of having "spectacles" on its head. They forage near the ends of branches and twigs in trees and shrubs eating small insects and spiders for most of their diet, but some berry fruit is also eaten. They are unable to prevent Brown-headed Cowbird brood parasitism and it causes a decline in many populations of Warbling Vireos. Their song consists of long, melodious warbling phrases. Some vireos are able to sing their songs more than a 1000 times and hour all day long! Their breeding range is a small area of southeastern and a large area of southwestern Canada, most of the U.S, except the southern areas; it breeds and winters in Mexico, and winters into most of Central America. This nesting vireo was photographed in the Sawtooth Wilderness Area of Idaho in a shrub about 5 ft. above the ground with a 400 mm lens, F-11, tripod, and fill flash on Provia 100F film.">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg98461866222901..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="10-87. YELLOW-RUMPED WARBLER -- This photo shows the yellow rump feathers above the dark upper tail covert feathers. Warblers are small, brightly-colored birds with narrow-pointed bills in the wood warblers family Parulidae with about 120 species. The New World Americas family Parulidae of these birds are called the wood warblers in order to not confuse them with the unrelated family of Old World birds called accurately, the warblers. They range from Alaska and almost all of Canada, throughout the U.S., in the West Indies, into Central and South America. They migrate north in the spring following the freshly budding trees and shrubs. They forage for small insects and spiders mostly among leaves and twigs in trees and shrubs, and many species eat berries and seeds in the fall and winter. Very little study has been done on the nesting behavior of the Yellow-rumped Warbler. Photographed in the Buffalo Gap National Grasslands in South Dakota with a 400 mm lens, F-5.6, 1/500 sec on Fuji 100 film.">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg98461866223001..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="10-88. YELLOW WARBLER (male) -- There is more yellow color in this species than any other North American wood warbler, and the rusty streaks on the breast and sides indicate this is a male. It is in the family Parulidae; and in the tropical regions of its range, it nests mostly in mangrove wetlands. This bird does not walk; instead, it hops from perch to perch. The Yellow Warbler can recognize the eggs of the brood-parasite Brown-headed Cowbird and rebuilds its nest on top of the cowbird's eggs and their own eggs several times in a breeding season up to 6 layers high above the original nest, and each layer has one or more cowbird eggs. The female can build a compact cup nest of grasses and milkweed seed fluff in about 4 days and she does all the incubation of the eggs. Both parents feed the nestlings insects, larvae, and some fruit. They range from Alaska to South America and in the West Indies. Photographed with a 400 mm lens, F-16/11 at 16 ft. with fill flash on Provia 100 film.">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg98461866223101..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="10-89. TENNESSEE WARBLER -- This wood warbler is a small, compact bird with a short tail, a rather long, narrow, straight bill, white under tail feathers, and a pronounced whitish eyebrow. The olive-green back and wings and blue-gray crown on its head indicate this individual is a male. This wood warbler's name is based on a migrating specimen collected in the state of Tennessee. They breed throughout most of Canada and migrate to Central America in winter. When their breeding season occurs during outbreaks of spruce larval budworms in Canada, their populations tend to increase with this abundant food supply. They also eat caterpillars, bees, wasps, beetles, spiders, and pierce the base of flowers to feed on nectar. This is an up close photo on Fuji 100 film with a 60 mm lens of this bird on the front deck of our house in Lancaster County, Nebraska. Apparently this bird was injured or in a state of torpor to allow this very close encounter.">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg98461866223201..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="10-90. ORANGE-CROWNED WARBLER -- Note key characteristics of this wood warbler that distinguish it from the similar Tennessee Warbler: the Orange-crowned Warbler is an olive color on its upper side with faint streaks on its sides, its bill is thinner and slightly down curved, its tail is longer with yellow under tail feathers, and its wings are shorter. The yellow eyebrow and area below the eye indicate this individual is a male. The American naturalist, Thomas Say, collected this species in Nebraska and was impressed with the orange-colored cap of feathers concealed below the plumage on its head. This orange crown is usually not seen in the field because it only displays the orange feathers when alarmed. Its scientific name is Vermivora celata and its in the family Parulidae. Vermivore is Latin for worm (larvae) eater and celata means hidden, referring to the orange crown feathers. This wood warbler feeds on insect larvae, beetles, ants, spiders, fruits, and nectar of flowers by using its bill to poke a hole in the base of the flower. It ranges throughout most of Alaska, Canada and the U.S., and winters in the southern U.S., Mexico and Central America. Photographed in early spring in Lancaster County, Nebraska with a 400 mm lens and fill flash on Fuji 100 film.">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg98461866223301..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="10-91. ROSE-BREASTED GROSBEAK (male) -- This individual appears to be a 1st spring male Rose-breasted Grosbeak. It is a large finch (8 in. from tip of bill and tail tip) with a very large bill, black head and upper side, a rose-red upper breast, white underside, wing bars, and rump, and red/white patches under wings in flight. Its voice call is a sharp, metallic "clink". It feeds on potato beetles, insect larvae, weed seeds, fruits, and buds. It ranges throughout most of Canada, and the north central and northeastern third of the U.S. Photographed through a window at a bird feeder with a 60 mm lens, F-11/8, 1:5 ratio, and fill flash on Velvia 50 film. ">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg98461866223401..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="10-92. ROSE-BREASTED GROSBEAK (female) -- Note that the female has a brownish upper side and an extensively streaked underside. Males return first to the spring breeding areas to establish and defend nesting territories with their warbled songs. A few days later, females arrive and are initially aggressively chased by males. When the males stop the chasing, the females sometimes chase and attack the males. Both parents help build the nest, incubate the eggs and care for the nestling young. Sometimes the males take over the care of the young while the females begin a second nest. The young grow and develop rapidly in about 9 to 12 days before they fledge and leave the nest. Photographed through a window at a bird feeder with a 60 mm lens, F-11, 1:6 ratio, and fill flash on Velvia 50 film. ">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg98461866223501..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="10-93. BALD FEMALE CARDINAL -- Note that the bald head is nearly absent of all feathers, and also note the deformed upper bill in this individual. I do not know if this was from a severe injury or a genetic defect. This cardinal frequented our bird feeder for many weeks during the winter of 2005 in Lancaster County, Nebraska. Photographed through a window with a 700 mm lens, extension tube, F-11, tripod, and fill flash on Provia 100F film.">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg98461866223601..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="10-94. SPOTTED TOWHEE (male) -- Not key characteristics of many white spots and bars on its upper side that distinguish it from the Eastern Towhee with only a few white spots on its wings. The dark black head indicate this is a male compared to a brownish-black head of the female. They use their feet like a rake to scratch circular areas on the ground searching for food. They eat insects, fruits, seeds, acorns, and sometimes small lizards and snakes. They range from extreme southwestern Canada, through the western U.S., and to southern Mexico. Photographed in January in Lake Havasu City, Arizona with a 300 mm lens, F-10, and tripod on Provia 100F film.">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg98461866223701..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="10-95. HOUSE SPARROWS (female and male) -- These two adult birds were caught in the act of a social interaction. The female on the left appears to have the advantage in backing off the male on the right. These birds are not related to the native North American sparrows. House Sparrows (Passer domesticus) belong to the Old World seed eaters of weaver birds in the sparrow weavers subfamily Passerinae. Their nest is a large oval ball of woven dried grasses and other plant materials lined on the inside with feathers, and with a small hole side entrance. They were first introduced into the U.S. in Brooklyn, New York around 1850, and several other introductions occurred until about 1860. These small beginnings were enough for this hardy, aggressive bird to successfully spread throughout the North American continent, and in a little over 150 years it has evolved showing geographical variations similar to native sparrows such as pale colors in the arid Southwest and darker colors in wetter regions. Because of many human introductions, House Sparrows have successfully spread into South Africa, South America, Australia, New Zealand, and Hawaii, but they failed to establish their range in Greenland and the Philippines. They have followed European settlements all over the world, and are undoubtedly the most successful town and city dwelling bird of all small birds. Photographed through a window at a bird feeder with a 400 mm lens, F-11 at 13 ft. with fill flash on Provia 100F film.">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg98461866223801..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="10-96. FEMALE HOUSE SPARROW -- Note that the female has a buff-tan eye stripe, yellowish bill, and a less brightly-colored plumage than the male. She will lay 3 to 5 eggs and have 2-3 broods of young per year between April to August. They eat mostly seeds and some insects and fruits. Photographed through a window at a bird feeder at 6 ft. with a 400 mm lens, F-16, tripod, and fill flash on Provia 100 F film.">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg98461866223901..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="10-97. BREEDING MALE HOUSE SPARROW -- Note the breeding male's plumage has a gray crown on its head, a rust-chestnut nape behind the head, a black bill, and a black bib on the throat and upper breast. Photographed through a window at a bird feeder at 13 ft. with a 700 mm lens, F-11, tripod, and fill flash on Provia 100F film. ">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg98461866224001..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="10-98. NON-BREEDING MALE HOUSE SPARROW -- Note that the crown is brownish-gray and the bill is brownish-yellow in the non-breeding male. Photographed through a window at a bird feeder at 5 ft. with a 300 mm lens, F-10, tripod, and fill flash on Provia 100F film.">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg98461866224101..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="10-99. ABNORMAL WHITE-FEATHERED FEMALE HOUSE SPARROW -- Note the abnormal white feathers on the wings and under tail feathers of this individual. Photographed through a window at a bird feeder in Lancaster County, Nebraska with a 400 mm lens, F-11, tripod, and fill flash on Fuji 100 film.">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg98461866224201..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="11-01. LINCOLN'S SPARROW -- Note the broad gray eyebrow, the bold eye-ring, the small thin bill, the dark brown streak under cheek, and the streaks on throat characteristic of this species. John James Audubon named this species to honor his helper, Thomas Lincoln, in collecting birds. It is in the finch-like birds of longspurs, buntings, and American sparrows family Emberizidae with about 50 species in North America. It breeds mostly in muskegs and thickets at the tundra-taiga timberline in Canada. It builds a cup-shaped nest of fine grasses on the ground under overhanging sedges or grasses in June to August. It eats mostly seeds in winter, and mostly beetles, mosquitoes and moths in summer. It ranges from the southeastern third of Alaska, throughout most of Canada, all of the U.S., and south into Central America. In the U.S. it frequents scrubby habitats. Photographed in the spring of 2003 in Lancaster County, Nebraska through a window with a 400 mm lens at a bird feeder at 7 ft., F-11, tripod, and fill flash on Provia 100F film.">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg98461866224301..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="11-02. SONG SPARROW -- Note the Chestnut-brown crown on a grayish head, the streaked brownish-gray upper side, the black "mustache" between whitish cheek and throat, the heavily dark streaked upper breast and side, and whitish belly characteristic of this species. It is in the finch-like birds family Emberizidae. This bird sings a familiar song of jumbled whistles and trills across North America all year, even in winter. This native sparrow has the record for evolved geographical variation with about 40 subspecies varying from large, dark birds in extreme southwestern Alaska's Aleutian Islands to small, pale birds in the arid Southwest of the U.S. It builds a bulky cup-shaped nest on or near the ground in brush or wetlands vegetation. It eats mostly insects in summer, and mostly seeds and some fruit in winter. Photographed through a window with a 135 mm lens, F-8, tripod and fill flash on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg98461866224401..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="11-03. WHITE-CROWNED SPARROW -- Note the white crown with two broad black stripes on the head, the black narrow eye stripe, the gray neck area, the non-streaked underside, and the two wing bars characteristic of this species. It is in the finch-like birds family Emberizidae. They build a bulky cup-shaped nest of grass on or near the ground in shrubs and rear 1 to 3 broods a year from March to August. The eat seeds, insects, fruit, buds, and even grass. It ranges in nearly all of Alaska, all of Canada and the U.S., and most of Mexico. Photographed through a window at a bird feeder in Arizona in January with a 400 mm lens, F-8, tripod, and fill flash on Provia 100F film.">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg98461866224501..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="11-04. IMMATURE WHITE-CHROWNED SPARROW -- Note it has a somewhat whitish crown with two broad brown stripes, a dark narrow eye stripe, and a pale eyebrow. Also note the light orange bill, but this sparrow can have a yellowish or a pink bill. Photographed through a window at a bird feeder with a 400 mm lens, F-11, tripod, and fill flash on Fuji 100 film. ">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg98461866224601..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="11-05. SAVANNAH SPARROW -- Note the light yellow patch between eye and bill, the small bill holding an insect, the dark streaking in the underside, and the pink legs characteristic of this species. It is in the finch-like birds family Emberizidae. They have evolved about 20 subspecies showing much geographic variation. Their breeding areas are grasslands and shrubby tundra. They build a cup-shaped grass nest in a depression on the ground concealed with overhanging grass or sedges, and rear 1 to 2 broods per year from June to August. They forage on the ground eating insects, seeds, snails and crustaceans in summer, and available berries and fruit in winter. They have the same range as the White-crowned Sparrow, but they winter farther south into Central America and the West Indies. Photographed in the Gray's Lake National Wildlife Refuge in Idaho with a 400 mm lens.">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg98461866224701..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="11-06. JUVENILE SWAMP SPARROW (?) -- The rusty color of the wing and streaks on its flank indicate this may be a juvenile Swamp Sparrow. This individual was photographed in back water wetlands habitat of the Bill Williams River National Wildlife Refuge south of Lake Havasu City, Arizona in January. A 400 mm lens, F-8, and tripod was used for this image on Provia 100F film.">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg98461866224801..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="11-07. GRASSHOPPER SPARROW (juvenile) -- Key characteristics are: a small (5in. from tip of bill to tail tip), chunky bird with a short, spike-pointed tail, a flat head continuous with top of its large bill, a dark crown with a pale central stripe on top of its head, a pale eyebrow, a pale eye-ring, reddish and dark spots on its upper side, a yellow color at bend of wing, a light grayish-tan underside that is not streaked (juveniles have an upper breast and sides streaked in brown), and pale legs and toes (photo shows juvenile with pinkish legs and toes). The name of this sparrow comes from their grasshopper-like voice call. It is in the finch-like birds family Emberizidae. They breed in short grasslands and pasture habitats. Their nest is built in dense vegetation on the ground, usually at the base of a clump of grass that overhangs to hide the nest, and it is in a small depression in the ground constructed of mostly coarse grass and fine grass to line the inner nest. It forages on the ground for grasshoppers, other insects, and seeds. It ranges from south central Canada, through most of the northwest, and eastern 3/4ths of the U.S. It winters from the southern U.S., Mexico, Central America to Colombia in South America, and the West Indies. Photographed in a native mid-grass prairie in Kansas with a 400 mm lens and fill flash on Provia 100F film.">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg98461866224901..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="11-08. HARRIS' SPARROW -- A photo of the Harris' sparrow's winter plumage. Photographed through a window at a bird feeder at 5 ft. in winter in Lancaster County, Nebraska with a 300 mm lens, F-11, tripod, and fill flash on Provia 100F film. They winter only in a small central part of the U.S. (Nebraska, Kansas, Oklahoma, small areas of South Dakota, Wyoming and Iowa, the eastern area of Colorado and New Mexico, and the northern half of Texas. The breeding plumage of this large (7 1/2 in. from tip of bill to tail tip) sparrow is a black crown, face and large bib, and a pink bill. Its nests were first discovered in 1907 in the Northwest Territories where it breeds, and it also breeds in the extreme north central Canada in stunted boreal forests. It is in the finch-like birds family Emberizidae.">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg98461866225001..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="11-09. LARK SPARROW -- Note the bold distinctive reddish-brown, white, black and tan facial pattern, whitish underside with a central breast spot, and long tail with white outer feathers that are prominently displayed in flight. It is in the finch-like birds family Emberizidae. A cup-shaped nest is built on the ground at the base of plants or rocks, or low to the ground in a tree or shrub. It eats insects and seeds. It ranges from extreme south central Canada, the western two-thirds of the U.S., and into southern Mexico. Photographed in the Agate Fossil Beds National Monument in Nebraska with a 400 mm lens, F-8, and fill flash at 18 ft. on Provia 100F film. ">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg98461866225101..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="11-10. DARK-EYED JUNCO (male slate-colored form) -- The species has evolved into a diverse array of about 16 geographical forms (subspecies). Some of the striking subspecies are slate-colored, white-winged, pink-sided, red-backed, gray-headed, and Oregon Dark-eyed Junco populations. It is in the finch-like birds family Emberizidae. A cup-shaped nest is built on the ground hidden under vegetation or next to rocks at high elevation forest habitats. It eats insects, seeds, and berries. In flight, the outer white tail feathers are readily visible. Photographed through a window at a bird feeder in Lancaster County, Nebraska with a 300 mm lens, F-11 tripod, and fill flash at 5 ft. on Provia 100F film.">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg98461866225201..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="11-11. OREGON DARK-EYED JUNCO (male) -- A photo of one of 16 subspecies (forms) of Dark-eyed Junco populations in North America. Photographed through a window at a bird feeder in Boise, Idaho with a 500 mm lens, extension tube, F-11, tripod, and fill flash at 12 ft. on Provia 100F film. ">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg98461866225301..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="11-12. AMERICAN GOLDFINCH (male) -- A photo of a breeding male in full, bright plumage. Note the black forehead crown, the short, conical orange-tan bill, the bright yellow under and upper sides, the black wings with one white wing bar, the white rump, the black tail, and the pinkish legs and feet. It is in the finches family Fringillidae with 16 species in North America. It builds a cup-shaped nest of grass in trees or tall shrubs shaded by leaves and rears 1 to 2 broods per year from June to September. It eats weed seeds, annual plant seeds, some insects, sunflower, and thistle seeds. It ranges from southern Canada, throughout the U.S., and into northern Mexico. Photographed with a 60 mm lens, F-8, 1:4.5 ratio, and fill flash through a window at a bird feeder on Velvia 50 film. ">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg98461866225401..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="11-13. WESTERN MEADOWLARK -- This is most likely a Western Meadowlark because the yellow color of the throat extends up the side of its face behind the lower half of the bill as can be seen in this photo. In the Eastern Meadowlark, the yellow of the throat does not extend up the side of its face. The best way to distinguish between these two species is by the males' readily recognizable song. Key characteristics are a bright yellow breast with a prominent black V, and when walking, its short wide tail flicking open and shut exposing white patches on the sides of tail. Clear cutting of eastern North American ancient forests has extended the range of Western Meadowlarks from southern Canada, western U.S., and northern Mexico eastward beyond the Great Lakes. The two species of meadowlarks are so similar, it was not until 1844 that John James Audubon noted their difference, and because of this overlooked error he named the Western Meadowlark the neglecta species. The scientific name for the Eastern Meadowlark is Sturnella magna and the Western Meadowlark is Sturnella neglecta, and they are in the blackbirds, orioles, etc. family Icteridae. Throughout their range of overlap, the eastern bird chooses moister areas and the western bird drier areas of meadows. There is very little or no hybridizing of these two species in the wild because apparently the females invariably mate with (but perhaps not necessarily choose--see explanation in text of #20-20 Greater Prairie Chicken) males of their own species supposedly based on their songs rather than the males' visual appearance or behavior. It may be that natural selection produced a double protection of reproductive isolation for these two species (Of course, not on purpose, but inadvertently). Perhaps, the males' different songs add extra protection onto their natural behavior of seeking moist and dry habitats in meadows to ensure reproductive isolation of these overlapping species. The songs function may be directed to other males to keep them out of a male's territory rather than attracting a female. Thus, perhaps the sexual selection theory that females' choose a male for their song is an illusion because in the habitat she naturally prefers, the male of her species is the only one there and his song is directed to other males, and not to attract her (read more about illusions in My Philosophy section). Photographed in western Nebraska with a 700 mm lens, F-5.6, 1/1000 sec, tripod, and electronic release on Provia 400X film. ">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg98461866219101..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="11-14. COMMON GRACKLE (male) -- It is a large (11 to 13 in. from tip of bill to tail tip) black bird with iridescent plumage, especially the bluish-purple head, neck and upper breast region, a prominent yellow eye, and a long V-shaped tail. It is in the orioles and blackbirds family Icteridae. It has accustomed itself to the human built urban and suburban environment, and to agricultural land use. They can form huge flocks of up to one million birds, and can be an agricultural pest in some areas. They build a bowl-shaped nest of sticks, grass, and mud in trees rearing 1 to 2 broods per year from April to July. They are omnivorous eating beetles, flies, spiders, worms, larvae, small vertebrates, seeds, and grain. They range in most of the southern half of Canada and the eastern 3/4ths of the U.S. Photographed through a window at a bird feeder with a 400 mm lens, F-11, tripod, and fill flash at 13 ft. on Ectachrome 100S film. ">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg98461866225501..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="11-15. COMMON GRACKLE (female) -- Its plumage coloration is similar to the male, but much duller in color, and it is slightly smaller size. Photographed in the same manner as the male in the previous image.">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg98461866225601..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="11-16. EUROPEAN STARLING (male) -- Note the bluish-based, yellow bill indicating a breeding male bird. The female has a pinkish-based yellow bill. It is a non-native bird in North America that was introduced from Europe when about 100 starlings were released in New York City in the 1890's. From these initial 100 birds, many millions of aggressive starlings compete with native bird species for nesting sites that has reduced many native bird populations. They have been so successful that they now range from the southern half of Canada, throughout the U.S., northern Mexico and the Caribbean islands. They are common to abundant in the human built environment, farmlands, and even in wildlands away from human habitation. They commonly form large flocks of birds. Apparently, the 100 bird "bottle neck" of genetic diversity did not adversely affect this bird's viability to successfully adapt and proliferate on the North American continent. Photographed through a window at a bird feeder in early spring with a 400 mm lens, F-5.6, tripod, and fill flash on Fuji 50 film.">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg98461866225701..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="11-17. BALTIMORE ORIOLE (male) -- The Baltimore Oriole in the eastern half of U.S. and the Bullock's Oriole in the western half of U.S. were formerly classified as two separate species. They are now classified as two forms or subspecies of one Northern Oriole species. (These two forms of orioles are evidence of natural selection in the beginning process of evolving two subspecies into two separate species. If more complete reproductive isolation were to occur between Baltimore and Bullock populations, evolution of these orioles into species would be accomplished in a shorter time period. But interbreeding of these orioles in their range of overlap at mid-continent of the U.S. is most likely slowing down the process of species formation. Of course, as explained in write-ups of birds listed in the introduction of the Natural History Section of this website, natural selection does not proceed with foresight or a purpose of deliberately progressing toward a goal of producing new species, but instead it is a natural materialistic, mechanistic process of nonrandom accumulation of inherited random genetic variation and genetic recombination of DNA in individual birds of the populations of Baltimore and Bullock's Orioles breeding over time that can eventually result in two new species evolving from the ancestral Northern Oriole species. Also, please note that the unit of natural selection is most likely the individual birds in the subspecies, not the subspecies as a whole.) The Baltimore Oriole is a seasonal migrant and when arriving in their breeding territory in the spring, it is the female that does most of the work building an intricate hanging basket nest near the end of a deciduous tree branch. Their nest is an impressive display of complex woven plant material assembled in a loose tangle that is continually worked and gradually pulled together and tightened into pendant form with its bill, but actual knots are not tied in the process. A new nest is constructed each year and an old nest is often present near the new one. It usually takes a week plus a few days to build the nest, but occasionally it is completed quickly in about 4 days. Only the female incubates the eggs and is fed on the nest by the male for about 2 weeks. The nestlings are fed and grow in the nest for 2 weeks, and fledgling young leave the nest dependent on the care of the parents for another 2 weeks before left on their own. They feed on insects, especially grasshoppers and caterpillars, and beetles, ants, spiders, nectar of flowers, and fruit (grape jelly too). Photographed in a Bur Oak tree on the family farm near Byron, Nebraska with a 400 mm lens, F-8, tripod, and fill flash on Provia 100F film.">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg98461866225801..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="11-18. BALTIMORE ORIOLE (female) -- This is most likely a 1st fall female because it is grayish-olive on its upper side, lacks the black markings on top of its head, and is duller orange and has a paler belly than a mature adult female. The mature adult female is brownish-olive on it upper side with black markings on its head, and a dull orange graded into a pale belly on its underside. Orioles are in the orioles and blackbirds family Icteridae Photographed at a grape jelly bird feeder with a 400 mm lens, F-8, tripod, and fill flash on Provia 100F film.">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg98461866225901..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="11-19. BALTIMORE ORIOLE (male underside) -- This image shows the underside of a male with a fully spread tail at a grape jelly bird feeder. Photographed with a 400 mm lens, F-8, tripod, and fill flash on Velvia 100 film.">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg98461866226001..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="11-20. BALTIMORE ORIOLE (male upper side) -- This image shows the upper side of a male with a partially spread tail at a grape jelly bird feeder. Note broad area of black from head continuous onto its back. Photographed with a 400 mm lens, F-8, tripod, and fill flash on Velvia 100 film.">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg98461866226101..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="11-21. ORCHARD ORIOLE (male) -- This is an immature 1st spring adult male showing its black bib and a slight trace of chestnut rust-reddish color just below its head. The mature adult male has an overall chestnut, reddish-rust plumage with a black hood extending down the upper back and a broad bib down the upper breast. Note through the Boxelder tree leaves that he is perched on a nest of grass. Photographed beside the Niobrara River at Smith Falls State Park in north central Nebraska with a 400 mm lens, F-8, tripod, and fill flash on Velvia 100 film. 11-22. ORCHARD ORIOLE (female) -- Note the adult female Orchard Oriole is an olive color on its upper side and greenish-yellow on its underside. Also, note she is perched on a Boxelder tree twig with a grass nest nearby showing through the leaves. Photographed beside the Niobrara River at Smith falls State Park in north central Nebraska with a 400 mm lens, F-8, tripod, and fill flash on Velvia 100 film.">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg98461866226201..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="11-22. ORCHARD ORIOLE (female) -- Note the adult female Orchard Oriole is an olive color on its upper side and a greenish-yellow on its underside. Also, note she is perched on a Boxelder twig with a grass nest nearby showing through the leaves. Photographed in the same location and manner as the male Orchard Oriole.">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg98461866226301..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="11-23. YELLOW WARBLER STEALING NESTING MATERIAL -- A photo of a Yellow Warbler stealing nesting material from the same nest in the previous Orchard Oriole photos. Photographed in same location and manner as the Orchard Oriole photos.">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg98461866226401..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="11-24. BROWN-HEADED COWBIRD (female) -- This is North America's most common brood parasite. Note that it is about to enter the same Orchard Oriole's nest shown in the previous photos. It is in the orioles and blackbirds family Icteridae. This bird has well-accustomed itself to human land use changes in the last 100 years, and has become a serious threat to breeding success of North American songbirds. It does not build its own nest or incubate its own eggs, or brood its own nestlings. Instead, it lays its eggs in the nests of 220 species of birds and when its eggs are hatched, its nestling are fed and raised to fledglings by more than 140 bird species. Even though the cowbird's eggs hatch about the same time as the foster parent's eggs, natural selection has adapted cowbird nestlings to grow much faster than the foster parent's babies, thus not only do the larger baby cowbirds get most of the food, they have a special-adapted concave back and they move up against the baby birds and push them out of the nest so that they eventually get all the food. It ranges throughout the U.S., Mexico, and much of southwestern and southeastern Canada. Photographed in the same location and manner as the Orchard Oriole photos.">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg98461866219001..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="11-25. RED CROSSBILLS -- Note that the 2 females on the left are "righties" with their lower bills crossed over to their right, and the male on the right is a "lefty" with its lower bill crossed over to its left. Note the upper bill is straight. About half of all Red Crossbills are "right-billed" and left-footed, and half are "left-billed" and right-footed. Their bills appear to be deformed, but natural selection has in fact evolved a wonderfully adapted bill that bites between the scales of conifer cones and pries them apart so that the tongue can lift the seed out. Like finches, crossbills do not crush seeds, instead when the seed is lifted out of the cone, it is swallowed whole. They are in the finches family Fringillidae. Red Crossbills have been classified into about 8 forms or subspecies that are all about the same color, but they have different body sizes, different bill shapes and sizes, and most importantly, different flight voice calls. Consequently, even when their ranges overlap, the subspecies rarely interbreed, and thus they are actually probably separate species. They range in coniferous and coniferous/deciduous forest habitats from extreme southern and southeastern Alaska, into most of southern Canada, the northwestern and most of the northeastern and northern areas of the U.S., and south into Mexico. Photographed in the spring of 1997 in Lancaster County, Nebraska through a window at a bird feeder with a 400 mm lens, F-11 tripod, and fill flash on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg98461866226501..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="11-26. FEMALE HOUSE FINCH FEEDING NESTLINGS -- The female builds a nest of grass stems, twigs, and thin weeds in trees and buildings. They have 2 to 3 broods per year from March to August. Note the messy nest with fecal droppings all around the rim of the nest. They are mostly herbivorous eating buds, fruits, and seeds. The House Finch was originally a western U.S. bird. Apparently, because of an illegal bird trade event, House Finches were discovered in eastern U.S. in New York in 1941. The population of eastern birds expanded in the 1960s and spread into the Midwest and on westward until the 1990s when it again joined the original western populations. Photographed in an Arbovitae tree beside a house in Boise, Idaho with a 60 mm lens, F-11, 1:5 ratio, tripod, and fill flash on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="697" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg98461866226601..jpg"> height="29"/>height="28"/> tooltip="E041. Great Blue Heron and Frog">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg154180252201..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0411. Immature Great Blue Heron (Image from 500 mm lens, F-5.6, 1/30 sec, tripod, and electronic release on Velvia 50 film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg154180252801..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="8. GREAT BLUE HERON -- Threatening morning clouds began breaking up allowing a stream of sunlight to spotlight this large bird standing below a small waterfall in Kathryn Albertson Park in Boise, Idaho. These birds nest in large colonies called heronries. The nests, usually more than one per tree, are in tall trees sometimes more than 100 ft. above the ground. The 400mm telephoto at F-8 on a tripod was used for this image on Ektachrome 100S film. ">Open Image width="599" height="476"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg154180252401..jpg"> height="29"/>height="33"/> tooltip="10. SANDHILL CRANE -- Bright, midday sunlight gave a clear view of this crane lurking in the green shrubs along Bear Valley Creek in the Boise National Forest of Idaho. Human activities have drained and filled wetlands, and that has reduced nesting populations in the U.S. The densest Rocky Mountain population occurs at Gray's Lake National Wildlife Refuge in southern Idaho. The 400mm telephoto at F-5.6 recorded this image on Fujichrome 100 film. ">Open Image width="596" height="477"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg154180252501..jpg"> height="29"/>height="34"/> tooltip="12. CANADA GOOSE FAMILY -- These geese were swimming in the late sunny afternoon on a farm pond in Lancaster County, Nebraska. An estimated 4-5 million nonmigratory goose population has evolved an adaptation to human civilization year-round. Because of overpopulation, this wonder of nature has become a pest, an aberration of the DNA of a wild species, and a polluter of land and water. The 400mm telephoto at F-8 captured this image on Fujichrome 100 film.">Open Image width="693" height="483"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg154180252601..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E001-2. Flock of Snow Geese (Image from 400 mm lens, F-8, and 1/500 sec on Fuji 100 film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg1541802521701..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E000. Snow Goose">Open Image width="607" height="483"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg154180252701..jpg"> height="29"/>height="33"/> tooltip="E002-2. Sleeping Snow Goose (Image from 400 mm lens, F-8, 1/500 sec, polarized filter, and tripod on Fuji 100 film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg1541802521801..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E003-2. Resting Egret (Image from 400 mm lens, F-5.6, tripod, and electronic release on Velvia 100 film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg1541802521901..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E004-2. Flying Pelican at Sunset (Image from 300 mm lens, F-5.6, and tripod on Provia 100F film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg1541802522001..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E005-2. Swimming Pelican in Afterglow (Image from 300 mm lens, F-5.6, and tripod on Provia 100F film) ">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg1541802521601..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E006-2. Osprey Tending Their Nest (Image from 700 mm lens, F-5.6, tripod, and electronic release on Provia 400X film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg1541802522101..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E007-2. Robin on Sycamore Branch (Image from 500 mm lens, F-4, 1/30 sec, tripod, and electronic release on Velvia 50 film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg1541802522201..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E040. Black-capped Chickadee">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg154180252101..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="7. YELLOW-RUMPED WARBLER -- This migrant was photographed in the wild at Burchard Lake State Recreational Area in southeast Nebraska. The male warbler has a yellow rump, yellow sides, yellow crown, and usually a yellow throat. The variable song is a slow, trilling warble that may rise or fall at the end. The 400mm telephoto at F-11 and fill flash were used for this image on Fujichrome 100 film. ">Open Image width="597" height="476"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg154180252301..jpg"> height="29"/>height="33"/> tooltip="9. GREAT BLUE HERON -- Late afternoon, bright, hot summer sun found this tall panting bird standing on a log at the edge of a farm pond in Lancaster County, Nebraska. Herons watch for fish and frogs, their primary food, but they also feed on small mammals, reptiles, and occasionally birds. The 400mm telephoto at F-8 captured this image on Fujichrome 100 film. ">Open Image width="490" height="709"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg614324172301.jpg">Open Image width="29" height="42"/> tooltip="10-11. GREAT BLUE HERON (immature) -- Great Blue Herons are in the herons and bitterns family Ardeidae. Note that this immature, non-breeding adult lacks the ornate plumes and has an all black crown on its head. Photographed on a cool, calm morning on a farm pond in Lancaster County, Nebraska with a 400 mm lens, F-5.6, cable release, and tripod on Provia F-100 film.">Open Image width="479" height="709"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg614324172401.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="10-15(Va). SANDHILL CRANE -- Cranes are in the cranes family Gruidae. This tall (about 4 ft.) mostly gray bird often has rusty iron stains on its plumage probably from the wetlands water they frequent. Photographed near Bear Valley Creek, Idaho with a 400 mm lens at F-8 on Ectachrome 100S film.">Open Image width="471" height="709"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg614324172601.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="10-38. UPLAND SANDPIPPER -- Key features are a pigeon-like, small head, large black eyes, long neck, longer tail compared to other sandpipers, and V-shaped dark spots on white sides and breast. In flight, the wing's blackish primary feathers contrast with its mottled brown upper plumage, and when it alights to rest from flight, the wings are held over its back for a moment before folding them down in a resting position. Its voice call is known for the beautiful whistled trills and mournful wind-like sounds. They range in parts of Alaska, western Canada, and most of the northern half of the U.S. in open grasslands, prairies, and hayfields habitat. Photographed beside a county road near the Niobrara Valley Preserve of the Nature Conservancy in Nebraska with a 400 mm lens at F-8 on Provia F-100 film.">Open Image width="474" height="709"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg614324172701.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="20-04. RED-TAILED HAWK -- A closeup photo (controlled conditions) of the same hawk in the horizontal format photo. Note the detail of the hooked bill, the nostril openings, and the raised crown feathers in a threat response. It is the most common hawk ranging throughout most of North America and into Mexico. They feed primarily on rodents. Photographed with a 60 mm lens, F-8, 1:7 ratio, and fill flash on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="479" height="709"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg614324172801.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="20-33. LONG-EARED OWL -- Note how a Long-eared Owl can shrink its body together and fluff the feathers out to look short and fat (compare with previous photo #20-32.). Photographed in the same wooded area as previous photo with a 400 mm lens, F-11, and fill flash at 20 ft. on Provia 100F film.">Open Image width="479" height="709"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg614324172901.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="20-35. SHORT-EARED OWL -- Note the hazard and sad tragedy of an owl that flies low over ground in search of prey. This Short-eared Owl was undoubtedly literally hooked and wrapped around the barbed wire when it hit the fence close to its body and left wing. It is a day-flying owl usually at dawn and dusk. It is more yellow in color and has longer wings than the Long-eared Owl that has pretty much the same body size. They range throughout North America and southern half of South America. Photographed north of Rock Springs, Wyoming by a highway rest stop area with a 60 mm lens, F-8 at 5 ft. on Velvia 50 film. ">Open Image width="479" height="709"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg6143241721001.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="10-84. EASTERN BLUEBIRD AT NATURAL TREE HOLE -- Note the rust-colored chestnut throat, sides of neck, underside, and deep blue upper side of the male Eastern Bluebird. The Western Bluebird is similar in color except it has a blue throat. Photographed with a 400 mm lens, F-8, tripod, and fill flash in a blind on Provia 100F film.">Open Image width="479" height="709"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg6143241721401.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="10-85. EASTERN BLUEBIRD FEEDING NESTLINGS -- Photo of a male Eastern Bluebird feeding an earthworm to a nestling in an imitation, aspen-like, bark PVC birdhouse. The Eastern Bluebirds' diet is mostly insects and berry fruits, but sometimes they eat earthworms (see a grasshopper in the bill of #10-71 in horizontal section). Photographed with a 400 mm lens, extension tube, F-11, tripod, and fill flash in a blind on Provia 100F film. ">Open Image width="479" height="709"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg6143241721501.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="10-86. NORTHWESTERN CROW -- It is very similar to the widespread American Crow (also called Common Crow), but slightly smaller with a blueish-black upper side to help distinguish it from the American Crow. It is in the jays, crows, and magpies family Corvidae with about 100 species world-wide except Antarctica, southern South America, New Zealand, and a few oceanic islands. It is considered to be a rare species. It is restricted in range to a narrow coastal strip from Alaska to Washington State and apparently the American Crow does not occur here. It digs for clams pries open barnacles, chases down crabs, and catches fish in tidal pools at low tide for food to eat. Photographed on the shore of Birch Bay near Blaine,Washington with a 400 mm lens, F-8, 1/500 sec, tripod, and electronic release on Provia 400X film.">Open Image width="479" height="709"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg6143241721601.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="R1-6. Yodelling Sandhill Cranes in Idaho">Open Image width="478" height="708"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg625243707101.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="E0412. Sandhill Crane in Meadow (Image from 400 mm lens, F-8, 1/500 sec, and tripod on Provia 100F film)">Open Image width="470" height="708"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg625243707301.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="E0413. Sandhill Crane in Blue Flowers (Image from 400 mm lens, F-8, 1/500 sec, and tripod on Ectachrome 100S film) ">Open Image width="453" height="708"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg625243707401.jpg">Open Image width="27" height="42"/> tooltip="R1-32a. Bluebird">Open Image width="478" height="708"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg625243707201.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="44-1d. ZEBRA SWALLOWTAIL -- Butterflies are animals in the phylum Arthropoda (means jointed legs), class Insecta (have 6 legs), and order Lepidoptera (means scaled wings). There are about 700 species of butterflies and over 10,000 species of moths, also classified as lepidopterans, in North America (there are about 17,500 butterfly species and about 160,000 moth species on Earth!). Butterflies are classified into 2 superfamilies: Papilionoidea (scudders) and Hesperioidea (skippers). The papilionoid butterflies are not powerful fliers as they flap their wings bobbing up/down like a kite and scudding suddenly forward in flight. The word scudder describes butterfly flight, but it also honors Samuel H. Scudder, a world-renown authority on butterflies. The hesperioid butterflies are powerful fliers with a thick, well-muscled thorax providing faster flight than most butterflies. A key characteristic of skippers is the abruptly bent clubs (swollen ends) of their antennae. Butterflies have mostly straight and some slightly curved clubs at the ends of their antennae. The Zebra Swallowtail (2 to 4½ in. wingspan) is in the swallowtails family Papilionidae, subfamily Papilioninae with 27 species in North America. The common name swallowtail comes from the similarity of tails on its hindwings to tails of swallow birds. Its scientific name is Eurytides marcellus in the kite swallowtails Leptocircini tribe and there is only this one species (marcellus) native to North America (there are about 150 other species on Earth). Another tribe of swallowtail butterflies are in the fluted swallowtail Papilionini tribe with 21 species in North America (over 200 other species occur on Earth). The term "fluted" describes the hind margins of the hindwings that are bent downward in males, unlike other swallowtail and kite swallowtail butterflies in the Papilioninae subfamily. A 3rd tribe Troidini in this subfamily is described in photo #44-1a. The Zebra Swallowtail's range is in the eastern half of the U.S. in semi-wooded lowlands habitat with moist areas. Adults sip flower nectar and mud (water and minerals). Host plants for adults to lay eggs singly, and for their larval caterpillars to live under leaves and eat leaves are the Annonaceae custard-apple family of small trees/ large shrubs of Pawpaws native to eastern North America. For a thorough comprehensive study of butterflies, read James A. Scott's book: The Butterflies of North America, 1986. Photographed in the Rulo Bluffs Preserve in southeastern Nebraska with a 60 mm lens, F-8, 1:4 ratio, and fill flash on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-1674751034401..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="44-1a. ZEBRA SWALLOWTAIL (uns) -- This is a photo of the underside (uns) of wings of Eurytides marcellus. This is the same individual as in the previous photo #44-1, and it is the larger summer form (June emergent flight) with larger wings and longer hindwing tails. The spring form (April emergent flight) is smaller with shorter wings and tails. Some pupae of each of these flights hibernate until the next year (see diapause and flight explanation in photo #44-3). Two tribes in the subfamily Papilioninae are described in photo #44-1. The 3rd tribe in this subfamily is Troidini with only 3 Aristolochia swallowtail species in North America and 136 other species on Earth, including tropical birdwing butterflies (see a birdwing butterfly in Gallery, Arthropods, horizontal section, #EO840 of this website). Their larvae feed on Aristolochia pipevine plants in the Aristolochiaceae Birthwort family and they are poisonous (aristolochic acid toxin) to vertebrates (especially reptiles), thus the Troidini tribe of butterflies are also poisonous to other predators. Consequently, natural selection (refer to Natural History Section comments on the nature of natural selection of this website for explanations of how the process of natural selection works) has produced other species of nonpoisonous butterflies that mimic these poisonous swallowtails as an adaptation for protection against being eaten by predators. [Researchers have found that larval caterpillars in this tribe eat so many Aristolochia serpentaria (Virginia Snakeroot is a small forb/herb plant) that natural selection has evolved this plant with flowers just above ground and underground! Furthermore, most of the bulk of this plant is in its roots and the leaves have become tough and nutrient poor as an adaptation to discourage larvae from eating them.] Photographed with a 60 mm lens, F-22, 1:4 ratio, and fill flash on Velvia 50 film. ">Open Image width="496" height="481"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-1674751034501..jpg"> height="29"/>height="41"/> tooltip="44-2. WESTERN TIGER SWALLOWTAIL -- Papilio rutulus (2-3 in. wingspan) is sipping nectar from milkweed flowers in Katheryn Albertson Park in Boise, Idaho. It is in the Papilionini tribe of subfamily Papilioninae. Entomologists also classify the tiger swallowtail into several subspecies (ssp.). For example, ssp. P. rutulus and ssp. P. glaucus. The range of P. rutulus in the western 1/3 of U.S. overlaps at its eastern boundary in the Black Hills with the much greater range of P. glaucus from southeastern Alaska, most of Canada and the eastern 2/3 of U.S. At this boundary there are intergrade individuals with features in between rutulus and glaucus. Experimental results show viable fertile offspring from matings of female rutulus and male glaucus, thus supporting a ssp. designation. However, matings of male rutulus x female glaucus resulted in aborted pupae, supporting a separate species designation. Nevertheless, ssp. rutulus is usually classified as a distinct species because of additional evidence showing its sexual mating structures are different from ssp. glaucus. Evidently, natural selection may be in the process of evolving ssp. into species in these highly variable populations of tiger swallowtails. As in other animal species, exact unambiguous distinction between species of butterflies is not always clear. Adults sip flower nectar (about 20 percent sugar), carrion juice and mud (water and minerals). Host plants are many trees and shrubs for adults to lay eggs singly on leaves, and their larvae to eat leaves and rest on a silk mat on top of a leaf. They have one to several flights from May to November depending on location in their range and their pupae hibernate (see diapause and flight explanation in photo #44-3). Photographed with a 400 mm lens, F-22, tripod at 13 ft., and fill flash on Ectachrome 100S film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-1674751034601..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="44-3. ANISE SWALLOWTAIL -- Papilio zelicaon (2-3 in. wingspan) is resting on a path overlooking the Snake river in Hells Canyon, Idaho in May. It's in the Papilionini tribe of subfamily Papilioninae. Note the black basal-costal margin (near thorax) on the upperside of forewings compared to mostly yellow on the tiger swallowtail's forewings. Its black abdomen has one yellow stripe on each side, and the orange/yellow eyespots have black-central pupils on the upperside of hindwings. There is also a black form subspecies, P. zelicaon nitra, with a row of yellow dots instead of a stripe on each side of the abdomen. They occur in 5-20 percent of adults in their range from southern Alberta to central Colorado and east to the western Dakotas. Their larval caterpillars feed on foliage of plants in Parsley and Citrus families of dill, celery, carrot, parsnips, and fruit trees and shrubs. There is one emergent flight May to early July at higher elevations and there are several flights elsewhere until August. An emergent flight or flight refers to the life cycle stages producing the flying adult, or may refer to only the flying adults. All Papilioninae butterflies hibernate as pupae, thus first of the season emergent flights are pupae to flying adults. Other later flights would be the entire life cycle stages of eggs to larvae to pupae to flying adults in a one or two month time period. Adult butterflies have short lives of only about a week. Butterfly life cycle stages undergo diapause in winter (hibernation) and rarely in summer (aestivation). In diapause there is no feeding, no growth and no development of the adult stage in metamorphosis. In overwinter hibernating diapause, all life cycle stages thicken their blood from 80 to 55 percent water with glycerol. Water in cells is converted to a gelatin-like colloid to prevent tissue damage from freezing free water. However, a late in the season diapausing adult butterfly may fly and feed to build up body fat before hibernating, but they do not produce eggs or mate. Shortening daylight length (photoperiod) programs diapause to begin in late summer and fall. A long period of winter cold and then a longer daylight photoperiod ends diapause in spring or early summer. (Body/wing structure, color and behavioral adaptations of all butterflies on Earth are mostly the results of the natural selection process. Natural selection is a gradual non-random accumulation of random inherited traits from many generations of breeding populations of butterflies. Of course, this does not mean that natural selection proceeds with foresight or purpose toward a goal to produce these adaptations, nor is it destined toward specific endpoints. But rather, it is a materialistic, mechanistic process of non-random accumulation of random inherited traits producing butterflies adapted to local environments. Remarkably, this process is sufficient to account for the immense diversity of butterfly species and all other species of life on Earth.) Photographed with an 85 mm lens, extension tube, F-8, and fill flash on Provia 100F film. ">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-1674751034701..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="44-4. AMERICAN SWALLOWTAIL (BLACK SWALLOWTAIL) -- Papilio polyxenes (2¾ to 3½ in. wingspan) is a beautiful mostly black swallowtail butterfly. Note the flame-like, colorful orange/yellow ovals surrounded with deep black, the vibrant blue fused into spreading gray speckling that extends into deep black with orange/yellow half ovals, and the yellow crescents accenting the outer margin to complete the color bands on the underside of its hindwings. The lower inner margin color band terminates in a tapered dark orange oval with a central black eyespot. This flaring array of color moves the imagination to see a similarity of peacock tail feathers with the color bands of this butterfly's wings. Butterfly wings, of course, are not made of feathers, but instead are covered with delicate tiny scales. The stunning brilliant color and iridescence of butterfly wings arise from both pigments in scales and the way light interacts with the nanostructure of those scales. Melanin pigments (formed by oxidation of tyrosin and melanase enzyme chemical reactions) reflect black and brown colors, but iridescence, red, yellow, green and blue are produced as light interacts with photonic crystals (made of chitin) and reflects from these nanostructures in the scales on butterfly wings and abdomens. Two rows of bright yellow spots on the side of the dark-black abdomen complement the beautiful wing colors. (The uppermost "3rd top row" of yellow spots in this photo is actually the 1st row of spots on the other side of the abdomen.) In the eastern 2/3 of the U.S. and southeastern Canada, the black form subspecies (ssp.) asterias is the most common of several ssp. occurring in its range that extends south into Costa Rica, Columbia and Peru. P. polyxenes appears to hybridize with P. zelicaon, and there is even a yellow form ssp. coloro in desert regions of southern California, western Arizona and southwestern Utah. Another common name for this butterfly is Parsnip Swallowtail because the larval caterpillars feed on plants in the parsley family Umbelliferae: parsnips, parsley, celery, caraway, dill and carrot. Some of the chemical oils produced in this family of plants that attract the caterpillars are methyl chavicol, anisic aldehyde, anisic acid and carvone. Umbelliferae plants also produce certain chemicals (psoralins) that repel or kill insects, but Black Swallowtail larvae are resistant to psoralins because their digestive tract can quickly detoxify them. The P. polyxenes asterias larva has pretty green, yellow-green, bluish-green or whitish-green colors covering their segmented body, with black lines between segments, and yellow spots (sometimes orange or red) in the notches of black transverse bands on the top and sides of the segments. The lines and bands are variable in width and sometimes so wide that they fuse to produce a mostly black larva. Most swallowtail larvae lack spines, but they do have an osmeterium--a yellow/orange, Y-shaped, fleshy forked tongue-like, foul-smelling, retractable structure that pops out of the top of the thorax behind the head when this caterpillar is disturbed. It functions to help repel ants and other predators (in addition to foul smell, apparently also because the osmeterium looks like a snake's tongue). It is in the Papilionini tribe of subfamily Papilioninae and its pupae hibernate ( see diapause and flight explanation in photo # 44-3). They have one emergent flight of pupae to flying adults from late May to mid-August at higher elevations, and several flights elsewhere of eggs to larvae to pupae to flying adults after the beginning of the season pupae to flying adults. Photographed in Lancaster County, Nebraska with a Zeiss 50 mm lens, snap ring, and fill flash on Fuji 100 film.">Open Image width="698" height="468"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-1674751034801..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="44-5. AMERICAN APOLLO (ups) -- Parnassius clodius is in the Parnassiinae subfamily of the swallowtails family Papilionidae. The parnassians subfamily Parnassiinae has about 50 species on Earth and only 3 species in North America and is also called the tailless swallowtail subfamily. Note that the American Apollo does not have red spots on the upperside (ups) of its forewings. Also note a key characteristic of all black antennae for this species (however, note a few white spots on the antenna of this individual). An unusual feature found in parnassians, but not seen in other butterflies, are two hooks at the forewing base beside the thorax (tan-colored, pointed hooks can be seen in this photo). These hooks are used by emerging adults to help tear through the cocoon of the pupation stage. Parnassians are butterflies of the mountains and are adapted to cold, windy climates. At high altitudes they tend to be a darker color to absorb more solar radiation, they tend to rest with wings flat open on rocky surfaces to absorb solar heat, and they have hairy bodies to help retain heat. Parnassians are medium-sized butterflies with translucent white wings with red spots, and both adults and larvae have tough, leathery bodies that are poisonous to most vertebrate animals. Their eggs hibernate (see diapause and flight explanation in photo # 44-3). There is only one emergent flight from late June to mid-July of eggs to larvae to pupae to flying adults. Their larvae feed on the herbaceous host plants of Bleeding Hearts (Dicentra) in the Fumariaceae Fumitory family. These plants have poisonous liquid alkaloids that most likely cause P. clodius larvae, pupae, and adults to be poisonous. The American Apollo ranges in the western mountains of British Columbia, mountains of the Pacific Northwest, mountains into most of California, and mountains into Utah. Photographed near the Middle Fork Salmon River in Idaho with a 60 mm lens, F-11/8, 1:4 ratio, and fill flash on Velvia 50 film. ">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-1674751034901..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="44-6. SMALL APOLLO -- Parnassius phoebus differs from other Parnassians in having white antennae with black rings along its shaft and black clubs at the end of its antennae. The genus name Parnassius is derived from the Parnassus Mountains in Greece. Small Apollo (1½ to 2½ in. wingspan) has two all dark black spots on the leading edge of its forewings and usually has some red spots on the forewings too. However, wing markings vary among some populations, and even some individual butterflies of a population have very few red spots. Their eggs hibernate (see diapause and flight explanation in photo # 44-3). There is only one emergent flight of eggs to larvae to pupae to flying adults of this mountain butterfly mostly in June at low altitude and July to mid-August at high altitude. Unlike most butterflies flying higher above the ground with an open and closed wing beat pattern, Apollos' usually fly close to the ground with a wing beat pattern that is more like that of moths. Their flight appears deceptively weak, but it is strong and well adapted to their windy alpine habitats. Adults often sip nectar of yellow Compositae and Sedum flowers and become covered with pollen. Larvae feed on succulent herb host plants in the Crassulaceae Stone Crop family. P. phoebus adults have tough, leathery bodies that resist bites and birds refuse to eat them, but chipmunks will eat them. They range west of the Great Plains down into northern New Mexico, but not in Arizona, and only part of northeastern Nevada, down most of eastern mountain ranges of California, the mountains of the Pacific Northwest, the far western Canadian mountains, the Canadian Northwest Territories, and most of Alaska. Photographed in the Snowy Range Mountains of Wyoming with a 105 mm lens, extension tube, F-11/8, and fill flash on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="698" height="466"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-16747510341001..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="44-7. ORANGE SULFUR (ALFALFA BUTTERFLY) -- This butterfly is in the whites and sulfurs Pieridae family with about 1,100 species on Earth and 58 species in North America. Colias eurytheme (1½ to 2 1/3 in. wingspan) is also classified in the sulfurs subfamily Coliadinae. The common name comes from the color of yellow sulfur crystals and the alfalfa host plant that their larval caterpillars frequently feed on. The genus name Colias in its scientific name comes from the name of a promontory (Colia) on the west coast of Attica in Greece by the temple of Aphrodite. Key characteristics of sulfurs are that they are mostly yellow or orange in color, they have steady powerful-flapping flight in pretty much a straight line, and they come to rest with their wings closed and bask by turning sideways to the sun, exposing the underside of their wings and side of their body to absorb solar radiation for warmth. Note the silver spot surrounded by 2 reddish rings adjacent to a smaller upper satellite spot near the middle of underside of hindwing. Colias sulfurs have a pronounced sexual dimorphism ( male and female look different) in coloration of the upperside of their wings. Male Alfalfa Butterflies always have orange wings, and orange areas reflect ultraviolet light from nanostructures in the scales on its wings while the wide black band on the border of wings absorbs ultraviolet. Females are usually orange on the upperside of their wings, have a narrower black band with light spots, and they do not reflect or absorb ultraviolet; but a white female form (alba) is rather common. Ultraviolet reflection of the male is due to a gene on the X chromosome, but why reflection occurs only in males is unknown, since females have a X chromosome too (unlike humans, male butterflies have XX chromosome pairs and females have XY chromosome pairs). Male eurytheme butterflies recognize females visually and are attracted to the color of the underside of her hindwings, and are repelled by wing ultraviolet reflection of males. Courtship is simple. He approaches a female and if she is flying, she lands. He flies near and buffets her with his wings; then he lands and they mate. [More explanation about mating behavior of this species and a sympatric species (two species occupying the same range) is presented in the writeup of the next photo #44-7a.] Female Alfalfa Butterflies only a few days old (they may mate within a few hours or even in less than an hour after emergence from pupae) start laying an average of 700 eggs over their lifetime of about 30 days. Even though many species of female butterflies lay 100's of eggs, on average only 2 eggs from each female survive to become adults. Over time, any more than 2 adults and the population would explode. Any less than 2 adults and the species would most likely become extinct. Her "hatched" emerged young larvae from the eggs and larvae of a sympatric species, named Common Sulfur or Clouded Sulfur, Colias philodice, eat holes in the top of leaves, then later eat leaves down from the tip; and finally, when older, eat the lower half of leaves. They feed on over 50 species of host plants in the Leguminosae family: some examples are alfalfa, clovers, vetches, milk vetches, garden pea, lupines, wild indigo, licorice, and common deerweeds. If the weather is too cold or hot, the older larvae move to the base of a plant. Their 3rd and 4th stage larvae hibernate (see diapause and flight explanation in photo # 44-3). There are many emergent flights of eggs to larvae to pupae to flying adults from spring to fall after the late larval stages to pupae to flying adults that occurs at the beginning of spring. Photographed in Lancaster County, Nebraska on Rigid Goldenrod flowers with a 60 mm lens, F-11/8, 1:3 ratio, and fill flash on Velvia 50 film. (See another photo of a crab spider preparing to pounce on an Alfalfa Butterfly on a native Tall Thistle purple flower in the Gallery, Arthropods, vertical section, #E025-1 of this website.) ">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-16747510341101..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="44-7a. ORANGE SULFUR (ALFALFA BUTTERFLY, female white form alba) -- This is a photo of the rather common white female Orange Sulfur. White females of Colias species are produced by a dominant gene affecting females only. Nitrogen metabolism that normally goes into production of orange pigment is diverted to produce faster development, more fat, and larger eggs in form alba. The process of natural selection has produced white females with a reproductive edge over their orange sisters in passing genes on to future generations (refer to Natural History Section comments on the nature of natural selection of this website, and butterfly photo's #44-2 and 44-3 for explanations of how the process of natural selection works in light of occurrence of white Orange Sulfur butterflies and the mating behavior, reproduction and genetic recombination of chromosomes in the following sympatric species). Colias eurytheme females are receptive to mating if she detects the scent of a eurytheme male's pheromones (aphrodisiac sex perfume) and she must also see ultraviolet reflecting from his wings; she is not attracted to the male's wing color. Another sulfur species, named Common Sulfur or Clouded Sulfur, Colias philodice, has a range throughout most of the U.S. and southern Canada that coincides (sympatric species) with the range of the Alfalfa Butterfly. Common Sulfur males do not reflect ultraviolet from their wings, but their wings do have pheromone scent-wafting scales that a philodice female requires to mate with him. With these reproductive isolating mechanisms in place, why do these two species often mate with each other (male eurythemes x female philodice) and produce viable, fertile hybrid offspring? The explanation is because young females of both species less than an hour old (males mate with these very young females) cannot distinguish between the species very well. Nevertheless, the two species remain distinct because of a genetic situation known as chromosomal polymorphism. Genes in females that control her choice of male pheromones, ultraviolet reflection, orange or yellow color, width of black wing border, size, and rate of development are all together in a "super gene" on the X chromosome. Genes in eurytheme x philodice female hybrids cause them to prefer to mate with a male of their father's species, and thus the X chromosomes stay in the correct species and not in the other species like chromosome pairings do in random matings. Thus, because nearly all differences between eurytheme and philodice species result from genes on the X chromosome, hybrids sort out into the eurythemes or philodice species according to the source of their X chromosomes. Photographed on a blanket flower at an I-29 Rest Area north of Omaha, Nebraska with a 60 mm lens, F-11, 1:3 ratio, and fill flash on Velvia 50 film. ">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-16747510341201..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="44-8. CLOUDLESS SULFUR (mating) -- These Phoebis sennae sulfur butterflies have completed their courtship and are now mating. The male on the right is yellow. The female on the left is greenish-yellow (field guides tell us females are usually orangish-yellow in winter and a whitish form alba occurs in summer/fall). Note that these two Cloudless Sulfurs were photographed in October in southeastern Nebraska. The female in this photo appears to be the winter form rosa because she has more underside hindwing spots (5 reddish spots near the base of its hindwing) than the female in the next photo #44-8a photographed in August. Courtship begins when a patrolling male finds a flying female and he flutters over her as she lands. He hovers over her touching his wings or legs on her wings. She usually opens and closes her wings briefly, then he lands and they mate. After mating, they continue their connection for some time and the male usually flies away with the female dangling beneath him. Adults sip flower nectar and mud (water and minerals). They are among the few butterflies that visit tube flowers such as trumpet vine, four-o'clocks and petunias. Their larval caterpillars feed on forb/herb and shrub host plants in Leguminosea families of Partridge Pea, Sicklepod, Rattle-box and Butterfly Bush. Cloudless Sulfurs reproduce all year in the southern and southeastern U.S., especially in southern Texas and Florida. There are sporadic migrations north and northwest, but not into the Pacific Northwest, and as far north as Maine and Montana. They migrate each year in spring and breed wherever suitable host plants are found, but they cannot survive northern winters and this prompts the return south each fall from August to November. This butterfly breeds continuously in the tropics and is a permanent resident in Bermuda. Photographed in the Rulo Bluffs Preserve in southeastern Nebraska with a 60 mm lens, F-11, 1:4 ratio, and fill flash on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-16747510341301..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="44-8a. CLOUDLESS SULFUR (female) -- This appears to be the summer form female Phoebis sennae sipping nectar from a purple flower on a native Tall Thistle near Lincoln, Nebraska in August. Note that this butterfly has fewer reddish spots near the base of the underside of its hindwing compared to the winter form rosa female in previous photo #44-8. Cloudless Sulfurs (2 to 2¾ in. wingspan) have a strong migratory behavior that is described in the previous photo writeup. Also note that another common name for the Common Sulfur species is Clouded Sulfur referred to in the previous #44-7a writeup. Photographed with a 60 mm lens, F-11/8, 1:3 ratio, and fill flash on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-16747510341401..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="44-9. DAINTY SULFUR -- Nathalis iole (3/4 to 1¼ in.wingspan) is easily recognized by its small size, and it is the smallest species of the Pieridae family in North America. Their primary range is the southern U.S., and farther south to the Bahamas and Colombia, South America. They have many emergent flights from March to December in their southern range and adults overwinter only in the South (see diapause and flight explanation in photo #44-3). These small butterflies migrate by gradually spreading northward in a continuous range throughout most of the U.S. during the spring/summer and become common northward by late summer, even into central Manitoba, Canada. Their larval caterpillars feed in open areas and roadside ditches on small herb host plants in the Compositae family such as Cosmos, Marigold, Begger-tick, Sneezeweed and Greenthread. Note in this photo that the proboscis is in focus. Adult Dainty Sulfur courtship time is short, lasting only about 5 to 14 seconds. A flying patrolling male approaches a flying or resting female, if flying, she lands. The male sometimes hovers briefly above her before landing, or he just lands beside her. She lowers her abdomen from between her wings and the male bends his abdomen below his wings (usually with his wings closed) to join both hind ends of their abdomens in copulation. Females often briefly show a rejection behavior by spreading her wings and raising her abdomen, or by fluttering her wings. This rejection behavior causes the persistent male to spread his wings and move the forewings forward to expose his scent patch at the base of his hindwing and waft out more pheromone (aphrodisiac sex perfume) to help encourage her mating receptiveness. Then he tries to mate again. It's interesting to note that the male's scent patch at the base of the upperside of its hindwing is orange, but fades to yellow after his death. Unlike most butterflies, their scent patch color and pheromone glands are in the wing structure, not in the scales on the wing. In fact, some adult males emerge from pupae without scales on this patch. Photographed near south-central Nebraska by the Kansas/Nebraska state line in a flower garden on the Leon and Cindy Marquart farm near Byron, Nebraska with a 60 mm lens, F-11/8, 1:1 ratio, and fill flash on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-16747510341501..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="44-10. WESTERN ORANGE TIP (female) -- Anthocharis sara is in the whites subfamily Pierinae (21 species in North America) in the Pieridae family of lepidopterans. Males have a black line border around a darker orange forewing tip. Host plants are in the herb mustard Cruciferae family: Mustard, Cabbage and Tansy Mustard; Rock, Winter and Blister Cresses; Shepherd's Purse, Wallflower, Twist-flower, Toothwort and Lacepod. Western Orange Tips range throughout the western 1/3 of the U.S. and north into most of British Columbia, Canada. The pupae hibernate (see diapause and flight explanation in photo # 44-3). There is only one emergent flight of pupae to flying adults beginning in March in the Arizona desert and June in the north. Photographed near the eastern entrance of Yellowstone National Park with a 60 mm lens at F-11 on Provia 100F film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-16747510341601..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="44-10a. WESTERN ORANGE TIP (uns) -- This is the underside (uns) of the wings of Anthocharis sara (1 to 1½ in. wingspan). The genus name of its scientific name is derived from Greek anthos that means flowers and kharis meaning grace. This may mean butterflies with the grace of flowers or lending grace to the flowers they visit. Note the rounded wings with marbled yellowish-black patches and the yellow wing veins. One of the earliest butterflies in spring. Photographed at the east entrance of Yellowstone National Park with a 60 mm lens, F-8, 1:1.3 ratio, and fill flash on Provia 100F film. ">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-16747510341701..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="44-11. PINE WHITE -- Neophasia menapia (1¾ to 2¼ in. wingspan) is a medium-sized, mostly white butterfly with a mostly black border at the front edge of its forewings (darker black in males and lighter in females, and more light black around veins of hindwings in females). The whites and sulfurs Pieridae family of butterflies produce most of their pigment colors from their uric acid wastes. Adults sip flower nectar. Host plants are the Pinaceae family of trees: Ponderosa Pine (their larvae's favorite), Douglas Fir, Spruce and Hemlock. Adults lay eggs that are shaped like tiny bluish-green flower vases near the top of host conifer trees. Young larvae hatch from these eggs and feed together in clusters circling the needle leaf, and this behavior may help stop sticky resin flow. Older larvae feed alone and prefer older needles. Larvae are green (mostly from chlorophyll) with a purplish tinge, have a white lateral and subdorsal band, and two short tails on their rear ends. Larvae pupate on bark and twigs, or they lower themselves by a silk thread to vegetation near the ground to pupate. The male pupa is yellowish-green and the female pupa is dark brown, and both pupae have yellowish-white bands. Their eggs hibernate (see diapause and flight explanation in photo # 44-3). There is only one emergent flight of eggs to larvae to pupae to flying adults during late July to early September. Photographed near McCall, Idaho with an 85 mm lens, F-16, and fill flash on Provia 100F film.">Open Image width="698" height="468"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-16747510341801..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="44-12. CABBAGE BUTTERFLY (female) - Pieris rapae (1.3 to 1.8 in. wingspan) is identified by the yellowish/greenish-gray under hindwings and black apical spots on the top outside edge of the upperside of both fore and hindwings. Males' have one and females' have two black spots near the middle of their forewings. Cabbage Butterflies are agricultural/garden pests from northern Africa and Eurasia that were introduced into North America around 1860 in Quebec, Canada. By 1881 the eastern half of the U.S. was populated with this butterfly pest and it now ranges into southern Mexico. It is now established in all of the U.S., most of Canada, Hawaii, Bermuda, Australia, New Zealand and even in Iceland. Host plants for adults to lay eggs and their larvae to eat are mostly in the Mustard family of cabbages and brussels sprouts and some in the Caper, Tropaeolum and Mignonette families. Almost all of these host plants contain mustard oils that female adults detect for laying eggs and larval caterpillars need to feed on to make them distasteful to birds. Researchers have found that larvae adjust their feeding to provide a constant rate of nitrogen uptake. Plants with low (1.5 percent) nitrogen content are eaten faster than plants with high (5 percent) nitrogen content. The two different diet feeding rates causes larval growth/development rates to be about the same. This butterfly has one of the earliest emergent flights of pupae to flying adults in early spring during March. Their pupae hibernate (see diapause and flight explanation in photo # 44-3). There are many continual broods and emergent flights of eggs to larvae to pupae to flying adults until fall in October. Adults sip flower nectar and search for purple, blue and yellow colors that are preferred over white, red and green. Photographed sipping nectar from a purple flower of native Tall Thistle in Lancaster County, Nebraska with a 60 mm lens, F-11/8, 1:4 ratio, and fill flash on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="698" height="468"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-16747510341901..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="44-13. MONARCH (ups) -- Danaus plexippus (3½ to 4 in. wingspan) is a butterfly familiar to most people. Its upperside (ups) wings are a beautiful, striking, rich red-orange with black veins and contrasting white-spotted dark black borders. They range throughout all of the U.S., Mexico and up into most of Canada. Monarchs are noted for their long annual migrations. During August through October, these butterflies migrate by the millions in a southerly direction and often stop at the same resting spots each year. Some even fly as far south as Hawaii (10-20 percent of this population is an albino form) and eastern Australia. The Monarch population east of the Rocky Mountains overwinter in central Mexico, and the western population overwinters in various sites in central coastal California. These overwintering, hibernating Monarchs mate in late winter just before their annual northward migrations begin (see diapause and flight explanation in photo # 44-3). In early spring, a northward migration begins with relays of females laying eggs along the way. Several generations of egg to a larval caterpillar, to a green, barrel-shaped, transparent chrysalis studded with gold dots with the colors of the developing butterfly inside, to emerging butterfly, and to flying adult occurs each year. The growth and development from eggs to larvae to pupae/chrysalis to new adult butterflies (known as flights) takes about 4 weeks. The old adults die off and the young adults who have never flown the route before continue traveling north. The overwintering Mexican population travels north to the Great Plains, eastern U.S. and Canada. The overwintering California population travels to the Great Basin, Pacific Northwest and western Canada. The length of these journeys (up to 2,000 miles from Canada to Mexico and back again) far exceeds the lifetime of any one butterfly. How Monarchs are capable of navigating and returning to the same overwinter location with several generations of butterflies that have never traveled the route before is still a mystery. Monarchs are in the brush-footed butterflies Nymphalidae family with about 4,500 small to large species on Earth, but only 185 medium-sized species are in North America. Another name for Monarch is Milkweed Butterfly classified in the subfamily Danainae with about 200 species widespread in tropical regions on Earth, and only 4 species in North America. The brush-footed name refers to the pair of very small, "hair-covered" forelegs that look somewhat like small brushes. In females the ends of the forelegs have peculiar spiny knobs. Adult butterflies walk on only the 4 hind legs and these legs detect sugar for feeding, but in the whites and sulfurs Pieridae family of butterflies, the first 4 of their 6 walking legs detect sugar. This Monarch is sipping nectar from the purple flower of a native Tall Thistle in Lancaster County, Nebraska and was photographed with a 60 mm lens, F-5.6, tripod, 1/250 sec, and no flash on Velvia 50 film. ">Open Image width="698" height="463"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-16747510342001..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="44-13a. MONARCH (uns) -- The underside (uns) of Monarch wings are a beautiful brownish orange with black veins and contrasting white-spotted black borders. Note that this individual has just freshly emerged from a transparent chrysalis. (A butterfly pupa is often called a chrysalis because of its gold spots named "chrysos", the Greek word for gold.) Also note in this photo, 3 of the 4 well-developed hind legs used for walking and detecting sugar, and a notch at the end of its abdomen. Larval caterpillars feed mostly on herb host plants in the milkweed Asclepiadaceae family and also some plants in the dogbane Apocynaceae family. Some milkweed (Asclepias) host plant species have white latex fluid containing great amounts of cardiac glycosides that are heart poisons consisting of calactin, calotropin and calotoxin. Calotropin is reported to be more toxic than strychnine! There are species of milkweeds that are not poisonous. The white latex fluid flows freely from a broken stem or leaf of a milkweed plant. (It's interesting to note that this chrysalis is attached on a Toothed Spurge plant. Toothed Spurge is not listed as a host plant for Monarchs in my field guides; but because butterfly larvae tend to wander far away from where they fed and grew up to pupate, most likely this accounts for the chrysalis on this plant.) A Monarch butterfly is poisonous when its larval caterpillar eats a poisonous plant, otherwise it is not poisonous when the larva eats nonpoisonous plants only. After birds eat poisonous Monarchs they vomit; and then they refuse to eat not only Monarchs, but also nonpoisonous Viceroy butterflies that mimic the coloration pattern of Monarchs. Even when migrating to and from overwintering sites, some non-poisonous Monarchs are eaten by birds; but generally many more are not eaten because some are poisonous. Monarch's wings and outer abdomen store more poison than the rest of the butterfly's body; and consequently to complement this feature, natural selection adapted their body to be very tough and rubbery (refer to how natural selection works in writeup of butterfly photo #44-3). This adaptation allows a predator to pinch a Monarch hard enough to taste offensive poison and then release it to fly away unharmed. In spite of these protective adaptations to prevent being eaten, Black-headed Grosbeaks are immune to the poison and they eat the whole Monarch. Monarchs are eaten by the millions in Mexican overwintering sites. Even orioles and jays have learned to eat only the muscles inside the thorax and contents inside the abdomen, discarding the poisonous outer body and wings. Researchers have found that overwintering butterflies are safer in large colonies than in small ones because predators feed on the edge of the colony, and there is much more perimeter edge around a small colony than a large colony. Photographed in Lancaster County, Nebraska with a 60 mm lens, F-8, 1:3 ratio, 125/60 sec., tripod, and no flash on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="698" height="461"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-16747510342101..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="44-14. YELLOWSTONE RINGLET -- Coenonympha haydenii is in the satyrs butterfly subfamily Satyrinae of the Nymphalidae family of lepidopterans. The Satyrinae subfamily has about 2,000 species of satyrs in every habitat on Earth, and in North America 43 of these species are found from the subtropics to Arctic tundra. Most of these butterflies have a peculiar "hop" flight pattern. Their hopping flight appears to be caused by infrequent slow wing beats and lack of a frequent strong wing-flap flight of many butterflies. The downstroke lifts them up and then there is a downdrift during the upstroke, producing the "hop". A key characteristic of adults are swollen veins containing hearing organs on the base of the forewings. Their larvae eat mostly grasses or sedges and this makes all stages of their life cycle vulnerable to being eaten by predators on the ground and in grass. Natural selection most likely tended to evolve adaptations of cryptically colored green or tan pupae; and adults tend to be camouflaged in shades of brown to yellow to orange, rather than brilliant colors of many butterflies. The hearing organs in their wings may be another evolved adaptation to help detect predators. Other key characteristics of Yellowstone Ringlets are the eyespots of white and black surrounded with distinctive orange rings on the underside of the hindwings. The larvae hibernate (see diapause and flight explanation in photo #44-3) and they have only one emergent flight of larvae to pupae to flying adults from late June to early August. The adults sip flower nectar. They have a rather small patch range in southwestern Montana and pretty much all of northwestern Wyoming. Photographed near the Madison River in Montana with a 60 mm lens, F-11, 1:1.6 ratio, and fill flash on Provia 100F film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-16747510345301..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="44-15. RINGLET (on yellow flower) - Coenonympha tullia is highly variable geographically with its orange-brown color darkest in the eastern regions of northern U.S. and southeastern Canada, and pale cream in California and Alaska. There are about 14 subspecies of this butterfly. This individual is probably subspecies ochracea. Habitats are in deserts, prairies, woodlands, salt marshes and Arctic tundra. Host plants are grasses and in Europe larvae eat sedges. Larvae hibernate in thick mats of dead grass (see diapause and flight explanation in photo # 44-3). They have only one emergent flight of larvae to pupae to flying adults in the Rocky Mountains and northward. There are several flights from May to early September in Oregon, Washington, southern Idaho and parts of lowland Nevada. (See a darker colored individual Ringlet butterfly, #E0834 in the Gallery, Arthropods, horizontal section of this website. Photographed sipping nectar from a Daisy Fleabane flower in the Pine Ridge region of northwestern Nebraska.) Photographed in the Frank Church-River of No Return Wilderness in Idaho with a 60 mm lens, F-11, 1:1.3 ratio, and fill flash on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-16747510342201..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="44-16. WOOD NYMPH (Goggle Eye) -- Cercyonis pegala (2 to 2¾ in. wingspan) is in the subfamily Satyrinae of the Nymphalidae family of lepidopterans. Its common name is misleading because this species is not associated with woodlands. Its habitat is grassy areas and like the majority of butterfly species in this subfamily, the larvae feed on grasses. The adults sip flower nectar, tree sap, dung and carrion. Note, as in this individual, the lower forewing eyespot is usually larger than the upper eyespot (These eyespots are usually about the same size in males of some Wood Nymph subspecies. For example, #E0836 in the Gallery, Arthropods horizontal section of this website shows a male Wood Nymph with nearly equal sized forewing eyespots and 6 prominent smaller eyespots on its hindwing.). Also note the eyespot has a white spot and bluish-violet center that is bordered in dark black and surrounded with a wide light and a narrow darker circle. Usually a large yellow patch more prominent on the upperside surrounds both forewing eyespots. The much smaller eyespots on the underside of hindwings vary in number from 6 to none per wing (The small eyespots showing in this photo indicate this individual is probably a female.). There range is most of the U.S., except the far southwest, and pretty much the southern half of Canada. Photographed near the Platte River by Grand Island, Nebraska with a 60 mm lens and no flash on Fuji 100 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-16747510342301..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="44-17. BROWN ARCTIC (uns) - Oeneis chryxus's underside (uns) hindwings have heavy dark brown, wide striations and a darker, wide median band is sometimes edged with white near the middle of its hindwings. There are several subspecies in its range from southeastern Alaska throughout most of Canada, down mountain ranges of the western U.S., and areas around the Great Lakes. Their habitats are open woodlands, alpine bunchgrasses and tundra, and dry, sandy or rocky areas. Grasses are the host plants larvae feed on. Brown Arctic butterflies are biennial insects. The larval caterpillars hibernate in their 1st or 2nd stage of growth during the first winter, and in the 3rd, 4th or 5th stage during the second winter. There is one emergent flight from May to June in their southern range and late summer flights from July to August in Arctic/alpine zones. Photographed in the Frank Church-River of No Return Wilderness in Idaho with a 60 mm lens F-11/8, 1:4 ratio, and fill flash on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-16747510342401..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="44-18. HACKBERRY BUTTERFLY -- Asterocampa celtis (1.5-2.2 in. wingspan) is in the emperors butterfly subfamily Apaturinae of the Nymphalidae family of lepidopterans. Their habitat is always associated with hackberry trees, and thus their common name. Their species name, celtis, in their scientific name is the genus name in the scientific names of several hackberry tree species. Their larvae prefer to eat young hackberry leaves and they rest on the underside of leaves. The adults feed on tree sap, fruit, mud, dung, carrion and flower nectar. After the first emergent flight of hibernating larvae to pupae to flying adults, there are many flights from March to November in the South, but only two flights from June to September in their northern range. They range in almost all of the eastern 2/3 of the U.S. and down into southern Mexico. Adults are swift, erratic fliers and glide easily. Males perch on high objects and sunlit tree trunks waiting for females; and they have a habit of darting out at other butterflies, animals and people, often landing on one's head! Photographed at Indian Cave State Park in southeastern Nebraska with a 60 mm lens, F-11/8, 1:2 ratio, and fill flash on Velvia 50 film. ">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-16747510342501..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="44-19. ORANGE-TIP ADMIRAL -- Limenitis lorquini (2-3 in. wingspan) is in the lepidopteran family Nymphalidae, subfamily Nymphalinae containing spiny brush-footed butterflies, and tribe Nymphalini containing the varied brush-footed leaf butterflies. This subfamily of butterflies occurs from the tropics to the tundra all over the Earth with about 1,100 species and 129 of these range across North America. This tribe of butterflies is found pretty much all over the Earth and about 54 species are found in North America. L. lorquini ranges in the Pacific Northwest, most of California, part of northern Nevada and southwestern British Columbia in Canada. The process of natural selection (refer to how natural selection works in writeup of butterfly photo #44-3) most likely evolved the Nymphalini tribe to be masters of deceit: larvae of genus Limenitis resemble bird droppings and most half-grown larvae build a rolled-leaf hibernaculum to hibernate within; pupae are well-camouflaged with colors of light gray, dark olive-gray, streaks and fine marks of brown, mottled dark green and dark gray, and dull mottled purplish and blackish patches; and adults have many different brilliant colors of white, red, orange, green, blue, blue/black and brown that show in striking patterns on the upperside of their wings when flying as well as when spread open at rest (see explanation of brilliant color and iridescence of butterfly wings in photo #44-4 American Swallowtail). But this conspicuous brilliance is hidden when at rest with wings closed to expose the underside of wings that in many species have cryptic dull colors and patterns that camouflage with the background, and their wing shapes and colors resemble a dead leaf. In fact, this tribe of larvae and pupae have evolved adaptations of such a diverse array of color, patterns and shapes that there is more variety among the Nymphalini tribe than all other butterflies and skippers combined! Photographed near the upper reach of the Middle Fork Salmon River in Idaho with a 60 mm lens, F-8, and fill flash on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-16747510342601..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="44-19a. ORANGE-TIP ADMIRAL (uns) -- Note the cryptic color patterns on the underside (uns) of right wings and the upperside margins of left wings showing the distinctive orange tip on forewing. Note in focus proboscis sipping mud (water and minerals). Half-grown larvae hibernate. There are several emergent flights after their initial larvae to pupae to flying adults from April to October in California. There is probably only one flight from June to mid-August in Washington and Montana (see diapause and flight explanation in photo #44-3). Photographed near the North Fork Payette River in Idaho with a 105 mm lens, extension tube, F-8, and fill flash on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-16747510342701..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="44-20. BUCKEYE -- Precis coenia (1½ to1 1/3 in. wingspan) is in the varied brush-footed leaf butterflies tribe Nymphalini classification explained in the natural history of previous photo #44-19 Orange-tip Admiral. P. coenia is identified by key characteristics: a large upper forewing eyespot ringed with whitish around the outer front and body side, then brownish on the back side of eyespot, and by a red-orange crescent in the front upper hindwing eyespot that is generally larger than all other eyespots. The under hindwing varies from tan to red (form rosa). The red may be caused by cold temperatures or short photoperiod because its flight is mostly in late fall in the eastern U.S. The Buckeye's primary range is mostly in the far southern U.S., into southern Mexico, far western California, Cuba, Bahamas and Bermuda. They migrate north throughout most of the U.S. and even into southeastern parts of Canada. Their larvae eat leaves, buds and fruits of host plants mostly in the Plantain family Plantaginaceae and Figwort family Scrophulariaceae. They also eat plants in the Vervain and Acanthus families. Larvae and possibly adults overwinter, and there are many flights from Florida to Texas and southern California (see diapause and flight explanation in photo #44-3). Buckeyes migrate northward from June to October and sometimes become quite common in late summer. Adults often glide between wing flaps, and they sip flower nectar and mud (water and minerals). They bask in the sun with wings spread open displaying their eyespots, but in hot weather they rest with wings closed. Researchers have found that displaying their eyespots will scare away inexperienced predators such as young birds. Photographed by the Republican River at the Kansas/Nebraska border with a 60 mm lens, F-11, and fill flash on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-16747510342801..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="44-21. RED ADMIRAL -- Vanessa atalanta (1½ to 2½ in. wingspan) is in the varied brush-footed leaf butterflies Nymphalini tribe, a classification explained in the previous photo #44-19 Orange-tip Admiral. The Red Admiral's wing color pattern is unique with the upperside mostly dark purplish-black, two bright orange bands across forewings, large and small bright white spots on the front of forewings, narrow white crescents at the margin edge of all wings, lighter orange bands with small blue spots on upperside hindwings, and underside hindwings have much lighter marbled colors marked with wavy lines and narrow bands of intricate patterns that are shade-dusted into obscure eyesposts. When a Red Admiral rests with wings closed and forewings tucked down half way behind hindwings, it becomes well-camouflaged into the background and is difficult to see. These butterflies feed on tree sap, fruit, dung and flower nectar. Adults lay pale green eggs singly on top of leaves of host plants in the Nettle family Urticaceae and the Mulberry family Moraceae. Young larvae hatch from eggs and produce silk used to bind young leaves or parts of a leaf into a nest where they live and eat. An older larva bites into part of the leaf stem causing the leaf to droop, then it silks the leaf edges together into a leaf tube to live inside and eats the leaf starting at the bottom end, and then eventually eating the leaf up the stem. The larvae metamorphose into adults inside the pupae and have several (4 or more) emergent flights in the southern U.S. There are two emergent flight life cycles northward from late June to late August. Adults overwinter by hibernating in cracks and crevasses in rocks, timbers and buildings until May of the next year (see diapause and flight explanation in photo # 44-3). Several mass migrations occur in the U.S., Canada and many in Europe. They range everywhere from the subtropics to the edge of Arctic tundra and south to Guatemala. Red Admirals are also native to North Africa, Eurasia, are established on the Canary and Azores Islands, New Zealand, Hawaii, Bermuda and stray to Iceland. Photographed in Lancaster County, Nebraska with a 60 mm lens, F-8, 1:3 ratio, and fill flash on Velvia 50 film. ">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-16747510342901..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="44-22. PAINTED LADY (ups) -- Vanessa cardui [2 to 2½ in. across upperside (ups) of open spread forewings wingspan] is both cosmopolitan and ubiquitous. It is the most widely distributed of all butterflies on Earth. Painted Lady butterflies occur on all continents (except Antarctica) and large islands, straying to Iceland, Bermuda and Fiji. Their habitat is everywhere and mostly in open or disturbed areas. They are varied brush-footed leaf butterflies in the tribe Nymphalini, a classification explained in photo #44-19 Orange-tip Admiral. In North America the shorter photoperiod of September to October causes both male and female reproductive systems to stop functioning in preparation for hibernation (see diapause and flight explanation in photo # 44-3). Adults hibernate only in mild winters in northern areas, and in cold winters they overwinter in hibernation only in the southern U.S. and deserts of Mexico. Adults fly north, northwest and northeast in the spring through July, and in late summer and fall fly back south to their overwintering areas. Adult Painted Ladies sip flower nectar and sometimes aphid honeydew. Their larval caterpillars make silk nests on top of leaves and eat the leaves of herb host plants in a wide variety of plant families such as: thistles, knapweeds, burdocks, sunflowers, asters, borages, mallows, waterleafs, peas, nettles, vervains, mints, potatoes, morning-glories, mustards, plantains, parsleys, gourds and buckthorns. They have many emergent flights (eggs to larvae to pupae to flying adults) in southern regions. Photographed on a non-native forb Damesrocket in Lancaster County, Nebraska with a 60 mm lens, F-8, 1:3 ratio, and fill flash on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-16747510343001..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="44-22a. PAINTED LADY (uns) -- This photo shows the underside (uns) of the wings. Note a row of 4 (or 5) marginal eyespots on the underside of its hindwing and a cryptic pattern of camouflage. Note characteristic light (brighter on uppersides) orange, black and white spot pattern on the underside of its forewing. Photographed on a non-native forb Damesrocket in Lancaster County, Nebraska with a 60 mm lens, F-8, 1:4 ratio, and fill flash on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-16747510343101..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="44-23. COMMA ANGLEWING (fall form) -- Polygonia comma has a curved silver mark similar to a comma that is swollen on both ends in the middle of the underside of its hindwings (see the comma in photo #E003 in Gallery, Arthropods horizontal section). Note the upperside of hindwings have a thin light line on the bottom edge of wings that outlines a blackish-brown border surrounding pale-rust spots, and this border is wider than the upperside forewing border that barely touches very light-rust spots. They are varied brush-footed leaf butterflies in the tribe Nymphalini, a classification explained in photo #44-19 Orange-tip Admiral. P. comma (adult fall form) hibernates (see diapause and flight explanation in photo # 44-3). The short photoperiod of shorter sunlight days in the fall stimulates hormone production that causes the Polygonia genus of butterflies to go into a state of diapause that causes female ovaries to stop producing eggs. Different hormones come into play with longer photoperiods of longer spring days that cause eggs to mature and also cause the production of female pheromones (aphrodisiac sex fragrance) to stimulate mating. There are two emergent flights of eggs to larvae to pupae to flying adults in the northern U.S. from late June to early August, and the hibernating adult fall forms overwinter from late August to the next year's May. They range in almost all of the eastern half of the U.S. and in far southeastern Canada. Photographed in Lancaster County, Nebraska with a 60 mm lens, F-11, 1:2 ratio, and fill flash on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-16747510343201..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="44-23a. COMMA ANGLEWING (summer form) -- In the non-hibernating P. comma summer form (umbrosa) butterfly, note the outer half of upperside hindwings is darker than the hibernating fall form butterfly in the previous photo #44-23. Adults feed on tree sap, fruit, mud, carrion, dung and rarely sip flower nectar. Their larval caterpillars feed on host plant trees in the Elm family, vines in the Mulberry family and herbs in the Nettle family. Photographed in the Rulo Bluffs Preserve in southeastern Nebraska with a 60 mm lens 1:3 ratio, F-8, and fill flash on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-16747510343301..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="44-24. GREEN COMMA (uns) -- Polygonia faunus is also called Green Anglewing (1½ to 2½ in. wingspan). They are varied brush-footed leaf butterflies in the tribe Nymphalini, a classification explained in photo #44-19 Orange-tip Admiral. There are several subspecies ranging from northeastern U.S. and south down the Appalachian Mountains range to Georgia, in northwestern U.S., south into California, south of central Wyoming into New Mexico, throughout most of Canada and much of southeastern Alaska. This is a butterfly of boreal forests and is frequently seen along roadsides. Green Commas are characterized by very ragged edges of their wings and by their variegated under hindwings that often have green submarginal spots. This photo shows the underside (uns) of the wings of what appears to be subspecies hylas sipping mud (water and minerals). Adults sip flower nectar, mud, carrion and dung. They lay green eggs singly on the top and bottom of host plant leaves and twigs. Their larval caterpillars feed on leaves, do not make nests and rest on the underside of a leaf. Their host plants are aspen, alder, birch and willow trees, and blueberry shrubs. Adults hibernate (see diapause and flight explanation in photo #44-3). There is only one emergent flight of eggs to larvae to pupae to flying adults from late July to August in northern regions and adult butterflies overwinter in hibernation until May to June of the next year. Southern regions have two flights. Photographed in the Boise National Forest of Idaho with a 60 mm lens, F-16, 1:3 ratio, and fill flash on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-16747510343401..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="44-25. MOURNING CLOAK (ups) -- Nymphalis antiopa (2½ to 3 1/3 in. wingspan) has other common names: Grand Surprise, White Petticoat and in Great Britain it's called Camberwell Beauty. The Mourning Cloak name most likely came from early German and Scandinavian immigrants in North America. Its common name translates from German "trauermantel", Swedish "sorgmantel" and Norwegian "sorgekapen". Note the unique, wide, straw-yellow marginal bands, the rows of submarginal blue spots, and the uniformly dark rusty-brown to black on most of the upperside (ups) of the fore and hindwings. There are 4 species in the genus Nymphalis that occur in North America. The other 3 are called tortoise shells because the underside of their wings have color patterns similar to reptile tortoises' shells. N. antiopa has 2 subspecies. Subspecies hyperboreal is smaller in size with darker borders, has larger blue spots and ranges from Alaska to the Northwest Territory. Subspecies antiopa ranges south throughout most of Canada and the U.S., down through Central America to Venezuela, throughout Eurasia and strays into England. Adults lay clusters of whitish eggs in one layer circling a host plant twig near its tip. When larvae "hatch" from eggs, they feed on host plant leaves and make no nests. Their host plants are mostly trees. Tree families include Salicaceae willows, cottonwoods and aspens, Betulaceae birches and alders, Ulmaceae elms and hackberrys, Aceraceae maples, Oleaceae White Ash, Tiliaceae Basswood, Moraceae mulberry trees and vines, Rosaceae mountain ash trees, blackberry and rose shrubs. Adults hibernate, but may be flying any month of the year, even on warm winter days (see diapause and flight explanation in photo # 44-3). There is only one emergent flight of eggs to larvae to pupae to flying adults usually in late July in the far north and high mountains, and then adults overwinter (hibernate) until June of the next year. In southern regions there are two to three summer emergent flights. Research in Europe found that after emergence in June to July, adults go into aestivation (summer hibernation) until fall to become active again feeding and growing fat, and hibernate again in winter. This life cycle pattern also probably occurs in Canada too. Adults sip flower nectar, tree sap, fruit and mud (water and minerals). Photographed in late fall in Lancaster County, Nebraska with a 60 mm lens, F-16/11, 1:3.5 ratio, and fill flash on Velvia 50 film. ">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-16747510343501..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="44-25a. MOURNING CLOAK (uns) -- This is a photo of the underside (uns) of the left wings of a Mourning Cloak butterfly. Note that 4 large legs are in focus. Brush-footed butterflies are also called four-footed butterflies because only the 4 rear legs of this insect's 6 legs are well developed for perching and walking. The much reduced pair of forelegs are "hairy" and resemble brushes. The small forelegs are held close to the thorax, making it difficult to see against the body of this butterfly. N. antiopa is a varied brush-footed leaf butterflies in the tribe Nymphalini, a classification explained in photo #44-19 Orange-tip Admiral. Photographed in late fall on Burning Bush in Lancaster County, Nebraska with a 60 mm lens, F-16/11, 1:1.3 ratio, and fill flash on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="497" height="481"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-16747510343601..jpg"> height="29"/>height="41"/> tooltip="44-26. RIDGE CHECKERSPOT (on aster flower) - Euphydryas editha has more rounded forewings than most other checkerspot species in the western region of the U.S. Checkerspots are in the checkerspots and crescents Melitaeini tribe of the Nymphalinae subfamily in the Nymphalidae family of butterflies with 38 species in North America. Their habitats are in mountains, open woodlands and alpine tundra ranging mostly in the northwestern region of the U.S., some areas of lower southwestern Canada and south through most of California. Host plants for adults to lay eggs and their larvae to eat are in the Figwort, Valerian, Plantain and Honeysuckle families. E. editha tends to be locally adapted to only one or a few species of plants depending on each locality. For example, populations of editha butterflies preferring Owl-Clover (Orthocarpus) plants may be large in years of good weather for these plants, but populations will be small in a year after a drought. Another disadvantage of feeding on one or few species occurs when larval caterpillars eat all the leaves, sometimes the flowers and even the whole plant. Then they starve trying to find another plant. Photographed near the Bear Valley Creek watershed in Elk Meadows of the Frank Church-River of No Return Wilderness in Idaho with an 85 mm lens, extension tube, F-11, and fill flash on Ectachrome 100VS film. ">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-16747510343701..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="44-26a. RIDGE CHECKERSPOT (on American Bistort) - Euphydryas editha (1 to 2 in. wingspan) is also called Edith's Checkerspot. Note the more rounded forewings compared to most other checkerspot species in the western region of the U.S. They have a beautiful, sharp-contrasting, brick-red, yellow and black pattern on their wings. Females may be much larger than males. Their larval caterpillars, pupae and adult butterflies are somewhat poisonous to vertebrates. Their 3rd and 4th stage larvae hibernate (see diapause and flight explanation in photo #44-3). There is only one emergent flight of larvae to pupae to flying adults from March to April on the California coast, June in the Great Basin, and late June to early August above timberline. Photographed near the Bear Valley Creek watershed in Elk Meadows of the Frank Church-River of No Return Wilderness in Idaho with a 60 mm lens, F-11, and fill flash on Provia 100F film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-16747510343801..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="44-27. WESTERN CHECKERSPOT (uns) - Euphydryas chalcedona is similar to Edith's Checkerspot, but it is usually larger, has a more pointed forewing and often has white subdorsal dots (seen in this photo) on its abdomen. This species has been divided into 3 species, and because of enormous geographical variation, it has been divided into 38 named subspecies. Much of this micro-classification has been poorly defined and many of these subspecies could probably be lumped together as one rather than split into many. Host plants for adults to lay eggs and their larvae to eat are mostly in the Figwort family and in the Valarian, Broomrape, Plantain, Honeysuckly, Borage, Mint, Rose and Logania families of plants. E. chalcedona larval caterpillars have geographical variations in color that are independent of adult butterfly wing color. Alpine and lowland 3rd and 4th stage larvae can hibernate in litter or under rocks for several years during drought conditions (see diapause and flight explanation in photo #44-3). They range from eastern Alaska, southeast through the western region of Canada, and into a western ¼ of the U.S. Usually there is only one emergent flight of larvae to pupae to flying adults from April to October depending on elevation. Photographed in the Settler's Grove of Ancient Cedars in Idaho with a 60 mm lens, F-16, 1:3 ratio, and fill flash on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-16747510343901..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="44-28. CREAMY CHECKERSPOT (on yellow flower) - Chlosyne palla is divided into 3 subspecies: palla, from southern California to Oregon to eastern Washington and in southern Idaho; clydon, higher elevations in California, the eastern slope of Cascade Mountains in Oregon and east to the Rockies; and flavula, in Utah and western Colorado. Their habitats are coastal chaparral, open woodlands, moist wooded areas and clearings. Host plants are herb and shrubs in the Compositae family. Their half-grown larvae hibernate (see diapause and flight explanation in photo #44-3). There is only one emergent flight of larvae to pupae to flying adults in late April to mid-June in lowland California and Washington, May/June in Oregon and British Columbia, and mid-June to mid-July inland and in mountains. They range in far southeastern Canada and much of the Northwest, most of California, and south to Utah and Colorado in the U.S. Photographed near the North Fork Payette River in Idaho with a 105 mm lens, extension tube, F-8, and fill flash on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="698" height="465"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-16747510344001..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="44-28a. CREAMY CHECKERSPOT (uns) - Note the larger in size and number of yellowish, creamy-colored spots on the underside (uns) of the hindwing of Creamy Checkerspot in foreground compared to the Western Checkerspot in background of this photo. These adults are sipping mud (water and minerals). They also sip flower nectar. Photographed in the Settler's Grove of Ancient Cedars in Idaho with a 60 mm lens, F-11/8, 1:3 ratio, and fill flash on Velvia 50 film. ">Open Image width="698" height="466"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-16747510344101..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="44-29. STREAMSIDE CHECKERSPOT (on yellow flowers of Rigid Goldenrod) - A key characteristic to identify the Streamside Checkerspot, Chlosyne nyeteis, is on the underside (uns) of its hindwings. There is a large half-moon white spot with a white dot in front in cell M3 of the uns-hindwing margin, and an all rust-brown area with a black dot in front in cell M2. In this photo, cell M3 can be located by counting the black-lined, rust-brown bands starting at the front of the upperside (ups) of left hindwing. Cell M3 is in the 4th band and cell M2 is in the 3rd band. Note that M3 on the ups has a yellowish crescent spot with a white dot in front above the large half-moon white spot with a white dot in front on the uns, and M2 on the ups has a black dot in the same location as the uns. Another identifying characteristic is the dark ups-forewing tip. There are 3 subspecies: drusius, ups darker in the Rockies; reversa, ups lightest in southern Manitoba; and nycteis is elsewhere. They range in most of the eastern ½ of the U.S. and much of the southern Rocky Mountains, and the far southeastern ½ of Canada. Their habitats are streamsides, moist meadows and open moist deciduous woods. Host plants for adults to lay eggs and their larvae to eat are in the Compositae family of aster, daisy, goldenrod and sunflower. Their 3rd stage larvae hibernate in a special reddish-brown, skin-like material (see diapause and flight explanation is photo # 44-3). There is only one emergent flight of larvae to pupae to flying adults in June to mid-July in the Rocky Mountains and northward, and two flights in southern ranges. Photographed in Lancaster County, Nebraska with a 60 mm lens, F-11/8, 1:3 ratio, and fill flash on Velvia 50 film. (See the similar looking ups of the Great Plains Checkerspot, Chlosyne gorgone, in the Gallery, Arthropods horizontal section, #E001 of this website. C. gorgone's identifying characteristic is a median band of white arrowhead spots in the submarginal area on the uns of their hindwings. Photographed in the Wildcat Creek Prairie on dewy Big Bluestem grass south of Virginia, Nebraska with a 60 mm lens, F-8, 1:7 ratio, tripod, cable release, 1/60 sec., and no flash in early morning sun.) ">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-16747510344201..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="44-30. FIELD CRESCENT (on yellow flowers) - Phyciodes campestris tends to be blackish on the upperside of its wings. Crescent butterflies are in the checkerspots and crescents Melitaeini tribe of the Nymphalinae subfamily in the Nymphalidae family of butterflies, and there are 38 tribe species in North America. Field Crescents' habitats are in the plains to mountains and taiga ranging from the eastern 1/3 of Alaska, and the western 1/3 of Canada and the U.S. Host plants for adults to lay eggs and their larvae to eat are in the Compositae family of asters. Their half-grown larvae hibernate (see diapause and flight explanation in photo # 44-3). They have two to three emergent flights of eggs to larvae to pupae to flying adults after the first flight in spring of larvae to pupae to flying adults from April to October depending on location and elevation in their range. Photographed in the Platte River Wilderness in the Snowy Range Mountains of Wyoming with a 105 mm lens, extension tubes, F-11, and fill flash on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-16747510344301..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="44-31. WILLOW-BOG FRITILLARY (mating) - Boloria frigga is identified by a dark/violet/gray outer area and a whitish patch with dark spot on the underside of its hindwing near the forewing. The forewing is rather pointed. They are in the fritillaries Argynnini tribe of the Nymphalinae subfamily in the Nymphalidae family in the order Lepidoptera of insect butterflies. There are 30 species in this tribe in North America that range from the Arctic to Mexico, and some subspecies occur in Scandinavia and Siberia. They are the temperate-zone counterparts of the longwings Heliconniini tribe of tropical butterflies. About 7 tropical species of longwings occasionally enter the southern U.S. (see a tropical zebra longwing butterfly in Gallery, Arthropods, horizontal section, #EO839 of this website). B. frigga's habitats are shrub/willow bogs and Arctic tundra ranging from Alaska to nearly all of Canada and regions north of Canada, a small area by the Great Lakes, and even smaller areas in northwestern and southeastern Wyoming and north-central Colorado. Host plants for adults to lay eggs and larvae to eat are mostly in the shrub Salicaceae family of willows and some in the Betulaceae family of birches and alders. Their larvae hibernate (see diapause and flight explanation in photo # 44-3). There is only one emergent flight of larvae to pupae to flying adults mostly from June to July. Photographed in the Platte River Wilderness in the Snowy Range Mountains of Wyoming with a 60 mm lens, F-11/8, 1:3 ratio, and fill flash on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="496" height="481"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-16747510344401..jpg"> height="29"/>height="41"/> tooltip="44-32. APHRODITE FRITILLARY (on daisy flower) - Speyeria aphrodite is split into several subspecies in its range throughout most of the southern ½ of Canada, and much of the northern ½ of the U.S. It is in the Argynnini fritillaries tribe classification explained in the previous photo # 44-31. Their habitats are tall prairies, brush lands and open woods. Host plants for adults to lay eggs and their larvae to eat are in the herb Violacea family of wild violets. Their unfed 1st stage larvae hibernate (see diapause and flight explanation in photo #44-3). They have only one emergent flight of larvae to pupae to flying adults from late June to mid-September depending on elevation and location in their range. Photographed in Northwest Peak in Montana with a 60 mm lens and fill flash on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-16747510344501..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="44-33. GREAT SPANGLED FRITILLARY (ups) - Speyeria cybele ( 2 ½ to 3 ½ in. wingspan) is split into several subspecies across its range in the northern 1/3 of the U.S. and the southern ½ of Canada. It is in the fritillaries Argynnini tribe classification explained in photo # 44-31. Their habitats are moist deciduous woods and moist meadows. Host plants for adults to lay eggs and their larvae to eat the leaves are in the herb Violaceae family of wild violets. Their unfed 1st stage larvae hibernate (see diapause and flight explanation in photo # 44-3). There is one emergent flight of larvae to pupae to flying adults in their western range mostly from July to August. Adults usually rest with their wings closed, but because of colder temperatures at higher elevations, mountain species often rest with wings open to gain warmth from the sun. Adults sip flower nectar and occasionally feed on dung. This is a photo of the upperside (ups) of this fritillary's open wings as it is resting on a thistle flower in a riparian area beside the upper reach of the Middle Fork Salmon River in Idaho.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-16747510344601..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="44-33a. GREAT SPANGLED FRITILLARY (uns) - A photo of the underside (uns) of the wings of an adult sipping nectar from a purple flower of a thistle. The dark brown basal 2/3 of the hindwing and the dark basal ½ of upperside wings (in previous photo) are from the same individual in photo # 44-33, indicating this is the Speyeria cybele leto subspecies. Photographed in the riparian area of the upper reach of the Middle Fork of the Salmon River with a 60 mm lens and fill flash on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-16747510344701..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="44-34. REGAL FRITILLARY (uns) - Speyeria idalia (3 to 3 ¾ in. wingspan) ranges in wet meadows and moist prairies habitats over the northeastern ½ of the U.S. It is in the fritillaries Argynnini tribe classification explained in photo #44-31. Host plants for adults to lay eggs and their larvae to eat the leaves are in the herb Violaceae family of wild violets. Adults are attracted to Butterfly Weed, Common Milkweed and Purple Cone Flower. Their unfed 1st stage larvae hibernate (see diapause and flight explanation in photo # 44-3). There is only one emergent flight of larvae to pupae to flying adults from June to early September. The underside (uns) of this butterfly's wings were photographed while it sipped nectar from the purple flower of native Tall Thistle in Lancaster County, Nebraska. Photographed with a 60 mm lens, F-8, 1:5 ratio, and fill flash on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-16747510344801..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="44-35. MORMON FRITILLARY (ups) - Speyeria mormonia is characterized by small size (2 to 2 ½ in. wingspan) and rounded forewings. It is in the fritillaries Argynnini tribe classification explained in photo # 44-31. There are several subspecies in its range from southeastern Alaska through the western 1/3 of Canada and much of the western 1/3 of the U.S. Host plants for adults to lay eggs and their larvae to eat the leaves are in the herb Violaceae family of wild violets. Their unfed 1st stage larvae hibernate (see diapause and flight explanation in photo #44-3). There is only one emergent flight of larvae to pupae to flying adults from July to August. Adults sip flower nectar and mud (water and minerals). The upperside (ups) of this butterfly's wings were photographed in the Frank Church-River of No Return Wilderness with a 60 mm lens, F-11, and fill flash on Provia 100F film.">Open Image width="698" height="464"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-16747510344901..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="44-36. LAVENDER FRITILLARY (uns) - Speyeria hydaspe (2 to 2 ½ in. wingspan) has dark, reddish-brown underside (uns) hindwings with a slight lavender tint on the lower ½ of wings that often extends between the row of yellowish-tan large spots into the submarginal band near the outer edge of the wings. The upperside of the fore and hindwings are a rich orange brown with a much darker color at the wing base near the butterfly's body. It is in the fritillaries Argynnini tribe classification explained in photo # 44-31. There are several subspecies across its range in moist woodland habitat of the southern ½ of British Columbia, much of the Pacific Northwest, much of Wyoming and south into California mountain ranges. Host plants for adults to lay eggs and their larvae to eat the leaves are in the herb Violaceae family of wild violets. Their unfed 1st stage larvae hibernate (see diapause and flight explanation in photo # 44-3). There is one emergent flight of larvae to pupae to flying adults from June to September. Photographed on a purple flower of a thistle in the riparian area of the upper reach of the Middle Fork Salmon River in Idaho with a 60 mm lens and fill flash on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="492" height="481"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-16747510345001..jpg"> height="29"/>height="41"/> tooltip="44-37. CORONIS FRITILLARY (ups) - The rust-orange upperside (ups) of this individual indicate it is a coronis subspecies of Speyeria coronis. There are several other subspecies across this fritillary's range that have ups of redder or a paler yellow-brown. They range throughout the chaparral, sagebrush and conifer woodland habitats in the northwest ¼ of the U.S. It is in the fritillaries Argynnini tribe classification explained in photo # 44-31. Host plants for adults to lay eggs and their larvae to eat the leaves are in the Violaceae family of wild violets. Their unfed 1st stage larvae hibernate (see diapause and flight explanation in photo # 44-3). There is only one emergent flight of larvae to pupae to flying adults from June to September. Photographed in the Snowy Range mountainous area of Wyoming with a 105 mm lens, extension tube, F-8, and fill flash about 2 ft. from butterfly on Velvia 50 film. ">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-16747510345101..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="44-38. GREEN FRITILLARY (ups) - Note that Speyeria edwardsii has a rather wide black prominent border on the edge of the upperside (ups) of it wings. Its common name comes from the green underside of hindwings. It ranges in chaparral, forest openings and prairie habitats in most of the east ½ of the northwest ¼ of the U.S. and extreme southern adjacent Canada. Host plants are in the Violaceae family of wild violets Viola nuttallii and V. adunca. Hibernation, classification and emergent flight are the same as explained in previous photo # 44-37 Coronis Fritillary. ">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-16747510345201..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="44-39. GRAY HAIRSTREAK (uns) - Strymon melinus has a gray color on the underside (uns) of its wings. Hairstreaks are in the little butterflies Lycaenidae family that includes coppers, blues, elfins and metalmarks for a total of 142 species in North America. A total of about 4,700 species in this family are distributed all over the Earth. Key characteristics of this family are a narrow face with indented eyes near the antennae of adults, adult male forelegs (somewhat smaller than their 4 hind legs) do not have leg tip claws, but adult female forelegs (nearly the same size as their 4 hind legs) do have leg tip claws. Hairstreaks are further classified into the Lycaeninae subfamily with 122 species in North America and about 3,200 species that occur all over the Earth. Further still, they are more specifically classified in the hairstreaks The clini tribe with 75 species in North America and about 2,000 species on Earth. They range throughout southern Canada and all of the U.S., and south through Central America to Venezuela. Adults usually rest with wings closed and turn sideways to the sun to absorb heat. Their larvae feed on hundreds of host plant species in over 20 families of plants. Their larvae rarely eat young leaves, but instead eat flowers and fruits. The pupae hibernate (see diapause and flight explanation in photo # 44-3). There are many emergent flights from spring to fall after the first flight beginning with pupae to flying adults and subsequent flights of eggs to larvae to pupae to flying adults. Photographed in Lancaster County, Nebraska with a 60 mm lens, 1:1.5 ratio, and fill flash on Provia 100F film. ">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-16747510345401..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="44-40. STRIPED HAIRSTREAK (uns) - Satyrium liparops (about 1 in. wingspan) is a very beautiful little butterfly with many white lines and bands on brownish colored undersides (uns) of its wings. The blue under hindwing spot is capped with orange. They are in the hairstreakTheclini tribe classification explained in photo #44-39. Many species have eyespots and hair-like tails on the hindwings that somewhat resemble eyes and antennae, and this might to be an adaptation to draw a predator's attention away from the real head of this butterfly. To divert more attention to the eyespots/tails on wings, adults usually rest with the hindwings closed and in motion by moving each wing alternately slightly forward and backward. This may cause a bird to peck at the wing instead of the body, leaving the bird with a small piece of wing and allowing the butterfly to fly away with its body unharmed. They range in most of southern Canada and most of the eastern 2/3rd of the U.S. Host plants are many small tree and shrub species in about 10 plant families. The larvae eat leaves, buds and fruits. The eggs hibernate (see diapause and flight explanation in photo # 44-3). There is one emergent flight of eggs to larvae to pupae to flying adults from May to August depending on altitude and location in range. Photographed in Lancaster County, Nebraska with a 60 mm lens, F-8, 1:2 ratio, and fill flash on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-16747510345501..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="44-41. BANDED HAIRSTREAK (uns) - Unlike the Striped Hairstreak, the underside (uns) of the hindwing of Satyrium calanus (.8 to 1.3 in. wingspan) does not have an orange cap on the blue spot. In the wing cell adjacent and just above the blue spot, the orange cap is usually the same area size or larger than the area of the black spot. They are in the hairstreak The clini tribe classification explained photo #44-39. There are four subspecies of this butterfly across its range in the eastern ½ of the U.S., the western ½ of Colorado, and the northern part of New Mexico. Their habitat is open deciduous woodland where the larvae feed on catkins and eat holes in leaves of trees and shrubs in the Fragaceae Beech family, Juglandaceae Walnut family, Aceraceae Maple family, Olecaceae Olive family, and Rosaceae Rose family. Their eggs hibernate (see diapause and flight explanation in photo # 44-3). Their is one emergent flight in April to June southward, and July to August in the north and high mountains. Adults sip nectar from yellow and white flowers. Photographed in Lancaster County, Nebraska on milkweed flowers with a 60 mm lens, F-16/11, 1:3 ratio, and fill flash on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-16747510345601..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="44-42. BLUE MISTLETOE HAIRSTREAK (uns) - Key characteristics of Callophrys spinetorum are steel-blue upperside of wings and reddish-brown underside (uns) of wings. They are in the hairstreak Theclini tribe classification explained in photo #44-39. Their habitat is in coniferous forests in most of the western 1/3 of the U.S., southern British Columbia, and into western Mexico. Host plants are in the mistletoe Viscaceae family of Dwarf Mistletoe that look like miniature juniper-like plants that are parasites on branches of the Pinaceae family of trees. Species of Dwarf Mistletoe, Arceuthobium, are parasitic on Ponderosa Pine, Douglas-fir and many other species in the Pinaceae family. The larvae eat all external parts of mistletoe and pupae hibernate (see diapause and flight explanation in photo # 44-3). There is only one emergent flight of pupae to flying adults in the north mostly in June, and several flights in southern regions from March to August. Photographed in the Platte River Wilderness near Douglas Creek in the Snowy Range Mountains of Wyoming with a 60 mm lens, F-11/8, 1:3 ratio, and fill flash on Velvia 50 film. ">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-16747510345701..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="44-43. CEDAR HAIRSTREAK (uns) - In Callophrys gryneus (.7 to 1.2 in. wingspan), the underside (uns) of its hindwing varies from green to brown. They are in the hairstreak Theclini tribe classification explained in photo #44-39. Cedar Hairstreaks' habitat is in dry or rocky open areas wherever juniper trees occur. There are about 9 subspecies across its range throughout most of the U.S. and southern British Columbia. Host plants for adults to lay eggs singly on new growth foliage tips and for larvae to feed on foliage tips are in the Cupressaceae Cypress family of trees, and this includes cypress, juniper and some cedar trees. Pupae hibernate (see diapause and flight explanation in photo # 44-3). There are two emergent flights of pupae to flying adults followed by eggs to larvae to pupae to flying adults from April to August in the north, and several flights from March to October in the south. Photographed in the Pine Bluffs Natural Area by the I-80 rest stop at the Wyoming/Nebraska border with a 105 mm lens, extension tubes, F-8, and fill flash on Velvia 50 film. ">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-16747510345801..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="44-43a. CEDAR HAIRSTREAK (up close) - This is the Callophrys gryneus gryneus subspecies that occurs from Texas eastward and is native in eastern Nebraska. Note the underside of hindwing is greenish-brown with post basal white bars and a white zigzag postmedian line characteristic of the gryneus subspecies. This individual was photographed in the flower garden of the Leon and Cindy Marquart farm home in southeastern Nebraska near the Nebraska/Kansas border with a 60 mm lens, F-11/8, 1:1 ratio and fill flash on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-16747510345901..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="44-44. WOODLAND ELFIN (uns) - Key characteristics of Callophrys henrici are a dark brown basal half of the underside (uns) of its hindwing that is edged with a faint white line and a stubby tail on the lower outer margin. They range in open woods and moist scrub habitats of the eastern ½ of the U.S., and in mesquite woodland in the Southwest. Host plants for adults to lay eggs and the larvae to eat flowers, fruits and young leaves are in the Leguminosae Pea family, Ericaceae Heath family, Aquifoliaceae Holly family, Ebenaceae Ebony family, Caprifoiaceae Honeysuckle family, and Cyrillaceae family Swamp Cyrilla. Adults sip flower nectar and mud (water and moisture). Their pupae hibernate (see diapause and flight explanation in photo # 44-3). There is only one emergent flight of pupae to flying adults from March to April southward and May to June northward in their range. Photographed in the Pawnee Prairie in southeastern Nebraska with a 105 mm lens, extension tubes, F-8, and fill flash at about 17 inches from butterfly on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="698" height="465"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-16747510346001..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="44-45. GRAY COPPER (uns) - It is similar to some hairstreaks, but it lacks tails and has many spots near the base of the underside (uns) of its hindwing. Note the under hindwing red-orange color that forms a marginal band, indicating it is the Great Plains subspecies Lycaena xanthoides dione. It may even be a distinct species. Coppers are lepidopterans in the little butterflies Lycaenidae family and the subfamily Lycaeninae, tribe Lycaenini. Of about 50 species in this tribe on Earth, about 18 occur from central U.S. to the Arctic in North America. Their habitats are mostly prairie streamsides, moist meadows and fields. Host plants for adults to lay eggs singly at or near the base of the plant and larvae to eat the under side of leaves are in the Polygonaceae Buckwheat family: Rumex (Dock), Rumex crispus (Curly Dock), R. obtusifolius, R. occidentalis, R. triangulivalvis, and R. altissimus (Pale Dock native in Nebraska). Their eggs hibernate (see diapause and flight explanation in photo # 44-3). There is only one emergent flight of eggs to larvae to pupae to flying adults in June to July for subspecies dione. Photographed in a native mixed grass prairie one mile southwest of Byron, Nebraska with a 60 mm lens, F-11, and fill flash on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-16747510346101..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="44-46. PURPLISH COPPER (uns) - Adult butterflies in the coppers tribe Lycaenini are often a copperish color, but they may be yellow, gray, blue or brown on the upperside of their wings, and often white on the underside (uns) of their wings. They are in the coppers Lycaenini tribe classification explained in photo #44-45. Lycaena helloides has several subspecies across its range from most of Alaska through western and most of the southern ½ of Canada to most of the west and north central U.S. Their habitats are streamsides and valley bottoms. Host plants for adults to lay eggs and larvae to eat the leaves are in the herb Polygonaceae Buckwheat family. Their eggs hibernate (see diapause and flight explanation in photo # 44-3). There are several emergent flights of eggs to larvae to pupae to flying adults from May to October depending on location and elevation within their range. Photographed in the Platte River Wilderness of the Snowy Range Mountains in Wyoming with a 60 mm lens, F-11, 1:3 ratio, and fill flash on Velvia 50 film. ">Open Image width="495" height="481"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-16747510346201..jpg"> height="29"/>height="41"/> tooltip="44-46a. PURPLISH COPPER (uns and partial ups) - A photo of mostly the underside (uns) of left wings and partial upperside (ups) of the right forewing. Photographed in the same way and location as the previous photo #44-46. ">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-16747510346301..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="44-46b. PURPLISH COPPER (male ups) - Note that the forewing is rather pointed compared to the next photo #44-46c, indicating this is probably a male Lycaena helloides. Photographed in Yellowstone National Park with a 60 mm lens, F-8, 1:3 ratio, and fill flash on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-16747510346401..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="44-46c. PURPLISH COPPER (female ups) - Note the more rounded forewing compared to photo #44-46b, indicating this is probably a female Lycaena helloides. Photographed in the same way and location as the previous photo #44-46b.">Open Image width="494" height="481"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-16747510346501..jpg"> height="29"/>height="41"/> tooltip="44-47. ORANGE-MARGINED BLUE (female ups) - Note the prominent orange bands at the outer margins on the upperside (ups) of its blue wings. Blues (about 1 inch wingspan) are lepidopterans in the little butterflies Lycaenidae family and the subfamily Lycaeninae, tribe Polyommatini with about 32 species in North America. Males are usually blue and females usually brown or bluish-brown. The function of the blue color in males is still not clear, but probably serves to allow males to ignore each other in the search for females. Photographed in an Aspen grove on the south side of the Niobrara River near Smith Falls State Park in Nebraska with an 85 mm lens, extension tube, tripod and cable release in early morning sunlight on Provia 100F film. ">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-16747510346601..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="44-47a. ORANGE-MARGINED BLUE (uns) - Plebejus melissa rests with its wings closed and often performs "hindwing rubbing" that is characteristic of other butterflies in the subfamily Lycaeninae (see explanation of hindwing rubbing in photo #44-40 Striped Hairstreak). Subspecies Plebejus melissa melissa is also called Melissa Blue. Note that the orange bands are usually fused on both the fore and hind wing undersides (uns), and the under hindwings have metallic marginal spots. Subspecies P. m. melissa also has thicker orange bands and larger black spots than other subspecies. They range from the south-central ½ of Canada, most of the western ½ of the U.S., and a narrow band across the northeastern U.S. Host plants for adults to lay eggs on stems or near the plant base and the larvae to eat leaves and flowers are in the herb and shrub Leguminosae Pea family: Milk Vetch, Wild Licorise, Lupine, Alfalfa, Bur Clover, Locoweed and Vetch. Their eggs hibernate (see diapause and flight explanation in photo #44-3). They have several emergent flights of eggs to larvae to pupae to flying adults from May to October depending on elevation and location in their range. Photographed the same way and in the same location as the previous photo #44-47.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-16747510346701..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="44-48. PYGMY BLUE (uns) - Brephidium exilis (½ in. av. wingspan) is the smallest butterfly in North America and may be the smallest butterfly on Earth! The Pigmy Blue is so small as it flutters around host plants, that it is difficult to see until it rests on a plant. Key characteristics are a row of large black spots near the outer margin and three small black spots near the base of the underside (uns) of hindwings. The upperside of its wings are copper brown and the base of the wings are usually a metallic blue. They are in the blues Polyommatini tribe classification explained in photo #44-47. Their habitats are mostly lower-altitude alkaline areas, salt marshes and desert prairies. They range mostly in the lower southwestern ½ of the U.S., south through Mexico, Central America, to Venezuela, the Bahamas and Greater Antilles. They migrate northward to Arkansas, Nebraska and Oregon where they are most common in late summer. Their pupae hibernate (see diapause and flight explanation in photo #44-3). After their initial spring emergent flight of pupae to flying adults, there are many additional flights of eggs to larvae to pupae to flying adults all year long from March to December. Shrub and herb host plants for adults to lay eggs everywhere on the plant, and for their larvae to eat all parts of the plant including flowers, fruits, leaves and stems are in the Chenopodiaceae Goose Foot family: Atriplex (Saltbush), Salicornia (Glasswort), Chenopodium album (Pigweed), Salsola (Russian thistle, Tumbleweed or Wind Witch), Aizoaceae (Carpet Weed), Trianthema (Horse Purslane), and Sesuvium (Sea Purslane). Photographed in Bttomless Lake State Park in New Mexico with a 60 mm lens, extension tube (2X), F-8, and fill flash on Velvia 50 film. ">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-16747510346801..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="44-49. TAILED BLUE (uns) - Cupido comyntas is identified by two orange spots with distinct black spots on the underside (uns) of its hindwings (However, note a 3rd smaller orange spot above the larger orange spots in this individual.). The upperside (usp) of male's wings are blue and summer female ups are mostly brown. (See enlarged Tailed Blue ups wings showing "tail" in Gallery, Arthropods, horizontal section, #EO835 of this website) They are in the blues Polyommatini tribe classification explained in photo #44-47. Their habitats are desert foothills, moist meadows, streamsides and forest clearings in the eastern 2/3 of the U.S., and the extreme southeastern ½ of Canada and the tropics south to Costa Rica. Host plants for the adults to lay eggs singly on flowers and some young leaves, and the larvae to eat flowers, fruits and some young leaves are in the Leguminosae (Pea family): Vetch, Milk Vetch, Wild Indigo, Tick Trefoil, Milk Pea, Bush Clover, Bur Clover, Lupine, Alfalfa and Sweet Clover. Their mature larvae hibernate, and sometimes in the host plant pods (see diapause and flight explanation in photo #44-3). Adults sip flower nectar and mud (water and minerals). Their are many emergent flights of eggs to larvae to pupae to flying adults after their initial larvae to pupae to flying adults flight from February to November depending on location in its range. Photographed in Lancaster County, Nebraska with a 60 mm lens, F-11, 1:2 ratio, and fill flash on Provia 100F film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-16747510346901..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="44-50. ARROWHEAD BLUE - Plebejus acmon's common name comes from the white point and dark splayed arrowhead-shaped submarginal spots on their under hindwings (unh). There is a distinctive postbasal white-splayed dash in the middle of the unh. Unlike other blues, its forewing fringes are checkered. They are in the blues Polyommatini tribe classification explained in photo #44-47. There are 3 subspecies across its range in most of the western 1/3 of the U.S. and extreme southwestern Canada. Host plants for the adults to lay eggs singly on flower buds, sometimes on leaves or stems, and the larvae to eat flowers, fruits and sometimes leaves are Lupines and Milk Vetches in the Leguminosae Pea family of shrubs and herbs. Their pupae hibernate ( see diapause and flight explanation photo #44-3). There is only one emergent flight of pupae to flying adults in most of their range from late May to early July. Photographed in the Lee Metcalf Wilderness in Montana by the Madison River with a 60 mm lens, F-11, 1:1.2 ratio, and fill flash on Provia 100F film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-16747510347001..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="44-51. PRIMROSE BLUE - Plebejus glandon has less-prominent, arrowhead-shaped submarginal spots than the Arrowhead Blue in photo #44-50; and large white postbasal and median spots near the middle of the under hindwings. They are in the blues Polyommatini tribe classification explained in photo # 44-47. There are 4 subspecies in its range in most of Canada, Alaska, the Arctic region and some of the western states in the U.S. Their habitats are prairies, open woodland and Tundra where the adults lay eggs and the larvae feed on their host plants: Leguminosae Pea, Primulaceae Primrose, Diapensiacae Diapensia, and Saxifragacea Saxifrage families of plants. Larvae or pupae hibernate (see diapause and flight explanation in photo #44-3). There is only one emergent flight of larvae to pupae to flying adults, or pupae to flying adults in most of their range from July to August. Photographed in Yellowstone National Park with a 60 mm lens, F-11/8, 1:2 ratio, and fill flash on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-16747510347101..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="44-52. ARCTIC BLUE (aquilo) - P. aquilo is a subspecies of the Primrose Blue butterfly in the previous photo #44-51. It has a similar description and natural history as Primrose Blue. The Arctic Blues' range is more in the northern regions of North America and even includes Arctic Scandinavia and Siberia! Photographed in Northwest Peak of Montana with a 60 mm lens, F-11, 1:2 ratio and fill flash on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="698" height="465"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-16747510347201..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="44-52a. ARCTIC BLUE (ups of aquilo) - This is a photo of the upperside (ups) of wings of a female Arctic Blue. Photographed in the same way and location as previous photo #44-52 of the underside of wings of an Arctic Blue butterfly. ">Open Image width="698" height="465"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-16747510347301..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="44-53. GREENISH CLOVER BLUE (male) - The upper forewings (upf) of Plebejus saepiolus males usually have a greenish-tinged, light blue color with a central black dash (it is more prominent on the left upf in this photo). The upperside of female wings are brown. They are in the blues Polyommatini tribe classification explained in Photo #44-47. There are 5 other subspecies of this butterfly in their range from most of Alaska, through most of Canada, the northern edge of the eastern 2/3 of the U.S., and most of western 1/3 of the U.S. except the far Southwest. Their habitats are moist meadows, streamsides, high prairies to Alpine areas and to the edge of Tundra. The host plants for adults to lay eggs and larvae to eat are in the herb Leguminosae Pea family of clover plants. Half-grown larvae hibernate (see diapause and flight explanation in photo #44-3). They have one emergent flight (larvae to pupae to flying adults) from late May to July at low altitude, and late June to mid-August in the north and high mountains. Photographed in Northwest Peak of Montana with a 60 mm lens, F-22/16, 1:2 ratio, and fill flash on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-16747510347401..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="44-54. LUPINE BLUE (male ups) - Plebejus icarioides is the largest blue in North America. Its wingspan is about 1 ¼ inches. The upperside (ups) of the male's wings are dark violet-blue with an outer wide dark border and white fringe. Female ups are a brownish-blue color. There are 6 other subspecies of this butterfly in its range in most of the western 1/3 of the U.S. and extreme southwestern areas of Canada. They are in the blues Polyommatini tribe classification explained in photo #44-47. Their habitats are wooded clearings, prairies and sagebrush lands. Host plants for adults to lay eggs singly on leaves, stems, flowers and pods, and the larvae to eat young shoots, leaves, flowers and fruits are in the shrub Leguminosae Pea family of about 30 species of Lupinus lupine plants. Larvae are tended by ants and they sometimes rest in ant holes near a lupine plant. Second-stage larvae turn brown and hibernate (see diapause and flight explanation in photo #44-3). They have one emergent flight of larvae to pupae to flying adults from April to early September depending on location in their range. Adults feed on mud (water and minerals), occasionally on flower nectar, and both sexes have a life span of about 8 days. Photographed near the east entrance of Yellowstone National Park with a 60mm lens, F-11, 1:3 ratio, and fill flash on Provia 100F film. ">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-16747510347501..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="44-54a. LUPINE BLUE (uns) - This is the underside (uns) of the closed wings of a Lupine Blue butterfly. Note larger black spots with thin white rings on the forewing, and smaller lighter black spots with thick white rings on the hindwing. Photographed near the east entrance of Yellowstone National Park with a 60 mm lens, F-11, 1:2.5 ratio, and fill flash on Provia 100F film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-16747510347601..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="44-55. SILVER-STUDDED BLUE (uns) - Plebejus acmon is identified by the whitish-gray underside (uns) of its wings, the orange hindwing submarginal band, and the whitish uncheckered fringe at the outside edge of its wings. A key characteristic of the Silver-Studded Blue is metallic silver-blue, green or yellow specks around black marginal spots of its under hindwing (showing in this photo). The upperside of its wings are blue in males and brown in females. There are 4 other subspecies in their range from southwestern Canada, most of the western ½ of the U.S. and south into Mexico. Strays are known from Minnesota. They are in the blues Polyommatini tribe classification explained in photo #44-47. Their habitats are open woodlands, fields, deserts and prairies. Host plants for the adults to lay eggs singly on leaves or flowers and larvae to eat leaves, flowers and pods are in about 17 species of buckwheat plants in the Polygonaceae Buckwheat family, about 8 species of trefoil plants in the Leguminosae Pea family, several species of Lupinus plants, and about 7 species of Melilotus sweet clover plants. Second-stage larvae hibernate (see diapause and flight explanation in photo #44-3). There are many emergent flights of larvae to pupae to flying adults initially during early spring followed by eggs to larvae to pupae to flying adults from March to October depending on location in their range. Photographed in the Settler's Grove of Ancient Cedars in northern Idaho with a 60 mm lens, F-11, 1:3 ratio, and fill flash on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-16747510346101..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="44-55a. SILVER-STUDDED BLUE (male ups) - Note the blue color of the upperside (ups) of wings in this adult male, the orange hindwing submarginal band and the whitish uncheckered fringe on outside edge of wings. Photographed in the same way and location as previous photo #44-55.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-16747510347601..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="45-1d. HOLARCTIC GRASS SKIPPER - Skippers are mostly small butterflies with rather short wings in the insect order Lepidoptera and superfamily Hesperioidea with around 263 species in North America (there are about 3,650 species on Earth). Almost all skippers differ from other butterflies in having the swollen ends (clubs) of their antennae abruptly bent. Skipper larvae have a narrow neck that enables them to turn their head and silk together a leaf tube into a sturdy silk-leaf nest where most live and pupate [A subfamily of skipper larvae feed on host plants of grasses that have sharp, sawtooth leaf edges that might cut larvae and pupae to pieces as wind whips grass leaves back and forth. Protection inside a silk-leaf nest may be an adaptation for survival (refer to how natural selection works in writeup of butterfly photo # 44-3)]. Adult skippers are powerful fliers with a thick, well-muscled thorax providing faster, straight away, rapid darting flight (hence their name), and less erratic flight than most butterflies. Hesperioid skippers have relatively large bodies and small, very angular wings (usually 1 to 1 ½ inch wingspan) compared to Papilionoid butterflies (refer to classification in photo #44-1). Adults in the Hesperiidae family and Hesperiinae subfamily are grass skippers that rest with wings closed and bask by spreading the hindwings nearly flat down, but the forewings only open at about a 45 degree angle. All 6 legs of adult skippers are functional for walking (refer to the Nymphalidae family with only 4 walking legs in photo # 44-13). All species of adult grass skippers seem to visit flowers to sip nectar. The Holarctic Grass Skipper (Hesperia comma) is difficult to identify because of geographic variations and also individual variation in their range. Consequently, the species is divided into about 10 subspecies that range from the southeastern ½ of Alaska, to the southern Arctic areas, throughout all of Canada, most of the western ½ of the U.S., and all of the extreme north-central and northeastern U.S. Their habitats are open woodlands, grasslands and the edge of Tundra. Host plants for the adults to lay eggs haphazardly on or near grasses are Andropogon Beard Grass, Bouteloua Grama Grass, Bromus Bromegrass, Poa Bluegrass, Stipa Needlegrass and the Cyperaceae family of sedges. Larvae eat grass leaves, make nests of rolled silk-tied leaves, and sometimes live in a silk tube nest under dried cow dung. The eggs hibernate in most of their range and older larvae or pupae hibernate in the Arctic (see diapause and flight explanation in photo #44-3). There is one flight of eggs to larvae to pupae to flying adults in most of their range, and larvae or pupae to flying adults in the Arctic from June to October depending on location in their range. Photographed beside Lynx Creek in the Sawtooth Wilderness of Idaho with a 60 mm lens F-11, and fill flash on Provia 100F film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-16747510347801..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="45-2d. YELLOW-DUST SKIPPER (uns) - Hesperia pahaska gets its common name from tiny, yellow, dust-like scale fragments that form a scent patch located between the conspicuous black streaks of the male stigma near the base of the upperside of its forewings. The stigma is not showing in this photo of the underside (uns) of the wings. The stigma scent scales waft off pheromones (aphrodisiac sex perfume) that attract females (see writeup in photo # 44-9 Dainty Sulfur for additional explanation of pheromones). The lower back row of whitish bands form the postmedian band on the under hindwing. In males the rear of the postmedian band is usually straight (its rather irregular in this photo). Their habitats are in deserts, grasslands, chaparral, open woodlands and prairie hills ranging in a regional-narrow band from extreme southern Alberta/Saskatchewan Canada, south through the U.S. and into the Baja region of Mexico. Host plants for adults to lay eggs on or near the plants and the larvae to eat leaves and live in tied-leaf nests are the grasses Bouteloua gracilis Grama Grass and Erioneuron pulchellum grass. Their larvae hibernate (see diapause and flight explanation in photo #44-3). They have one emergent flight of larvae to pupae to flying adults from mid-April to mid-October depending on location in their range. Photographed in the natural area of the Pine Bluffs Rest Stop on the Wyoming/Nebraska border with a 105mm lens, extension tubes, F-11/8, 1:2.3 ratio, and fill flash on Velvia 50 film. ">Open Image width="698" height="466"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-16747510347901..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="45-3d. PECK'S SKIPPER (male) - Polites peckius is also named Yellow-Patch Skipper for the distinctive under hindwing central yellow patch that extends outward beyond the adjacent yellow patches (showing in the left hindwing in this photo). Note the prominent raised black stigma on the right forewing near the thorax in the photo of this male. The narrow stigma separates the front orange 1/3rd from the back dark 2/3 of the forewing. Their habitats are meadows and prairies ranging throughout most of central and southern Canada, most of the eastern Pacific Northwest, and northeastern ½ of the U.S. Host plants for adults to lay eggs, and larvae to eat leaves and live in silk- tied-leaf nests are the grasses Leersia Rice Cut-Grass and Poa Bluegrass. Larvae and pupae hibernate (see diapause and flight explanation in photo #44-3). They have one emergent flight of larvae to pupae to flying adults or pupae to flying adults from late May to mid-September depending on location in their range. Photographed in the Platte River riparian area near Grand Island, Nebraska with a 60 mm lens and available light on Fuji 100 slide film.">Open Image width="497" height="481"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-16747510348001..jpg"> height="29"/>height="41"/> tooltip="45-4d. TAWNY-EDGED SKIPPER - Polites thermistocles's common name refers to the tawny orange front (costal margin) of its forewings. Note the narrow black stigma between the tawny orange and the dark back part of the left forewing in this male. Note the right hindwing's upperside is orangish-olive, but the undersides are usually always a uniform brownish-olive without band marks. Their habitats are grassy areas and lawns in most of the southern ½ of Canada and most of the eastern ¾ of the U.S., except most of Texas. Host plants for the adults to lay eggs singly on or near grass plants, and the larvae to eat leaves and live in silk-tied-leaf nests are Poa Bluegrass, Digitaria Foxglove and Panicum Panic Grass. Their pupae hibernate (see diapause and flight explanation in photo #44-3). They have one emergent flight of pupae to flying adults from mid-June to July in the north and Rocky Mountains, and several flights of eggs to larvae to pupae to flying adults, after the initial emergent flight, from June to August in the southern areas of their range. Photographed in an I-29 Rest Stop north of Omaha, Nebraska with a 60 mm lens, F-11/8, 1:3 ratio, and fill flash on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-16747510348101..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="45-5. SACHEM (?) - Atalopedes campestris is a yellowish-brown or brown color on the underside of its hindwings, but no identifying patches show in the photo. Photographed in Mahoney State Park in Nebraska with a 60 mm lens, F-11/8, 1:2 ratio, and fill flash on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="698" height="467"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-16747510348201..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="45-6. BLACK-VEIN (DELAWARE) SKIPPER - Key characteristics of Atrytone logan are black veins on the upperside of its wings, and a narrow dark border on the upper forewings. Females have wider borders than males. The underside of hindwings of both sexes are yellow-orange without patch or spot marks. (also, see photo #43 of a Delaware Skipper in Gallery, Arthropods, horizontal section of this website) Their habitats are moist areas with tall grasses that range mostly in the eastern 2/3 of the U.S. Host plants for adults to lay eggs singly on leaves, and larvae to eat leaves and live in rolled or silk-tied leaves are Andropogon Beard Grass, Erianthus Plumegrass, and Panicum Panic Grass. Adults sip flower nectar and mud (water and minerals). They have one emergent flight from late June to July northward, and several flights from February to October in the southern areas of their range (see flight explanation in photo #44-3). Photographed in Indian Cave State Park, Nebraska with a 60 mm lens F-11/8, 1:3 ratio, and fill flash on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-16747510348301..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="45-6a. BLACK-VEIN (DELAWARE) SKIPPERS (uns) - Photo of many Black-Vein Skippers with wings closed showing the yellow-orange undersides (uns) of their wings as they sip flower nectar from a purple flower of native Tall Thistle. Photographed in Lancaster County, Nebraska with a 60 mm lens, available light, and tripod on Fuji 100 slide film. ">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-16747510348401..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="45-7. NORTHERN DIMORPHIC (HOBOMOK) SKIPPER - Note that the yellow under hindwing patch is similar to Polites peckius, but Poanes hobomok has a large brown patch with one small, light basal spot at the base of the hindwings. Males do not have a stigma. Its habitat is in wooded areas ranging from the southeastern ¼ of Canada and the northeastern 1/3 of the U.S. Host plants for adults to lay eggs singly on or near host, and the larvae to eat the leaves are Poa Bluegrass and Panicum Panic Grass. They have one emergent light (see flight explanation in photo #44-3) from late April to early July depending on location in their range. Photographed in Indian Cave State Park, Nebraska with a 60 mm lens, F-11/8, 1:3 ratio, and fill flash on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-16747510348501..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="45-8. BLACK LITTLE SKIPPER - Amblyscirtes vialis has under hindwings that are nearly black at the basal ½ and uniform, gradually more numerous gray flecks on the outer ½ of the wings. The upper forewings have 3 white subapical spots close together, sometimes with 2 smaller spots close behind. The upperside of the wings are blackish-brown with checkered fringes showing mostly on undersides. Its habitat is in wooded areas ranging from most of the southern 2/3 of Canada, most of the eastern ½ of the U.S., and much of the northwestern ¼ of the U.S. Host plants for the adults to lay eggs singly on, and the larvae to eat leaves are grasses Poa Bluegrass, Agrostis Bent Grass, and Uniola. Adults sip flower nectar and mud (water and minerals), and their larvae hibernate. They have one emergent flight of larvae to pupae to flying adults (see diapause and flight explanation in photo #44-3) from late May to early September depending on location in their range. Photographed in the Settler's Grove of Ancient Cedars in Idaho with a 60 mm lens, F-11/8, 1:2 ratio, and fill flash on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-16747510348601..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="45-9. CLOUDY WING - Thorybes pylades is classified in the herb, shrub and tree skippers subfamily Pyrginae in the Hespariidae family of skippers. Key characteristics are antennae clubs that are usually shaped like boomerangs (showing in photo) and they lack stigmas on the upperside of their forewings. They often have scent scales for wafting pheromones in the folds of the leading edge (costal folds) of their wings. This skipper has several small white forewing spots (some elongated), a tan stripe above the eyes, dark under hindwing bands, and a checkered fringe (all these markings are showing in photo). Its habitat is mostly in wooded areas ranging in most of Canada, all of the eastern ½ of the U.S., and many scattered regions in the western ½ of the U.S. Host plants for adults to lay eggs singly under leaves, and for larvae to eat leaves and live in nests of rolled or silk-tied leaves are in the herb Leguminosae family of plants: Amorpha False Indigo, Astragalus Milk Vetch, Desmodium species (sp.) Tick Clovers, Lathyrus Pea Vine, Lespedeza sp. Bush Clovers, Lotus sp. Trefoils, Medicago Alfalfa and Bur Clover, Rhynchosia Beaked "Rush",Trifolium sp. Clovers and Vicia Vetch. Adults sip flower nectar and mud (water and minerals), and the full-grown larvae hibernate (see diapause and flight explanation in photo #44-3). They have one flight of larvae to pupae to flying adults from March to November depending on location in their range. Photographed in Indian Cave State Park in Nebraska with a 60 mm lens, F-11, 1:3 ratio, and fill flash on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-16747510348701..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="45-10. SILVER-SPOTTED SKIPPER - Epargyreus clarus has a large unique silver spot on the underside of its hindwings that flashes even as it flies. It is the most widespread and conspicuous butterfly in the U.S. It ranges in southern Canada in habitats in the Gulf Coast, desert regions, open woods, canyons and prairies in nearly all of the U.S. Host plants for adults to lay eggs singly on top of leaves, and larvae to eat leaves are trees Robinia Locust species (sp.), especially Black Locust, Gleditsia Honey Locust, and Acacia Wattle; and Leguminosae herbs Amorpha False Indigo, Amphicarpa sp. Hog Peanut, Apios Groundnut, Astragalus Milk Vetch, Desmodium sp. Tick Trefoil, Glycyrrhiza Wild Licorice, Lathyrus Pea Vine, Lespediza Bush Clover, Lotus sp. Trefoil, Phaseolus sp. Bean, Pueraria Kudzu Vine and Wisteria sp. Young larvae live in a folded-over leaf and older larvae live in silked-together leaves. Their pupae hibernate and there is only one emergent flight (see diapause and flight explanation in photo #44-3) from mid-June to mid-July northward and in the Rocky and Sierra Mountains. There are several flights southward. Adults have a jerky movement pattern when in flight, and they sip flower nectar and mud (water and minerals). Photographed in the flower garden of Cindy and Leon Marquart with a 60 mm lens, F-11, and fill flash on Provia 100F film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-16747510348801..jpg"> height="29"/>height="28"/> tooltip="57-10. BLUNTNOSE MINNOW -- The U.S. has about 800 species of freshwater fishes representing a diversity of about 4 per cent of all freshwater species (about 22,000) on Earth. About one-third of U.S. fish fauna is dominated by the minnow family Cyprinidae. The scientific name for the fish in this photo is Pimephales notatus and its common name is Bluntnose Minnow because the blunt snout overhangs the small, subterminal mouth. As in all minnows, their teeth are not in the mouth, but in their throat! These pharyngeal teeth are used to classify some 240 U.S. species of cyprinids. Note dorsal fin origin slightly behind pelvic fin origin, and a black stripe around snout, through eyes, along its side to the conspicuous black spot at base of caudal (tail) fin. It ranges in all of the eastern U.S. except for the southeastern part of the U.S. This fish was caught in a seine, placed in a small aquarium on site, photographed, and immediately released into its natural habitat. Photographed in the Steele City Canyon of southeastern Nebraska with a 60 mm lens, F-11, 1:3 ratio, and fill flash on Provia 100F film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg1226935599701..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="57-11. FATHEAD MINNOW (female) -- It is in the Cyprinidae family, and like the Bluntnose Minnow it has a blunt snout, but it has a terminal mouth at the front of the snout. The front of dorsal fin is directly over the front of pelvic fin. It has a range over much of North America except mountainous regions. It ranges throughout most of central and eastern Canada and the U.S. except in the West and the southeastern U.S. Its frequent use as a bait fish has resulted in many introduced populations. Photographed in the same manner and location as the Bluntnose Minnow #57-10 on Provia 100F film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg1226935599801..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="57-12. FATHEAD MINNOW (male) -- The male Fathead Minnow is bigger and darker than the female, and has about 16 pronounced tubercles on its snout. A rosy-red strain of Fathead Minnows with red-orange body and fins has been bred through artificial selection for the pet trade. Photographed in the same manner as the previous fish photos, but on Velvia 50 film. This minnow is from the Republican River at the Nebraska/Kansas border. ">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg1226935599901..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="57-13. PLAINS MINNOW (?) -- It is in the Cyprinidae family. It is similar to the Mississippi Silvery Minnow, but the eye is not quite as large (about 1/5 the head length). It ranges in the central U.S. from eastern Montana to northeastern Texas. Photographed in the same manner as #57-10 on Velvia 50 film. This fish is from the Dismal River in the Sand Hills of Nebraska. ">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg12269355991001..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="57-14. UNKNOWN (?) -- It has a large terminal slanted mouth reaching to the front of eye. The dorsal fin origin is behind the pelvic fin origin. Photographed in the same manner as #57-10 on Velvia 50 film. This minnow is from the Nature Conservancy Niobrara Preserve in northcentral Nebraska. ">Open Image width="698" height="461"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg12269355991101..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="57-15. COMMON CARP -- Carp are large minnows in the Cyprinidae family. This is the largest family of fishes with about 2,100 species present on all continents except South America, Australia, and Antarctica. The greatest diversity of cyprinids is in Southeast Asia, and about 600 species occur in China. Carp are a deep, thick-bodied fish with a strongly arched back up to the dorsal fin. The mouth is terminal in young and becomes subterminal in the adult. There are 2 barbels on each side of the head on the rear of the upper lip (not showing in photo). A stout saw-tooth spine is present at the front of the dorsal and anal fins. The young are a gray color, adults are a brassy olive, and the upper side of their body has dark edged scales with a black spot at the base. Large adults have red-orange caudal and anal fins. Carp are native to Eurasia and were first introduced into North America in 1831, and then widely introduced by the U.S. Fish Commission in the 1880's into the U.S. Now, they are widely distributed in southern Canada. Like most alien, introduced fish, carp are a detrimental, nuisance fish in their non-native environments where they root up muddy river and lake bottoms which increases water turbidity that can decrease native fish populations. Photographed with a 500 mm lens, auto-focus, F-5.6 at 1/640 sec, and tripod in a farm pond in Lancaster County, Nebraska on Provia 100F film. ">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg12269355991201..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="57-16. NORTHERN PIKEMINNOW (Squawfish) -- This is a large minnow (this individual is about 2 ft. long) in the Cyprinidae family. It is related to the Colorado Squawfish, an endangered species, that used to grow to 6 ft. and weigh up to 80 lbs., but because of large dam construction on the Colorado and Gila rivers, it rarely grows to 30 lbs. and has been extirpated (locally extinct) in the southern part of its range. Note the long conical head that is flattened between the eyes, the deeply forked caudal (tail) fin, the dorsal (top) fin origin that is slightly behind the pelvic (bottom) fin orgin, and the moderately decurved (downward dip) complete lateral line that has about 15 scales between it and the dorsal fin. Its habitats are in lakes and small to large rivers. This individual was caught with spin fishing tackle on an artificial spinner in the Middle Fork Boise River in Idaho. Its range is the extreme northwestern U.S. and southern portion of British Columbia in Canada. A 60 mm lens at F-8 put this image on Provia 100F film. ">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg12269355991301..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="57-17. NORTHERN PIKEMINNOW (close up) -- Note the large horizontal, terminal mouth that extends slightly past the front of eye. It is a carnivore feeding primarily on meat, and like all carnivorous fishes, it has a short intestine. Herbivorous fishes have a very long, usually coiled, intestine because it takes a much longer time to digest plant material than to digest meat. A 60 mm lens at F-8 put this image on Provia 100F film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg12269355991401..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="57-18. CENTRAL STONEROLLER (female) -- Stonerollers are in the Cyprinidae family. This minnow's snout overhangs a subterminal mouth with an upper fleshy lip and with a hard cartilaginous ridge at the bottom of its lower jaw. They feed on algae and microorganisms growing on small stones by forward thrusts of their body and hitting the stones with the hard ridge on their lower jaw to dislodge food. Their feeding method moves the stones about, and thus their name, stoneroller. The bulk of their plant material diet of algae is difficult to digest, and consequently, stonerollers have a very long intestine to increase time food remains in the gut for more thorough digestion. A 5 inch long stoneroller will have about an 18 inch long intestine, and to fit inside the body cavity, it is coiled around the gas bladder. They range throughout most of the central and into much of the northeastern U.S. Photographed with a 60 mm lens, F-11, and fill flash in the same manner and location as # 57-10 on Velvia 50 film. ">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg12269355991501..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="57-19. CENTRAL STONEROLLER (male) -- Note the somewhat orange fins, white lips, and red iris which are more pronounced in color in the breeding male. Note the prominent tubercles projecting above the epidermis which completely covers the scales in fishes and secretes slime over the fish. Note in this species that tubercles are present in front of the nostrils located in front of the eyes. Also, note a portion of the hard cartilaginous ridge on the lower jaw. Photographed in the same way as the female.">Open Image width="698" height="470"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg12269355991601..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="57-20. CREEK CHUB -- Creek Chubs are in the Cyprinidae family. This minnow has a large terminal mouth that reaches past the front of its eyes. There is a black spot in front of the dorsal and caudal fins. The front of the dorsal fin (with 8 rays visible) is positioned behind the front of the pelvic fin. A dark stripe extends the length of this fish from the caudal spot to the upper lip on the head. This minnow can grow to one foot long. During reproduction, the male uses his mouth to remove gravel from the bottom of a stream to dig a pit. He attracts females for spawning over the pit and the fertilized eggs fall into the gravel stone spaces. He guards the nest by butting his head into and chasing off large intruders. He tolerates the presence of the smaller Rosyface and Common Shiner species that also spawn in his nest. Perhaps natural selection has evolved this behavioral adaptation of greatly increasing the number of fertilized eggs in the nest to lessen the probability that the Creek Chub eggs will be eaten by predators. Thus, the apparent altruistic behavior of helping other species is an illusion,and this behavior is actually selfish to enhance the probability of passing Creek Chub genes on to future generation. (Of course, if this is the reason for this behavior, it does not mean that natural selection proceeded with foresight toward a purposeful goal to help Creek Chubs reproduce more young, but rather it is actually a natural, mechanistic, gradual process over time of non-random accumulation of random inherited behavior traits over many generations of reproducing Creek Chubs.) After the eggs fall into the pit, the male fills the pit with gravel stones and excavates another pit downstream beside the first pit. This process is continued with numerous pits being filled to produce a long ridge of gravel stones on the stream bottom. They range from the extreme southcentral Canada, the northern Midwest, and eastern half (except for the extreme southeastern) of the U.S. Photographed in the same location and manner as minnow # 57-10 with a 60 mm lens and fill flash on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg12269355991701..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="57-21. BRASSY MINNOW (?) -- Note the brassy-yellow body, deepest and widest in front of dorsal fin, and the rather small eye. One can see about 13-15 pectoral rays in the pectoral fin in this photo. It ranges from extreme southern Canada throughout the upper Midwest and around the Great Lakes Region of the U.S. This individual is from the Dismal River in the Sand Hills of Nebraska. A 60 mm lens at F-11 and fill flash put this image on Velvia 50 film. ">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg12269355991801..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="57-22. RED SHINER (male) -- Red Shiners are in the Cyprinidae family. It is in the family genus Cyprinella characterized by a very compressed body, side scales that appear diamond-shaped and are taller than wide, the front of dorsal fin slightly behind the front of pelvic fins,and a white edge on fins of large males. Note the deep body, terminal mouth, blue triangular bar behind the head followed by a pink bar, red fins except the dorsal fin in breeding males, a bluish back and upper sides, 32-36 lateral scales on the lateral line located on the side of its body, and 9 anal rays in the anal fin located on the bottom of the fish in front of the tail (caudal) fin. All of these characteristics can be seen in the photo of this breeding male Red Shiner. It ranges throughout most of the Midwest, south through Texas, Louisiana, and into northern Mexico. Photographed in a small aquarium with a 50 mm zeiss lens, snap ring, and available light on Ectachrome 200 film. ">Open Image width="698" height="465"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg12269355991901..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="57-23. EMERALD SHINER (?) -- Note the slender compressed body, large terminal, slanted mouth reaching to the front of eye, a rather pointed snout, the dorsal fin origin behind the origin of pelvic fins, and a silver stripe with emerald reflections along its sides. It ranges from northcentral and southeastern Canada to the central and eastern one third of the U.S. This fish was collected from the Republican River at the Kansas/Nebraska border. Photographed in the same manner as the Red Shiner, but with Ectachrome 100 Tungsten film and artificial light. ">Open Image width="688" height="450"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg12269355992001..jpg"> height="29"/>height="27"/> tooltip="57-24. LONGNOSE DACE (?) -- Note a long, fleshy snout extending in front of a subterminal mouth, a barbel at corner of mouth, eyes somewhat high on head, a caudal fin forked, a rather straight-edged dorsal fin with 7 dorsal rays (start count with longest ray at front of fin), an olive-brown color on its back with brown-black spots and mottling on its back and sides, a dark stripe along its side from behind the head to the base of caudal fin, and silver to yellow on the body's bottom side. It ranges from east of Alaska down through most of Canada, the northwest and western half of the Midwest into northern Mexico, and the northeastern U.S. Photographed in the same manner as minnow # 57-10, but from the Dismal River in the Sand Hills of Nebraska on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg12269355992101..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="57-25. PEARL DACE -- Daces are in the Cyprinidae family. Note the slightly subterminal mouth, the dorsal fin origin behind the origin of pelvic fins, the dark olive to gray color above on back, a dark stripe along side of back, white, yellow, or red below on its body, and a black stripe along its side with a black basal caudal spot in young fish. Also, note 8 dorsal and anal fin rays (starting count with front longest ray in fin). This fish was collected from a bait shop in Grand Rapids, Minnesota, and photographed in a similar manner as minnow # 57-10, but on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="698" height="467"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg12269355992201..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="57-26. PEARL DACE (?) -- This minnow has characteristics similar to the previous # 57-25, but it is much more brightly colored with a grassy sheen. This may be a breeding male with its bright red-orange along the lower side and a pale yellow stripe along its belly. This fish was collected at the same location and photographed in the same manner as # 57-25.">Open Image width="698" height="455"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg12269355992301..jpg"> height="29"/>height="27"/> tooltip="57-27. NORTHERN HOG SUCKER (?) -- Suckers are in the Catostomidae family. Suckers have large, thick lips on a "suction-like, vacuum-hoseā€¯ mouth below (subterminal) their snout, and no teeth in their jaws. Note the large, rectangular head that is rather flat between the eyes (young fish), and that the body tapers off after the dorsal fin. One field guide tells us that there is a range of 10 to 12 dorsal rays, and 11 occurs most often. Three other field guides tell us there are 11 rays only. This individual appears to have 12 dorsal rays (count starting with the longest ray in the front). There is a very slight appearance of 3 oblique saddles on the side of this fish. There is a light stripe along its side near and just above the lateral line, and white area below in the belly region. The pectoral and pelvic fins have a slight orange tinge color, but there is no black edge on the dorsal and caudal fins. This appears to be young Northern Hog Sucker, but it was collected from northcentral Nebraska in the Niobrara River on The Nature Conservancy Niobrara Preserve. This is outside the range of this fish in the U.S. Collected and photographed in the same manner as # 57-10 with a 60 mm lens, F-8, 1:3 ratio, and fill flash on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg12269355992401..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="57-28. WHITE SUCKER -- This sucker is in the Catostomidae family. It is the most common species of suckers in North America. Note the caudal peduncle (body area directly in front of tail) appears to have a depth more than half of dorsal fin base. It is olive-brown to black above, greenish-yellow with a brassy luster on its sides (this individual has more of a dark gray luster on its side), a white belly area below, and clear to dusky fins. It has 10-13 dorsal fin rays (begin count starting with longest ray in the front, there are 11 rays in this photo). It has 6-8 anal fin rays (there are 6 rays showing in this photo). It ranges in narrow areas in the Northwest Territories, throughout most of Canada, the northern half of the Midwest down into New Mexico, and the northeastern two-thirds of the U.S. This sucker was collected from a bait shop in International Falls, Minnesota. It was photographed in a small aquarium with a 60 mm lens, F-11, 1:6 ratio, and fill flash on Velvia 50 film. ">Open Image width="698" height="452"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg12269355992501..jpg"> height="29"/>height="27"/> tooltip="57-29. TWO ORANGETHROAT DARTERS (female and male) -- Darters are found only in North America and are in the Percidae family. This is the second most diverse family (about 153 species) of fishes after the Cyprinidae family. As their name implies, they dart about on the bottom of streams and lakes eating small crustaceans and insects. To facilitate darting movements in swift water currents and sitting on a stream bottom, natural selection has resulted in the loss of the gas bladder in most darters. This is an example of natural selection as a process for doing away with an adapted organ if the organ is no longer beneficial for the organism's survival. (Of course, non-random accumulation of random inherited traits in a materialistic, mechanistic process over time of many generations of reproducing darters resulted in the loss of the gas bladder in these fishes. It's important to be reminded that natural selection does not proceed with foresight toward a goal of producing a specific organ, or eliminating and organā€”it just goes, and where it stops no one knows!) Many species of darters are extremely colorful, especially breeding males, and the larger less colorful Walleye, Sauger, and Yellow Perch are also in this family of fishes. In this photo, the female is on top and the male is on the bottom, and it shows the faint, washed-out colors of a non-breeding male. Note the arched bodies that are deepest at the front of the 1st dorsal fin, a 2nd dorsal fin, the dark blue bars between orange on the side of the male, and the brown bars between yellow-white on the female. Both sexes have a thin black or dusky tear drop below the eye, males have a blue edge with red below on the dorsal and caudal fins (in females these colors are very faint), large males have a blue anal fin, and their name comes from the orange color under the head and on the breast. They rest on their thoracic pelvic fins when sitting on the bottom of steams and lakes. They range from southern Nebraska, throughout most of Kansas, the eastern half of Oklahoma, central Texas, east through Tennessee, nearly all of Kentucky, and up to the southern edge of the Great Lakes. Photographed in a home aquarium with a 50 mm Zeiss lens, snap ring, and flash on Kodachrome 64 film. ">Open Image width="698" height="449"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg12269355992601..jpg"> height="29"/>height="27"/> tooltip="57-30. PLAINS TOPMINNOW (male) -- This small fish is in the Fundulidae family of topminnows and killifishes. As their name implies, they spend most of their time swimming at or near the water surface. Unlike darters, this family of fishes has one dorsal fin located far back, no lateral line, no spines in fins, and abdominal instead of thoracic pelvic fins. Note bronze flecks and dark cross-hatching on blue-green back and upper side, white below, red-orange bands near the edges of the dorsal, caudal, and anal fins. It feeds on small crustaceans, aquatic insects, and some filamentous algae at the water surface. It ranges throughout most of Nebraska, extreme northwestern Iowa, northeastern Colorado, southeastern Wyoming, and a disjunct range in central to southwestern Missouri with very small areas in adjacent corners of Kansas and Oklahoma. This topminnow was collected from the Dismal River in the Sand Hills of Nebraska and photographed in the same manner as # 57-10 with a 60 mm lens, F-11, 1:2.5 ratio, and fill flash on Velvia 50 film. ">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg12269355992701..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="57-31. PLAINS KILLIFISH -- This small fish is in the Fundulidae family. The Plains Killifish's back and head are flattened above and the mouth is upturned with a band of teeth on its jaws that are all adaptations for feeding at or near the water surface. Their habitat is shallow running water, pools, and backwaters in the upper reach of creeks and small rivers. This fish is tolerant of extremely salty and alkaline water, and sometimes buries itself headfirst in sand, mud or debris on the bottom of shallow water so that only their mouth and eyes are visible. The reason for this curious behavior is still unclear. Burying may help to hide them from view to avoid predators, it may help them to avoid detection by their prey, it may help to rid them of ectoparasites, it may protect them from intense sunlight of the Great Plains to avoid overheating in shallow water, or it may help to protect them from desiccation when water levels become extremely low. One must be aware that correlation does not necessarily mean causation. Which ever one of the above reasons was the initial cause of the burying behavior, it would seem that other beneficial effects are coincidental to the original cause. If one were to imagine being a small fish in shallow water, I would speculate that the most pressing cause of this burying behavior would be the "scary" threat of predators, both above the water surface (birds), and in the water (larger predatory fish). The other reasons can be eliminated in other ways: for example, avoiding overheating by moving into shaded areas, extremely lowered water levels would not occur nearly as frequently as the threat of predators, removing ectoparasites could be more effectively accomplished by brushing against twigs, grass or rocks in the stream bed, and their prey food of small invertebrates and insects is usually abundant, so hiding in ambush would be unnecessary. In any case, evolution of burying behavior most likely occurred through the process of natural selection. It could possibly have been from an inadvertent behavior as a consequence of "panic" in a school of killifish scattering at the sight of a predator. As the fish dart away to avoid a predator, some may have randomly plunged into a bottom mound of debris, mud or sand, and were less likely to be eaten compared to fleeing fish that continued to dart away in water. The differential survival of buried fish compared to the increased predation of fleeing fish in water under heavy predation pressure could over time result in increased survival of burying fish reproducing more offspring. The process of natural selection could then gradually result in the non-random accumulation of inherited behavioral traits from random inherited behavior traits of reproducing burying killifishā€”a tendency toward burying by offspring from many generations over time of interbreeding populations of killifish. (Of course, this does not mean that natural selection proceeded with foresight and purpose toward a goal of burying behavior in killifish so that they could "outwit" predators, but rather it is actually a gradual, natural, materialistic, mechanistic process of non-random accumulation of random inherited behavioral traits from many generations over time of reproducing populations of killifish. Thus, natural selection could produce a burying behavior adaptation in Plains Killifish.) They range from the Platte River watershed of Nebraska, Wyoming, and Colorado, south throughout most of Kansas and Oklahoma, to the Colorado River watershed, and the Pecos River in New Mexico and Texas. They have been introduced into many areas. Photographed in the same manner and location as # 57-10 with a 60 mm lens, F-11/8, 1:3 ratio, and fill flash on Velvia 50 film. ">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg12269355992801..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="57-32. GREEN SUNFISH -- This fish is in the Centrarchidae family of sunfishes and basses. This family has 30 species of fishes that are native only in freshwater of North America, and include some of the very popular sport fishes such as Bluegill, crappies, and basses. They have been introduced into other areas outside their original range in North America and into Central America, Europe, and Africa where they are not native, especially the Largemouth Bass has been extremely disruptive to native fish and amphibian populations. Their bodies are laterally compressed with 2 dorsal fins joined together to appear as one, the1st has boney pointed spines, and the 2nd has cartilaginous rays. Note the large bass-like mouth, the upper jaw beneath eye, a black blotch at the back of the 2nd dorsal and anal fin bases, the yellow-orange edges on 2nd dorsal, caudal and anal fins, blue-green back and side, dusky bars on its side, metallic-blue wavy lines on cheek and opercle, yellow and red edge on black opercle flap, and a white to yellow belly. It ranges throughout the middle half of the U.S. from the Great Lakes Region south throughout Texas to the western edge of Florida. Photographed is same manner as #57-10 with a 60 mm lens, F-5.6, 125/60 sec in available sunlight, and 1:3.5 ratio on Kodachrome 25 film. ">Open Image width="698" height="463"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg12269355992901..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="57-33. BLACK CRAPPY -- Note the more blunt larger snout in front of the eye rather than a smaller, more pointed snout of the White Crappy, a predorsal region from eye to origin of dorsal fin about the same length as the base of the dorsal fin (consider that the first spines at the front are folded down and the back of the dorsal fin is folder forward), and the darker color on the back and fins with many wavy black bands on the upper side rather than dusky chain-like bars on the side of the White Crappy all indicate characteristics of a Black Crappy. It ranges pretty much in the eastern half of the U.S. except the far northeastern U.S. This fish was caught on spinning tackle in a lake in Minnesota and photographed with a 50 mm Zeiss lens probably on Ectachrome 100 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg12269355993001..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="57-34. MUSKELLUNGE -- One field guide with a 1995 copyright tells us that the "Musky" reaches 6 ft. long and weighs up to 100 lbs. David Starr Jordan's book "American Food and Game Fishes published in 1923 tells us the "Muskallungeā€¯ reaches 8 ft. long and weighs 100 lbs or more. During the first part of the 20th Century there were undoubtedly 100 lb. Muskies, but in the last part of the centuryā€”no, not by a long shot! This is a photo of a 10 lb. Musky caught in the fall with heavy spinning tackle in the 1990's. Hooking into a 40 to 50 lb. Musky now is pretty rare. Overfishing, human growth and development in Muskellunge habitat have sent this 100 lb. great fish into history. Unlike the Northern Pike, attempts to introduce natural reproducing populations of Muskies in other countries or even other parts of the U.S. (with a few exceptions) have been unsuccessful. Evidently the Great Lakes Region and surrounding areas have a unique habitat environment suitable to this largest fish in the Esocidae family of fishes. The Musky is a voracious predator that feeds on a wide variety of fishes and other animals as well. Because of their large size and strong fighting behavior, especially their initial burst of fighting when attacking a large artificial lure, they are a favorite sport fish. Could the 100 pound Musky be brought back? Do Musky anglers have the will to do it? Three geographic native strains most likely still exist: the St. Lawrence and lower Great Lakes drainage strain, the upper Ohio Valley strain, and the northern Wisconsin/Minnesota/Ontario strain. I think it could be done with a complete ban on Musky fishing for several years (let the 40 pound Muskies grow!), with a set aside of whats left of prime Musky habitat as wild and scenic (no more growth and development here), with a strong enforcement of water pollution prevention, and with a complete catch and release rule for all sizes of Muskies when fishing resumes. Imagine the economic boom in the Great Lakes Region of this natural resource as anglers from all over the world try their luck in catching this beautiful, great fish! The 10 lb. Musky in this photo is from a natural reproducing population of "Spotted Muskiesā€¯ in their native habitat in the Big Fork River in northern Minnesota. This beautiful fish was hooked in the jaw, photographed in shallow water on the river bank, and released in excellent condition back into the river to live and grow even bigger. Note a key characteristic of a narrow band of scales in the upper half of the cheek and opercle identifying this fish as Esox masquinongy in the Esocidae family. It ranges primarily in Canada and the U.S. in and around the Great Lakes Region. The lens and film used for this photo was unfortunately not recorded. ">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg12269355993101..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="57-35. CUTTHROAT TROUT (male) -- Cutthroat trout are in the Salmonidae family of fishes. All live in freshwater or migrate into fresh water to spawn. The young of migratory species migrate to the sea where they grow for a few years, and then they migrate back to the same stream where they hatched to spawn and die, completing their life cycle. Most cutthroat trout do not migrate and are native to western North America. Geographic isolation in many different major drainage basins resulted in reproductive isolation of interbreeding populations that caused the cutthroat species to evolve into many subspecies (about 14) over the past 2 million years. Unlike the "17 subspecies" of kingsnakes discussed in the Reptile Section, this one species of cutthroat trout was definitely isolated because strictly aquatic animals could not move between basins, whereas terrestrial snakes would not be as effectively isolated. The complete, effective reproductive isolation of these fish populations would allow natural selection to operate and produce inherited genetic variations for adaptation to their local environments. Many generations of sexual reproducing populations of cutthroat trout over 10's of thousands of years would and did evolve into distinct subspecies of this fish. Note the red "cutthroatā€¯ mark under the lower jaw and many black spots on the body. This is most likely a hatchery raised fish artificially stocked into Arrowhead Lake in the Sawtooth Wilderness near Atlanta, Idaho. This 14 to 15 inch fish was caught on light spinning tackle. A 60 mm lens at F-8 and available light put both photos of this male and the following female Cuttthroat Trout on Provia 100F film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg12269355993201..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="57-36. CUTTHROAT TROUT (female) -- This 1Ā½ lb. 14 to 15 inch fish (note less vivid red on lower jaw of the female from the same lake as previous photo) is a far cry from the original strain of native Lohontan Cutthroat Trout subspecies that grew to 40-60 lbs. in just 10 or more years in Nevada's Pyramid Lake! This was once a plentiful, sustainable natural resource used as a major source of food that Native Americans' caught, dried, and stored to be eaten during the winter. Then immigrant Europeans' began commercial fishing operations harvesting 100,000 to 200,000 lbs. of this huge fish each year from Pyramid, Walker and Tahoe lakes in Nevada to feed mining camps all the way to Texas, and restaurants in Salt Lake City and San Francisco. Commercial fishing continued for nearly 50 yrs. before it finally collapsed in the early 1920's. Overfishing, introduction of non-native fish, habit degradation from pollution, and dams caused the extirpation (local extinction) of this native strain of Lahontan Cutthroat Trout from these lakes by 1944. Recovery efforts by fish hatcheries to select for the genetic strain of huge Lohontan Cutthroats from extant (existing) wild brood stock from streams have been unsuccessful. Current hatchery stocks in Pyramid Lake seldom grow over 15 lbs. River and stream populations of Lahontan Cutthroat Trout are also doing poorly. Human growth and development took a heavy toll. Water diversions, pollution from agriculture and industry, improper livestock grazing practices ravaged riparian stream habitat and caused severe channel down cutting, and the introduction of non-native rainbow, brown and brook trout led to predation, hybridization, and competition for food and space of imperiled Lahontan Cutthroat trout. All of this excessive habitat degradation has reduced the Lohontan Cutthroat Trout populations to about 10 percent of its historic stream habitat and less than 1 percent of its lake habitat. Nevertheless, much credit and support must be given to heroic efforts by local, state and federal agencies, tribal governments, and private landowners for their past and continuing work of habitat recovery in their attempt to try and bring this great, beautiful fish back. ">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg12269355993301..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="57-37. GOLDFISH -- It is also in the Cyprinidae family. The goldfish is native to Asia and was first introduced into the U.S. in the late 1600s. Now it is present in much of the U.S. and southern Canada mostly in warm, turbid, heavily-vegetated water, and goldfish are more tolerant of pollution than most fishes. Goldfish are a product of artificial selection which is similar to natural selection. Unlike evolution through the process of natural selection in wild nature which proceeds in a materialistic, mechanistic way to produce adaptation to local environments without a directed purpose toward a specific endpoint, artificial selection is selection with a purpose by humans directed toward a specific endpoint. Through selective breeding of isolated populations of interbreeding goldfish, domesticated pet-store fish with orange, red, white, blue, and black colors are produced by "directed evolution" controlled by the hand of humans. Goldfish were most likely bred and evolved from the Prussian Carp in China. When domesticated goldfish are released back into the wild and exposed to predation, interbreeding populations rapidly lose their bright colors and revert back to cryptic coloration camouflage, and lose their tame nature by reverting back to a hardy, wild fish. Natural selection causes a colorful, tame domesticated fish to revert back to an olive-colored, hardy wild fish through a process of non-random accumulation of random inherited traits within a few generation of interbreeding populations of goldfish. Goldfish also hybridize with the Common Carp and in some waters these fertile hybrid offspring outnumber either parent. Because non-native goldfish compete with and suppress native fish populations, they should not be released into the wild. Photographed in an aquarium with an 85 mm lens, extension tube, F-16, and fill flash on Provia 100F film. ">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg12269355993701..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="57-38. NORTHERN CRAYFISH -- The Northern Crayfish (Orconectes virilis) is a 10-legged (the pinchers are the 1st pair of modified legs) Arthropod and it is related to 6-legged insects and 8-legged spiders. Their 10 appendages put it in the order Decapoda which is the largest in the class Crustacea with about 8,500 species. It is in the freshwater crayfish Cambaridae family. Note that the pinchers are studded with white knobs and have orange tips, and all 5 legs on the side of its 2 inch adult body can be seen in this photo. It is one of about 130 species in the U.S., and there are about 500 species of crayfish in the World. Northern Crayfish habitat is primarily in streams, but also lakes, ponds and rivers, and they are found at depths of a few inches to 100 ft. It is an omnivore eating just about anything it can its pinchers on, including aquatic plants, insects and other invertebrates, larval fish, amphibians, snakes, and turtles. They range from Alberta to Quebec in Canada and south into about half of the U.S. Outside of its native habitat, originally in the Northcentral U.S., this crayfish has had a negative impact on all aquatic ecosystems it has entered by way of discarded fishing bait or released from aquariums. Recent introduction into Arizona, the only state with no native crayfish, and with few natural predators, Northern Crayfish populations are exploding. It is implicated in the decline of Arizona's leopard frogs, mud turtles, and a spinedace fish species. The endangered spikedace and desert pupfish species may be threatened as well. Even more recently, populations of this crayfish have been found in the Columbian River Basin within Washington State according to a report published in January, 2010 by the Northwest Scientific Association. In an effort to prevent introduction of non-native species, it is illegal to even possess crayfish in Manitoba. Photographed in the same manner and location as # 57-10 with a 60 mm lens, F-8, 1:4 ratio, and fill flash on Velvia 50 film. ">Open Image width="698" height="467"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg12269355993501..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="57-39. NORTHERN CRAYFISH -- A dark form or possibly an older adult Northern Crayfish. Note the more brightly-colored orange tips of the pinchers in this individual. Photographed in the same manner and location as # 57-38 photo.">Open Image width="698" height="458"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg12269355993601..jpg"> height="29"/>height="28"/> tooltip="21. FAIRY SLIPPER -- Early morning sunlight on the forest floor found this flower with big dewdrops in the Snowy Range Mountains of Wyoming. Orchids have a narrowly adapted dependence for cross-pollination by certain specific insects. Even when seeds are produced, they may not germinate unless certain fungi are present in the soil. Thus, orchids should not be picked out of natural areas. The 60mm lens at F-22 recorded this image on Kodachrome 25 film. ">Open Image width="690" height="483"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg92375621101..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="22. CASCADE PENSTEMON -- Sunlight streaming through the forest canopy spotlighted this flower in the Boise National Forest north of Banks, Idaho. The common name penstemon is also the genus scientific name, Penstemon, and was originally written Pentstemon, meaning 5 stamens. The specie's scientific name, serrulatus refers to the sharply toothed edges of the leaves. The common name of this flower is Cascade Penstemon and the scientific name is Penstemon serrulatus which describes the structure of the plant. The 60mm lens at F-16 recorded this image on Kodachrome 25 film.">Open Image width="690" height="483"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg92375621201..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="23. CALIFORNIA POPPY -- Bright sun and F-32 provided full depth of field for the petals of this rich yellow-orange flower in full bloom at the Idaho Fish and Game exhibit in Boise, Idaho. The spicy fragrance of this flower attracts primarily beetles as pollinators. The 60mm lens at 1/15 second shutter speed on a tripod produced this image on Kodachrome 25 film. ">Open Image width="600" height="473"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg92375621301..jpg"> height="29"/>height="33"/> tooltip="24. EVENING PRIMROSE -- Early morning backlight of a pair of these flowers, with a small spider on a pedal, presents a close-up view against a distant background of the hills by the Green River in Wyoming. This flower opens at night and will remain open during the day too. Hugo DeVries, a Dutch botanist, studied this plant and from his work he developed a theory of evolution by mutation. The 60mm lens F-8 was used for this image on velvia 50 film. ">Open Image width="590" height="473"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg92375621401..jpg"> height="29"/>height="34"/> tooltip="25. PRICKLY PEAR -- Midday, overcast light and F-16 provided full depth of field from petals to spines revealing tiny pollen grains scattered all over this pastel yellow flower in full bloom. The mature seed-filled fruits called "pears" are edible and tastiest in autumn. The pads may be eaten raw or boiled to more easily remove the spines. The 60mm lens at 1/2 second shutter speed on a tripod produced this image on Kodachrome 25 film. ">Open Image width="689" height="483"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg92375621501..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="21-1. RED MONKEY FLOWER -- Summer morning dew condensed on this pink flower near the edge of Blue Bunch Creek in the Boise National Forest. The 60mm lens at F-8 put this image on Kodachrome 25 film. ">Open Image width="696" height="483"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg92375621601..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="22-2. SPIDERWORT -- This pretty blue flower was growing in a county road ditch near the Niobrara Preserve in the sandhills of Nebraska. The name spiderwort refers to the mucous juice from this plant that draws out into threads similar to spider silk. A local common name for this flower is cow-slobbers. The 60mm lens at F-16 was used for this flower on Kodachrome 25 film. ">Open Image width="691" height="483"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg92375621701..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="25-2. MILKWEED FLOWER -- Bright, overcast light on a calm day gave this close-up view of a Common Milkweed flower growing in a restored prairie. Milkweed flower clusters are edible as fritters according to the recipe in Kay Young's book Wild Seasons. (see flower references) The 60mm lens, F-32, 1:3, +1 stop at 1/2 sec. put this image on Kodachrome 25 film. ">Open Image width="693" height="483"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg92375621801..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="25-3. BITTERROOT -- This pinkish flower appears to grow out of rocks. Lewisia rediviva is the state flower of Montana. This flower is named in honor of Captain Merriwether Lewis who collected the plant in 1806. Native Americans continue today as in the past to dig up the roots in early spring, boil the white fleshy core to reduce the bitter taste, and eat it with a meal. The 85mm lens and extension tube put this flower on Provia F-100 film.">Open Image width="693" height="483"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg92375621901..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="25-10. BECKWITH'S VIOLET (white bicolored form) -- This is the white bicolored form (Viola beckwithii) of the Bird-foot Violet (Viola pedata) in the violet family Violaceae. The 2 upper petals are a dark, velvet-purple color and the lower 3 petals are white. Other common names for this flower are Western Pansy and Bird-foot Violet. Bird-foot refers to the 3-lobe division of its leaves that look like the 3 toes of a bird's foot. The dark lines on the lowest petal are nectar guides to direct pollinators toward the food source at the center of flower. Violets reproduce sexually by pollination and eject seeds several inches from mature flowers, and reproduce asexually by vegetative rhizomes spreading underground from above ground plants. A sugar gel on these seeds attracts ants that carry the seeds away to increase seed dispersal. Violets need conservation because evidence indicates beneficial medicinal compounds in this plant, and because they are a source of food for a variety of animal. Its range is in Oregon, Idaho, California, Nevada, and Utah. Photographed in the Owyhee Canyonlands of southeastern Oregon near Battle Mountain with a 60 mm lens, F-11, tripod, and electronic release on Velvia 100 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg923756211301..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="25-11. BECKWITH'S VIOLET (lavender bicolored form) -- This is the lilac-lavender bicolored form (Viola beckwithii) of the Bird-foot violet (Viola pedata). The 2 upper petals are dark velvet-purple and the lower 3 petals are lilac-lavender in color. This bicolored form of violet growing in dry, upland sites has been considered the most beautiful violet in the world! Photographed in the Owyhee Canyonlands of the North Fork Owyhee River in southwestern Idaho with an 85 mm lens, extension tube, 1/125 sec, F-16, and tripod on Provia 400X film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg923756211401..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="25-12. BECKWITH'S VIOLET (closeup) -- This closeup of the lavender bicolored form shows the dark, velvet-purple color of the upper 2 petals, and the dark nectar guide lines on the lavender lowest petal. This bicolored form of violet grows in dry, upland sites and has been considered the most beautiful violet in the world! Photographed in the Owyhee Canyonlands of southeastern Oregon near Battle Mountain with a 60 mm lens, F-11, tripod, and mirror lockup on Velvia 100 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg923756211501..jpg"> height="29"/>height="28"/> tooltip="E0621. Wild Plains Sunflowers (Image from 28 mm lens, F-5.6, tripod, and mirror lockup on Provia 100F film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg1937805798701..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0623. Wild Foothills Sunflower (Image from 85 mm lens, extension tubes F-13, 1/30 sec, tripod, and electronic release on Provia 100F film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg1937805798801..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0624. Wild Desert Sunflower in Death Valley National Park (Image from 60 mm lens, extension tube, F-13, 1:4 ratio, 1/60 sec, tripod, and electronic release on Provia 100F film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg1937805798901..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0625. Wild Sunflowers in Sand Hills of Nebraska (A double transparency image from 28 mm lens, F-11, tripod, and mirror lockup on Provia 100F film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg19378057983901..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0628. Wild Yellow Salsify (Image from 400 mm lens, F-8, 1:4 ratio, 1/60 sec, tripod, and mirror lockup on Kodachrome 25 film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg19378057981001..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0630. Wild Puccoon (Image from 85 mm lens, extension tube, F-2.8, tripod, and mirror lockup on Kodachrome 25 film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg19378057981101..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0636. Wild Prickly Pear (Image from 85 mm lens, extension tube, F-8, 1/125 sec, tripod, and mirror lockup on Velvia 50 film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg19378057981201..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0637. Domestic California Poppy (Image from 60 mm lens, F-32, 1/15 sec, tripod, and mirror lockup on Kodachrome 25 film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg19378057981301..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0638. Domestic Yellow Crocus (Image from 60 mm lens, F-11, ¼ sec, 1:8 ratio, tripod, and mirror lockup on Kodachrome 25 film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg19378057981401..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0639. Wild Lotus (Image from 60 mm lens on Velvia 50 film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg19378057981501..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0640. Wild Yucca in Sand Hills of Nebraska (Image from 35 mm lens, F-11, 1/60 sec, tripod, and mirror lockup on Astia 100 film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg19378057981601..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0643. Wild Evening Primrose (Image from 60 mm lens, F-8, 1/125 sec, and propped hand held on Velvia 50 film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg19378057981701..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0645. Wild Cat's Ear (Image from 85 mm lens, extension tube, F-16, 1/60 sec, tripod, and mirror lockup on Velvia 50 film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg19378057981801..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0647. Oxeye Daisy (Image from 60 mm lens, F-8, 1/8 sec, tripod, and mirror lockup on Kodachrome 25 film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg19378057981901..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip=" E0650. Wild Solomon's Seal (Image from 60 mm lens, F-5.6, 1:3 ratio, and fill flash on Kodachrome 25 film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg19378057982001..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0651. Wild Plum (Image from 60 mm lens, F-11, 1/30 sec, tripod, and mirror lockup on Velvia 50 film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg19378057982101..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0652. Wild Multiflora Rose (Image from 55 mm lens, F-32, tripod and mirror lockup on Fuji 100 film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg19378057982201..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0653. Wild Sagebrush Mariposa Lily in foothills near Boise, Idaho (Image from 17 mm lens, F-16, 1/60 sec, hand held prop on Ectachrome 100G film, and closeup of this lily #EO654 in vertical section)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg19378057982301..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0656. Domestic Hibiscus (Image from 60 mm lens, F-22, 1/8 sec, tripod, and mirror lockup on Kodachrome 25 film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg19378057982401..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0701. Wild Fairy-slipper Orchids (Image from 60 mm lens, F-11, in shade, ½ sec, tripod, and mirror lockup on Kodachrome 25 film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg19378057982501..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0703. Wild Violets (Image from 55 mm lens, F-32, 1:2 ratio, and fill flash on Fuji 100 film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg19378057982601..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0704. Wild Phalaenopsis Orchid (Image from 300 mm lens, F-8, fill flash, and tripod on Provia 100F film in the Henry Doorly Zoo in Omaha, Nebraska)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg19378057982701..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0705. Wild Bitterroot (Image from 85 mm lens, extension tube, F-5.6, tripod and mirror lockup on Astia 100 film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg19378057982801..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0706. Wild Giant-aster (Image from 60 mm lens, F-11, in shade, 1/8 sec, tripod and mirror lockup on Kodachrome 25 film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg19378057982901..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0709. Wild Cascade Penstemon (Image from 60 mm lens, F-16, 1 sec, tripod, and mirror lockup on Kodachrome 25 film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg19378057983001..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0713. Wild Bog gentians (Image from 60 mm lens, F-13, tripod, and electronic release on Provia 100F film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg19378057983801..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0714. Wild Bog Gentian (Image from 60 mm lens, extension tube, F-22, tripod, and electronic release on Provia 100F film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg19378057983101..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0718. Domestic Scilla (Image from 60 mm lens, F-11, 1:8 ratio, ¼ sec, overcast light, tripod, and mirror lockup on Kodachrome 25 film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg19378057983201..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0721. Wild Larkspur (Image from 60 mm lens, F-13, tripod, and mirror lockup on Provia 100F film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg19378057983301..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0722. Domestic Phalaenopsis Orchid (Image from 105 mm lens, extension tube, F-8, 1/8 sec, tripod, and mirror lockup on Kodachrome 25 film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg19378057983401..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0723. Wild Paintbrush (Image from 300 mm lens, F-8, tripod, and electronic release on Provia 100F film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg19378057983501..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0725. Domestic Crown of Thorns (Image from 60 mm lens, F-32, 2 sec, tripod, and mirror lockup on Provia 100F film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg19378057983601..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0726. Domestic Tulips (Image from 500 mm lens, F-5.6, tripod, and electronic release on Provia 100F film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg19378057983701..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0727. Field of Wild Mariposa Sego Lilies (Image form a field near Bear Valley Creek in Idaho with a 24 mm lens, F-22, 1/4 sec in overcast light, tripod, and mirror lockup on Kodachrome 25 film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg19378057984101..jpg"> height="29"/>height="28"/> tooltip="22-1. BLUE LOBELIA -- This pretty flower was found growing near seeping spring water in the native prairie of the Spring Creek Ranch Audubon Preserve in Lancaster County, Nebraska. This plant contains toxic lobeline that causes vomiting. Medicines prepared from Blue Lobelia were believed to cure syphilis, thus its scientific name Lobelia siphilitica. The 60mm lens at F-32 put this flower on Kodachrome 25 film. ">Open Image width="490" height="706"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg1964449817101.jpg">Open Image width="29" height="42"/> tooltip="24-1. SEGO LILY -- Filaments originating at the base of the three petals mesh about the reproductive structures of this pretty white flower. The name sego is of Shoshone Indian origin. The Native Americans used the bulbous root as food. It can be eaten raw or boiled to taste like a potato. The 60mm lens, F-32 at 1:2.5 ratio was used for this image on Kodachrome 25 film. ">Open Image width="490" height="706"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg1964449817701.jpg">Open Image width="29" height="42"/> tooltip="25-1. YUCCA -- A blooming Yucca growing in the Loess Hills Wildlife Area near Onawa, Iowa. Also called soapweed because the America Indians used the roots for shampoo. The 60mm lens, F-5.6 at a 250/125 shutter speed recorded this image on Kodachrome 25 film. ">Open Image width="490" height="707"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg1964449817301.jpg">Open Image width="29" height="42"/> tooltip="23-1. YELLOW MONKEY FLOWER -- This interesting, little yellow flower was growing in wetlands beside Blue Bunch Creek in the Boise National Forest. The 60mm lens at F-16 put this image on Kodachrome 25 film. ">Open Image width="490" height="704"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg1964449817401.jpg">Open Image width="29" height="42"/> tooltip="22-3. SHOOTINGSTAR -- Early 2002 summer drought in the "Snowy Range" of the Medicine Bow Mountains in Wyoming restricted growth of this flower. This one was in full bloom in July on the bank of Douglas Creek in the Platte River Wilderness Area. Elk and deer eat this plant in early spring when green forage is scarce. The 85mm lens and extension tube at F-5.6 produced this image on Provia F-100 film. ">Open Image width="490" height="681"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg1964449817801.jpg">Open Image width="30" height="42"/> tooltip="25-4. GOLDEN COLUMBINE -- This flower was found growing in the Lee Metcalf Wilderness near the Madison River in southwestern Montana. Sepals of a flower are usually small and green below the petals, but in this flower they are long, yellow-white and look like petals. The word columbine comes from Latin for dove, referring to the flower's resemblance to a cluster of doves. The spur represents the head and neck, the spreading sepals represent wings, and the petal the "bird's" body. The 85mm lens and extension tube produced this image on Astia 100 film. ">Open Image width="490" height="689"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg1964449817901.jpg">Open Image width="30" height="42"/> tooltip="E0622. Wild Sunflower in Glacier National Park (Image from 60 mm lens, F-11, 1:3 ratio, ¼ sec, tripod, and mirror lockup on Provia 100F film)">Open Image width="478" height="708"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-18194221721101.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="E0626. Wild False Dandelion in Montana (Image from 85 mm lens, extension tube, F-1.8, 1/1000 sec, tripod, and mirror lockup on Astia 100 film)">Open Image width="478" height="708"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-18194221721201.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="E0627. Wild False Dandelion in Idaho (Image from 85 mm lens, extension tube, F-4, 1/2000 sec, tripod, and mirror lockup on Ectachrome 100VS film)">Open Image width="478" height="708"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-18194221721301.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="E0629. Wild Prairie Ragwort (Image from 60 mm lens, F-8, 1:4 ratio, 1/60 sec, tripod, and mirror lockup on Kodachrome 25 film)">Open Image width="478" height="708"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-18194221721401.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="E0631-2. Wild Wood Sorrel (Image from 60 mm lens, F-32, 1:1 ratio, ½ sec, tripod, and mirror lockup on Kodachrome 25 film)">Open Image width="478" height="708"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-18194221721601.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="E0632. Wild Large-flowered Bellwort (Image from 60 mm lens, extension tube, F-5.6, 1/15 sec, tripod, and mirror lockup on Velvia 50 film) ">Open Image width="478" height="708"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-18194221721701.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="E0633. Wild Yellowbell - double (Image from 60 mm lens, F-5.6, 1/1000 sec, tripod, and electronic release on Velvia 100 film)">Open Image width="478" height="708"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-18194221721801.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="E0634. Wild Monkey-flower (Image from 60 mm lens, F-16, tripod, and mirror lockup on Kodachrome 25 film)">Open Image width="478" height="708"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-18194221721901.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="E0635. Wild Golden Columbine (Image from 85 mm lens, extension tube, F-8, 1/125 sec, tripod, and mirror lockup on Astia 100 film)">Open Image width="478" height="708"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-18194221722001.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="E0641. Wild Beargrass (Image from 35 mm lens, F-5.6, 1/250 sec, tripod, and mirror lockup on Velvia 50 film)">Open Image width="478" height="708"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-18194221722101.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="E0642. Wild Beargrass (Image from 85 mm lens, F-2.8, 1/500 sec, tripod, and mirror lockup on Velvia 50 film)">Open Image width="478" height="708"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-18194221722201.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="E0644. Wild Sego Lily (Image from 60 mm lens, F-32, 1:2.5 ratio, 1/15 sec, tripod, and mirror lockup on Kodachrome 25 film)">Open Image width="478" height="708"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-18194221722301.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="E0646. Wild Prairie Anemone (Image from 85 mm lens, extension tube, F-5.6, 1/250 sec, tripod, and mirror lockup on Provia 100F film)">Open Image width="478" height="708"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-18194221722401.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="E0648. Wild Bloodroot (Image from 300 mm lens, F-5.6, 1/125 sec, tripod, and mirror lockup on Provia 100F film)">Open Image width="478" height="708"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-18194221722501.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="E0649. Wild Yarrow (Image from 85 mm lens, F-5.6, 1/60 sec, tripod and mirror lockup on Velvia 50 film)">Open Image width="478" height="708"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-18194221722601.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="E0654. Wild Sagebrush Mariposa Lily (Image from 28 mm lens, F-11, 1/250 sec, tripod, and electronic release on Ectachrome 100G film)">Open Image width="478" height="708"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-18194221722701.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="E0655. Wild Clustered Broomrape (Image from 85 mm lens, extension tube, F-16, tripod, and electronic release on Ectachrome 100G film)">Open Image width="478" height="708"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-18194221722801.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="E0702. Wild Fairy-slipper Orchid (Image from 85 mm lens, extension tube, F-16, tripod, and electronic release on Provia 100F film)">Open Image width="478" height="708"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-18194221722901.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="E0707. Wild Penstemon (Image from 85 mm lens, F-16, fill flash, and tripod on Astia 100 film)">Open Image width="478" height="708"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-18194221723001.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="E0708. Wild Penstemon (Image from 85 mm lens, extension tube, F-5.6, tripod, and mirror lockup on Velvia 50 film)">Open Image width="478" height="708"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-18194221723101.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="E0710. Wild Shootingstar (Image from 85 mm lens, extension tube, F-5.6, tripod, and mirror lockup on Provia 100F film)">Open Image width="478" height="708"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-18194221723201.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="E0711. Wild Blazingstar (Image from 60 mm lens, F-5.6, 1:4 ratio, tripod and mirror lockup on Provia 100F film)">Open Image width="478" height="708"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-18194221723301.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="E0712. Wild Tall Thistle (Image from 60 mm lens, F-11, 1:2.5 ratio, tripod, and mirror lockup on Kodachrome 25 film)">Open Image width="478" height="708"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-18194221723401.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="E0715. Wild Anemone Hepatica (Image from 60 mm lens, extension tube, F-5.6, tripod, and mirror lockup on Kodachrome 25 film)">Open Image width="478" height="708"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-18194221723501.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="E0716. Wild Venus's Looking Glass (85 mm lens, extension tube, F-8, tripod, and mirror lockup on Velvia 50 film)">Open Image width="478" height="708"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-18194221723601.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="E0717. Wild Spiderwort (Image from 60 mm lens, F-8, tripod, and mirror lockup on Velvia 50 film)">Open Image width="478" height="708"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-18194221723701.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="E0719. Wild Low Lupine (Image from 60 mm lens, F-11, 1:5 ratio 1/30 sec, overcast light, tripod, and mirror lockup on Provia 100F film)">Open Image width="478" height="708"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-18194221724001.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="E0720. Wild Blue Columbine (Image from 28 mm lens, F-5.6, foil reflector, tripod, and mirror lockup on Astia 100 film)">Open Image width="478" height="708"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-18194221723801.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="E0724. Wild Paintbrush Up Close (Image from 60 mm lens, F-11, 1:4.5 ratio, 1/30 sec, tripod, and mirror lockup on Kodachrome 25 film)">Open Image width="478" height="708"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-18194221723901.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="48-10. SHAGGY MANE -- This mushroom is in the inky cap family Coprinaceae. When first emerged from the soil, the pileus (cap) and lamellae (gills) are white, but as it matures the white flesh of the cap and gills begin to dissolve from the outside edge inward to pink, purple, and finally inky black (see the black edge of a cap in the shaggy mane photo in the vertical format section 48-10(Vb). The inky black liquid contains the mature spores which grow into more mushrooms. It's a choice edible mushroom when young (see vertical format section 48-10(Va) before it turns black. It's the most common mushroom of urban and suburban areas and can invade gardens and lawns. In gathering this mushroom one finds it very fragile as the cap easily falls from the stipe (stalk), but when first emerging through the soil it is tough enough that it can actually push through asphalt. This Shaggy Mane was photographed in a wooded floodplain near suburbs of North Platte, Nebraska by the North Platte River. A 24 mm lens, F-22, at 1 ft., and mirror lock-up put this image on Kodachrome 25 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-1903175082101..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="48. GEM-STUDDED PUFFBALL -- A diffuse stream of sunlight made its way through the coniferous canopy to the spruce needle covered forest floor revealing this freshly emerged puffball. Mushrooms are members of the Kingdom Fungi in the pentagon of life: Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists, and Monera. Mushrooms are not plants because they have no roots, stems, leaves, seeds, or green chlorophyll. Almost all of the mushroom body is below ground as filaments called mycelium. Only a very small part of the mushroom is visible above ground as the reproductive fruiting body producing millions of spores. A tripod and the 60mm lens, F-22 at a 3 second shutter speed were used for this image on Kodachrome 25 film. ">Open Image width="693" height="487"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-1903175082201..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="48-01. GIANT PUFFBALL -- Calvatia gigantea (8-20 in.) is in the puffball family Lycoperdaceae. When young this mushroom is white and about the size of a soccer ball (most puffballs are golf ball to softball size), but when mature it turns a brownish color with a fine leather texture. With age the white, firm spore mass (gleba) turns into a dark powdery mass of spores that are released in a puff of "smoke" from holes or cracks at the top of mature puffballs. This huge mushroom has an estimated 7 trillion spores inside it. When young and cut in half to show firm white flesh throughout its interior, this huge puffball is an excellent edible stir-fried in a pan. Widely distributed over the eastern third of North America in open forests and pastures during May to October. Photographed near the Big Fork River in northern Minnesota with a 60 mm lens, F-11 at 3 ft. on Provia F-100 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-19031750822001..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="48-02. WESTERN GIANT PUFFBALL -- Calvatia booniana (8-24 in.) is shaped like a large flattened white ball covered with polygonal patches on its surface. It is one of the largest puffballs and is found nowhere else in the world. It is an excellent edible if the interior is all white, and has been eaten since pioneer days. It is found in open woods, grassy areas, and in arid habitats often near sagebrush fruiting in western North America during spring, summer, and fall. Photographed in Edna Creek Campground, Idaho with a 17 mm lens, F-16, tripod, and remote release on Velvia 100 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-19031750822101..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="48-03. SCULPTURED GIANT PUFFBALL -- Calbovista subsculpta (3-6 in.) is in the puffball family Mycenastraceae. It is nearly round and about the size of a game softball. It is covered with outlined angular patches also called warts that have brownish hairs at the center of the patches. It is an excellent edible when the interior is all white and firm. It is found in western North America fruiting in late spring and summer in open woods and at higher elevations. Photographed in Humbug Spires Primitive Area south of Butte, Montana with a 28 mm lens, F-8, 1/250 sec. on Velvia 50 film. ">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-19031750822201..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="48-20. PARASOL MUSHROOM -- Parasol mushrooms are in the family Lepiotaceae. This photo shows lepiotas growing in a partial fairy ring in native grassland. This is probably a Green Gill lepiota (see close-up of young mushroom in vertical format section 48-20(Va). Complete fairy rings are in a full circle, and in the Middle Ages they were thought to be the work of "little people fairies" performing superstitious rituals as they danced around the fairy ring circle on moonlit nights. Fairy rings increase the size of their circle each year as the huge majority of the mushroom's underground biomass, the immense tangle of filaments termed mycelium spread outward. It would be wise not to eat parasol mushrooms because most species are poisonous. The vast majority of mushrooms are beneficial fungi known as saprophytes providing ecosystem services of nutrient recycling by decomposing plant materials and organic debris into nutrients in the soil. They recycle leaves, needles, nut husks, and all kinds of wood. Fungi produce enzymes that break down tough cellulose and lignin as well as plant starches. Species of mushrooms are decomposition specific. For example, one species grows fairy rings in grass and decomposes grasses, and other species grow fairy rings around old tree stumps decomposing wood. The vast majority of fungus biomass is the mycelium filaments below ground and the extremely tiny part of the fungus periodically appearing above ground is the mushroom fruiting body containing reproductive spores that grow into more fungus. Parasol mushrooms decompose organic debris, but many mushrooms are mycorrhizal fungi that form a symbiotic relationship with trees and other plants as reported in other mushrooms in this section. The mycelium of these mushrooms form sheaths around the roots of trees to extend the root system, to help extract nutrients from soil, to reduce water shortage stress, and to resist disease for the trees which provide carbohydrates to the fungi. Without these fungi, our forest could not grow giant trees, or could not grow at all in some reforested areas. A 17 mm lens at F-16 put this image on Provia F-100 film in a native mid-grass prairie 1 ½ miles southwest of Byron, Nebraska. ">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-1903175082301..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="48-30. KING BOLETE -- Boletus edulis (3¼-10 in. cap) is in the fleshy pore fungi family Boletaceae with about 125 species in North America. Many small round pores are present on the underside of the wide convex cap. The pores are openings of the small tubes containing the spores, and these tubes are connected to a gelatinous layer under the outer cap. It has a thick, stout, bulbous stalk. This is a photo of a solitary mushroom with a large 8 inch diameter cap under a conifer tree in the Lynx Creek drainage of the Sawtooth Mountains in Idaho. A 28 mm lens, F-11, tripod, and electronic release put this image on Provia F-100 film. ">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-1903175082401..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="48-41. ARMILLARIA ? -- Here is an example of the proverbial "What little brown mushroom is this?" The mushroom family Tricholomataceae is very large and difficult to identify by field characteristics. Photographed near Little Blake Lake in Wisconsin with a 28 mm lens at F-11 on Provia F-100 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-1903175082501..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="48-42. ARMILLARIA ? -- Here is another proverbial "What little brown mushroom is this?" The mushroom family Tricholomataceae is very large and difficult to identify by field characteristics. Photographed near Little Blake Lake in Wisconsin with a 28 mm lens at F-11 on Provia F-100 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-1903175082601..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="48-43. ARMILLARIA ? -- And another proverbial "What little brown mushroom is this?" The mushroom family Tricholomataceae is very large and difficult to identify by field characteristics. Photographed near Little Blake Lake in Wisconsin with a 60 mm lens at F-8, tripod, and mirror lock-up on Provia F-100 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-1903175082701..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="48-45. CLITOCYBE ? -- This tricholoma mushroom is clustered and overlapping with a white wavy cap. The gills appear to be attached or slightly descending in this photo. Photographed near Little Blake Lake in Wisconsin with a 28 mm lens at F-11 on Provia F-100 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-1903175082801..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="48-51. REDBELT -- Fomitopsis pinicola (2-12 in. cap) is in the polypore and shelf fungi family Polyporaceae. Polypore means many pores which are openings of spore bearing tubes on the underside of a thick, convex, shelf-like, bracket-shaped cap. This fruiting body cap is tough, fibrous, woody, and has no stalk. When young its surface is a shiny, resinous, brownish red color and later with age becomes gray to black, and finally becomes grooved and furrowed. Fresh young caps may have liquid drops on the surface as seen in this photo. Polypores are saprophytes on stumps, logs, and snags, and provide a very important ecosystem service of recycling wood into nutrients in the soil. Present year round and widely distributed from Alaska, Canada, and to Mexico, but most common in the North. Photographed at the DeVoto Memorial Cedar Grove beside the Lochsa River in Idaho with a 60 mm lens, F-11, and tripod on Provia F-100 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-19031750821001..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="48-60. CROWDED PARCHMENT -- This fungus is in the parchment family Stereaceae. They have thin, leathery, pleated, fan-shaped, overlapping, usually stalkless caps growing on deciduous dead wood in late summer and fall. Their undersides are relatively smooth producing spores on the surface instead of in tubes, on teeth, or on gills as in most mushrooms. This parchment mushroom is found throughout North America except in the Rocky Mountains. This fungus plays an important role in ecological services by decomposing deciduous dead wood. Photographed near the Skunk River at the I-35 rest stop north of Des Moines, Iowa with a 60 mm lens, F-22, tripod, and mirror lock-up at 5 sec. exposure on Kodachrome 25 film. ">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-19031750821101..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="48-65. DEER MUSHROOM ? -- Characteristics noted are a rather mature 3 inch cap expanded to nearly flat, but not the rounded hump that is supposed to be in the center of a Deer Mushroom cap. However, the grayish brown color with a whitish margin agrees with cap color of a Deer Mushroom. The lower portion of the gills on the underside of cap can be seen in this photo. The stalk tapers upward and is white and tinged with the cap color. It was growing on soil in a coniferous/deciduous forest in Scenic State Park in northern Minnesota in the fall. A 28 mm lens, F-11, and tripod put this image on Provia F-100 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-19031750821201..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="48-66. UNKNOWN ? -- Here is another proverbial "What is this little brown mushroom?" The photo shows a knobbed cap of about 3 inches. Field guide identification has not been forthcoming from this photo. Photographed near the previous photo in Scenic State Park with a 28 mm lens F-11, and tripod on Provia F-100 film. ">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-19031750821301..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="48-67. ROZITES CAPERATA ? -- This photo shows a straw-colored cap that is split. The partial veil ring is, however, above the midline of stalk. Photographed in the Rulo Bluffs Preserve in southeastern Nebraska with a 60 mm lens, F-22/16, 1:7 ratio, and fill flash on Kodachrome 25 film. ">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-19031750821401..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="48-68. CORTINARIUS FAMILY ? -- Another "What is this little brown mushroom?" A brownish mushroom with a flat, somewhat knobbed, wavy cap, and upturned, split cap margin. There appears to be no partial veil ring on their stalks. Photographed near Little Blake Lake in Wisconsin with a 28 mm lens, F-11, tripod, and mirror lock-up on Provia F-100 film. ">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-19031750821501..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="48-82. PESTLE-SHAPED CORAL -- Clavariadelphus pistillaris (¾-2¼ in. wide; 3-12 in. high) is in the coral fungi family Clavariaceae. This is a yellowish, club-like mushroom with wrinkles running lengthwise. It is one of the few coral fungi whose spongy-like flesh turns brown when bruised. The reproductive spores are on the surface of the club. They grow on the soil in coniferous forests in the eastern half of North America during July to September. Photographed near the Vermilion River in northern Minnesota with a 60 mm lens, F-8, tripod, and mirror lock-up at 4 sec. exposure in shade on Kodachrome 25 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-19031750821601..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="48-83. CAULIFLOWER CORAL -- Ramaria botrytis (2-5 in. wide; 3-6 in. high) is in the coral fungi family Clavariaceae. The dense, compactly branched head (modified cap) of this mushroom has white branches with pinkish tips and is about as wide as tall. It has a single, thick, white, and sometimes cone-shaped stalk. One field guide claims many mushroom hunters relish this large coral mushroom as one of the most flavorful, but another field guide says edible with caution because of type 8 toxins that may produce gastrointestinal irritation. This fungus is widely distributed in North America during summer and fall especially on soil under spruce and fir conifer forests. Photographed in the Hanging Bridge Campground north of Banks, Idaho with a 60 mm lens, F-16, tripod, mirror lock-up at 6 sec exposure in partial shade on Kodachrome 25 film. ">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-19031750822401..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="48-895. JELLY CLUB OR SLIME MOLD ? -- This is a photo of a tiny fungus growing on a decaying piece of wood. Photographed in the Claybanks Forest in Cerro Gordo County, Iowa with a 60 mm lens, F-16 1:1 ratio, tripod, mirror lock-up at 8 sec. exposure in shade on Kodachrome 25 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-19031750821701..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="48-896. STALKED SCARLET CUP -- Note small cup (about ¼ in. wide) interior a bright red and fading to light red on exterior. The stalk is white and becomes pink near the top. Photographed in the Amana Colonies, Iowa with a 55 mm lens on Fuji 100 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-19031750821801..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="48-897. SCARLET CUP -- Note this rather large, shallow, concave cup (about 1 in. wide) with a rich red interior and an exterior light red with a short white stalk (seen on young cup at bottom of photo). It was a useful medicinal plant used as an antibiotic by Native Americans (the Oneida Tribe). Photographed in the Loess Hills near Onowa, Iowa with a 60 mm lens, F-11 1:3 ratio, tripod, and mirror lock-up on Kodachrome 25 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-19031750821901..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="48-90. SHRUB AND HAIR LICHEN -- The greenish-yellow lichen is called Wolf Lichen and the dark brown hanging hair lichen is probably a horsehair lichen. One can think of lichens as a fungus structure enclosing algae and sometimes cyanobacteria in a symbiotic relationship allowing it to grow almost anywhere-on trees, logs, rocks, soil, streambeds, and cliffs. Fungi provide support, protection, and moisture for photosynthesizing algae and cyanobacteria that provide carbohydrates, vitamins, and proteins for the fungus. By virtue of their cooperating free living existence, lichens are epiphytes and not parasites on the plants they grow on. Edible horsehair lichen was used as an emergency winter food by Native Americans, and is eaten as winter food by deer, elk, moose, caribou, and flying squirrels in northern regions. These lichens are in Rocky Mountain forests from Canada to New Mexico. Photographed on a burned branch of a conifer near the Little Queens River in the Sawtooth Wilderness Area in Idaho with a 60 mm lens at F-11/8 on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-19031750822301..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="48-92. Lichen Art-e (Image from 85 mm lens, extension tube, F-16, 1/60 sec, tripod, and electronic release on Provia 100F film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-19031750823001..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="48-93. PINCUSHION ORANGE -- These lichens are growing on a wooden sign in the Pawnee Prairie in southeastern Nebraska. The circular bright orange disc-like structures are called apothecia that produce reproductive spores. The main body of a lichen is called the thallus (the tan branching structure below the orange discs in this photo). Another light colored lichen is growing beside the orange lichen. Vegetative reproduction occurs when the thallus breaks up into smaller pieces which are blown by the wind to new locations to start and grow more lichens. A 60 mm lens with extension tubes, 1:1 ratio (3X), F-32, tripod, and fill flash put this image on Kodachrome 25 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-19031750822601..jpg"> height="29"/>height="28"/> tooltip="48-04. PUFFBALL ? -- It appears to be a buffball that split into four quadrants. Photographed in Lancaster County, Nebraska with a 60 mm lens, F-22, 1:3 ratio, and foil reflector on Provia F-100 film.">Open Image width="478" height="708"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-8112422221501.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="48-10(Va). SHAGGY MANE -- A young choice edible mushroom. A 60 mm lens, F-8, 1:4.5 ratio, at 1/8 sec., tripod, and mirror lock-up put this image on Kodachrome 25 film.">Open Image width="478" height="708"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-811242222101.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="48-10(Vb). SHAGGY MANE -- An aging mushroom turning inky black at the margin of the cap. A 60 mm lens, F-16, 1:5 ratio, 1 sec., tripod, and mirror lock-up put this image of Kodachrome 25 film.">Open Image width="478" height="708"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-8112422222001.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="48-20(Va) PARASOL MUSHROOM -- Note the doorknob-shaped cap of this young mushroom with large pale pinkish patch remnants of the universal veil in the center that break into small scales on expansion near the margins exposing a white fibrillose cap surface. Note white, double-edged annulus ring of the partial veil on the upper end of a smooth, brownish-white, gradually enlarged toward the base, stalk of this mushroom. A 17 mm lens at F-16 put this image on Provia F-100 film.">Open Image width="478" height="708"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-811242222201.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="48-31. ASPEN SCABERSTALK -- Leccinum insigne (1½-6 in.) is in the Boletaceae family of fungi. A key characteristic of this species is a convex cap color more orange-cinnamon than bright rusty red. Its stalk is large and enlarged at the base to 1 inch, and sometimes slightly swollen in the middle (seen in this photo). The stalk surface has short, rigid scale-like projections (scabers) that at first are white, but eventually become black-tipped. This bolete fungus is associated with aspens and conifers, and is mycorrhizal with the roots of both of these trees. It is widely distributed in North America from June to September. Photographed in the Absaroka Beartooth Wilderness in Montana with an 85 mm lens, extension tube, F-16, foil reflector, tripod, and mirror lock-up on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="478" height="708"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-811242222601.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="48-32. LARCH SUILLUS -- Suillus grevillei (2-6 in. cap) is in the Boletaceae family of pore fungi. Its convex cap may be yellow, orange-red, or chestnut-red with age. The stalk is rather large, enlarged toward the base, yellowish above the annulus ring of the partial veil, and streaked reddish-brown below the annulus ring. This bolete fungus is mycorrhizal with the roots of Larch trees only. It is distributed in northern larch bogs of North America and fruits from early summer to late fall. Photographed in a Larch forest wetlands in the Agassiz National Wildlife Refuge in northern Minnesota with a 28 mm lens, F-11, tripod, and mirror lock-up at 1/8 sec. on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="478" height="708"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-811242222701.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="48-40. VELVET FOOT -- Flammulina velutipes tends to grow in clusters of reddish or brownish yellow, or orange caps (1-2 in.) and has a flexible, tough stalk that narrows at the base with dense, velvety brown hairs which give it the common name Velvet Foot. Another common name is Winter Mushroom because it is one of the few species that fruits in winter. It is widely distributed in North America and grows on living trees and dead wood. It is in the extremely huge and diverse family of all gilled mushrooms that do not fit classification in any other mushroom family. It is in the family Tricholomataceae with more than 75 genera, over 1000 species, and undoubtedly numerous others yet to be discovered. This family is divided into 3 big groups: stalkless mushrooms growing on wood or having lateral, off-center stalks (as seen in some of the individual mushrooms in this photo), fleshy mushrooms with gills descending the stalk and usually growing on soil, and thin-fleshed mushrooms with attached gills not descending the stalk and usually growing on soil. Photographed near the Skunk River by the I-35 rest stop north of Des Moines, Iowa in October with a 60 mm lens, F-11, tripod, and mirror lock-up in overcast, light sun at ½ sec. on Kodachrome 25 film.">Open Image width="478" height="708"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-811242222301.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="48-44. COMMON LACCARIA -- This tricholoma has a reddish-brown cap (½-2 in.) usually with a depression in the center. It has a thin stalk (1-3 in.) that is reddish or pinkish-brown. It is widely distributed in North America. This individual was in a moist thick moss/lichen bed in a northern Minnesota forested area in the fall. Photographed near the Vermilion River with a 60 mm lens, 1:3.5 ratio, F-11, tripod, mirror lock-up, and foil reflector at 1/30 sec. on Kodachrome 25 film.">Open Image width="478" height="708"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-811242222401.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="48-45(Va). CLITOCYBE ? -- This tricholoma mushroom is clustered and overlapping with a white wavy cap. The gills appear to be attached or slightly descending in this photo. Photographed in Scenic State Park in northern Minnesota with a 28 mm lens at F-11 on Provia F-100 film.">Open Image width="478" height="708"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-811242222501.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="48-50. STACKA HYDNUM -- Climacodon septentrionale is in the spine or tooth fungi family Hydnaceae. It is also known as the genus Hydnellum or Hydnum. These fungi have a cap that is continuous with the stalk. The 4-6 in. wide cap is in clusters that are connected to a 6-12 in. long stalk attached to a tree as seen in this photo. The caps are smaller near the top and bottom of the cluster and their color is off-white at first, then turning yellowish brown later with age. Instead of spore containing gills and tubes of most fungi, their spores are on spines or teeth that hang down underneath the caps. They are present on deciduous hardwood trees in central and eastern North America in late summer and early fall. Photographed in Lancaster County, Nebraska growing on a dead Walnut tree with an 85 mm lens, extension tube, F-16, tripod, and mirror lock-up at 1/15 sec. on Velvia 50 film. ">Open Image width="478" height="708"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-8112422222101.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="48-52. VIOLET TOOTHED POLYPORE -- This polypore usually has many caps covering stumps, logs, and snags that recycle wood into sawdusts. The caps (½-3 in.) are semicircular, thin, and flat with light and dark brown bands, and a thin white band bordering a violet colored band around the outer edges of these stalkless caps. At the underside of the cap, the violet colored pores form into spine-like teeth. This polypore is found throughout North America from May to December usually growing back from the initial caps to persist for several seasons mostly on many different species of deciduous dead trees, but rarely on conifers. Photographed in Scenic State Park in northern Minnesota with a 60 mm lens, F-22, tripod, and mirror lock-up at 8 sec. exposure on Kodachrome 25 film. ">Open Image width="478" height="708"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-811242222801.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="48-52(a). VIOLET TOOTHED POLYPORE -- This photo shows the spine-like teeth that contain the spores on the underside of the caps in the Violet Toothed Polypore in the previous photo 48-52. A 60 mm lens, F-16, tripod, and mirror lock-up at 4 sec. exposure put this image on Kodachrome 25 film. ">Open Image width="472" height="708"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-8112422222201.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="48-70. FLY AGARIC -- Fly Agaric (2-10 in. cap) is the common name, and Amanita muscaria is the scientific name of this mushroom in the family Amanitaceae. Most of the more than 130 species of amanitas grow on soil in coniferous/deciduous forests and are mycorrhizal with tree roots (see explanation of symbiotic mycorrhizal fungi in 48-20 Parasol Mushroom). This photo of a group of three amanitas in northern Minnesota in October have the usual yellowish color with darkest yellow in the center of the cap. This is a dangerous poisonous mushroom with type 3 toxins ibotenic acid and muscimol. If a large amount of this mushroom is eaten it often results in serious illness, but most people usually recover. After one hour of ingestion, there are symptoms of delirium, loss of coordination, drowsiness, dilated pupils, muscle spasms, profuse sweating, nausea, and vomiting. About 90 percent of fatal mushroom poisonings are caused by toxic amanitas. One must never taste a wild mushroom that could be poisonous because even one bite could be fatal. However, there are a few edible amanita species, but none should be eaten except by the most experienced mushroom hunters. To emphasize this point there is an old saying about mushroom hunters: "There are old mushroom hunters and there are bold mushroom hunters, but there are no old, bold mushroom hunters." Fly Agarics are common and widely distributed in North America from spring to fall. Photographed near the Big Fork River in northern Minnesota with a 17 mm lens, F-16, and tripod on Ectachrome 100G film.">Open Image width="465" height="708"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-811242222901.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="48-71. FLY AGARIC -- The term "agaric" in the common name refers to the presence of gills under the mushroom cap, but the term "fly" has a longer historical explanation. It probably comes from Europe when this mushroom was used as an insecticide sprinkled on milk to keep flies away. Another explanation claims that "fly" does not refer to insects, but to a medieval myth that delirium from eating this poisonous mushroom enabled flies to enter one's head and caused mental illness. All amanita fruiting bodies develop and grow from a round or oval structure called a button that is covered by a protective layer know as a universal veil. This small young structure as it matures is called a volva that contains the immature mushroom fruiting body's cap, gills, and stalk that grow from the volva after it pushes through the soil surface. As the mushroom grows out of the volva, the universal veil is stretched and breaks apart into light-colored remnants on the usual red-orange color (darkest in the center) of the cap. Note the scaly veil remnants on the surface of the stalk, ring bands of veil remnants at the base of the stalk, and the skirt ring at the top of the stalk which is the remnant of a separate, different partial veil that originally covered the developing gills. Most of these key mature fruiting body features can be seen in this photo of a Fly Agaric mushroom. Photographed near Little Blake Lake in Wisconsin with a 60 mm lens, F-8, tripod, and mirror lock-up on Provia F-100 film.">Open Image width="478" height="708"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-8112422221001.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="48-72. GRISETTE -- This Amanita vaginata has a gray colored cap with a key characteristic of a conspicuously groove-ribbed cap margin. Note the large, white patch remnants of the universal veil on top of the cap in this photo. This species comes in a variety of colors which can be described as A. v. alba (white), A. v. livida (brown), A. v. fulva (orange), and even a yellow variety. The Grisette mushroom is widely distributed throughout North America on soil in open forests and by grass near trees where it is most likely mycorrhizal with tree roots. Photographed near the St. Maries River in Idaho with a 60 mm lens, F-16, at 4 sec. exposure, tripod, and mirror lock-up on Kodachrome 25 film.">Open Image width="478" height="708"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-8112422221101.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="48-80. COMMON MOREL -- Morchella esculenta (1½-2 in. cap; 2¾-3½ in. high) is also known by the common name Yellow Morel or Honeycomb Morel, and is in the sponge mushrooms and morels family Morchellaceae. It has an oval to cone-shaped, yellow-brown, hollow head (modified cap) honeycombed with irregularly arranged ridges and pits fused completely around nearly to the bottom of its hollow stalk. Morels are included in the the major group of fungi called the Ascomycetes that have their reproductive spores in a sac called an ascus. The ascus is located in the honeycombed head of the morel and when mature the spores are forcibly discharged into the air. It is one of the easiest mushrooms to identify and has a natural, mild, tasty flavor. It is a choice, delicious edible mushroom, but it should be cooked before eating. Morels can be dried, stored in sealed plastic bags or glass jars for several years, and later when placed in warm water they will return nearly to their original size. Many people find that dried morels taste the same or even better than fresh collected ones. Morel species are so variable that amateur and professional collectors do not know how many species there really are. Attempts to commercially cultivate morels have not been very successful. Morels are commonly found fruiting on forested bottomland in riparian areas of rivers and streams. They are widely distributed throughout temperate North America and usually appear in early spring, but can be found from March to July depending on locality. Photographed near the North Platte River by North Platte, Nebraska with a 55 mm lens on Fuji 100 film.">Open Image width="478" height="708"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-8112422221201.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="48-81. COMMON STINKHORN -- Phallus impudicus is in the mushroom family Phallaceae. Note the brownish olive, slimy spore mass covering irregular white ridges with pits on the head (modified cap) of this young emerging stinkhorn. Note the rupture volva cup is white unlike the P. hadriani species whose volva turns purple when exposed to air, and unlike the Net Stinkhorn whose lower margin of its head forms a beautiful white, netted skirt hanging completely around the stalk. The slimy spore mass produces a rotting-flesh, putrid odor that attracts flies which disperse the spores that adhere to insects' feet. (Natural selection operates in all Kingdoms of living organisms, including the fungi Kingdom. Stinkhorns have evolved an adaptation to facilitate wide dispersal of their reproductive spore cells by producing the same or similar putrid odor chemical compounds generated from rotting-flesh of the animal Kingdom. Flies with a ganglia brain have been "fooled" by a mushroom without a brain! Of course, the process of natural selection did not accomplish this feat in stinkhorns with a purpose toward a specific goal of attracting flies, but rather it is a materialistic, mechanistic, gradual process of non-random accumulation of random inherited traits over many generations of stinkhorns.) Photographed in Lancaster County, Nebraska with a 60 mm lens, F-11, 1:3 ratio, tripod, and mirror lock-up at 10 sec. exposure in shade on Kodachrome 25 film.">Open Image width="478" height="708"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-8112422221301.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="48-81(a). COMMON STINKHORN -- This fully emerged P. impudicus (1¼-1½ in. head; 6-7in. high) is a photo taken a day or so later of the same individual in photo 48-81. Remarkably, it has been reported that some stinkhorns can grow a rapid 0.2 inches per minute! Note the thick, honey-combed white stalk which is hollow inside. The putrid odor was present in this mature stinkhorn. Most people note the resemblance of this mushroom to a certain condition of the male human reproductive organ. Photographed in Lancaster County, Nebraska with a 60 mm lens, F-8, 1:4 ratio, tripod, and mirror lock-up at 1 sec. exposure on Kodachrome 25 film. ">Open Image width="478" height="708"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-8112422221401.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="48-91. WOLF LICHEN -- This is a stand by itself, a little bit hanging, about 2 to 5 inches long, bright chartreuse colored, and angular, much-branched shrub lichen growing on a Douglas Fir tree. Within the many little pits of the tangled branches of this lichen are reproductive structures called soredia and isidia containing spores that are dispersed to other locations to grow into more shrub lichens. Wolf Lichen gets its name from northern Europe where they poisoned wolves using a lichen with toxic vulpinic acid and mixed it with ground glass, nails, and animal fat for wolves to eat. Photographed in the Humbug Spires Primitive Area south of Butte, Montana with a 60 mm lens, F-11, 1:8 ratio, tripod, and mirror lock-up on Velvia 50 film (see a 1:2 ratio closeup of this lichen in the gallery section).">Open Image width="478" height="708"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-8112422221601.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="48-94. CRUSTOSE LICHENS -- Gray-green and rust-orange crustose lichens growing on basalt rock in the Birds of Prey Natural Area near Boise, Idaho. These lichens are resistant to drying out (desiccation) and can remain dormant for long periods of time. They absorb water from rain or dew and again grow and reproduce. A 24 m lens, F-16, tripod at 1 ¼ ft., mirror lock-up, and 1/15 sec put this image on Velvia 50 film. ">Open Image width="478" height="708"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-8112422221901.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="41-1. TEN-LINED JUNE BEETLE -- Of the 113 families of beetles in the arthropod classification order Coleoptera, Polyphylla decemlineata is one species in the 5th largest beetle family Scarabaeidae with about 1,700 species in North America. Coleoptera has the greatest number of species in the entire animal kingdom with about 300,000 beetles species on Earth. This total number of beetles species approaches the total number of plant species on Earth. Of about one million known animal species on Earth, 3/4 (about 750,000) are insects. Beetles represent almost half of all insects on Earth (about 30,000 beetle species are in North America). This means that about 1 in 4 animals on Earth is a beetle! New Zealand reports the oldest beetle fossil to be 145 million years old living during the age of dinosaurs. Remarkably, many beetle fossils 15 to 47 million years old appear almost lifelike, including their iridescent colors. Furthermore, fossil evidence indicates little evolution or extinction of beetles during the last million years! It appears that the most successful animal ever evolved on Earth by the process of natural selection is the beetle! There are very few places on Earth that do not have beetles. The eminent entomologist, Dr. Richard E. White, tells us "There are virtually no parts of living or dead land plants that are not fed upon by beetles." Most adult scarab beetles feed at night on plant foliage, flowers and some fruit, while their larvae feed underground on roots of plants or soil humus. Photographed in the Sandhills of Nebraska with a 60 mm lens in bright sun, F-11, at 1/16 sec, and tripod on Velvia 50 film. ">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-213750411723801..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="41-101. MAY BEETLE (Phyllophaga sp.) -- These beetles are commonly called "Junebugs", and they are well known for their noisy, clumsy movements when they are attracted to lights, screen doors and window screens during early summer nights. The Phyllophaga genus in the Scarabaeidae family is very large with about 400 species widely distributed across North America except Alaska and far northwestern Canada. Adults are about 1 inch long, usually an orange-brown color, and most have no "hair" on their rather smooth dorsal surface. The adults are known as leaf chafers because they feed on foliage of trees and shrubs. If weather conditions are cool and wet producing a late spring, and then suddenly there is a warm dry early summer, hordes of adults may emerge causing excessive defoliation of trees. If, however, there is normal spring moisture and warming, adults emerge over a longer time period and their feeding will cause minimal damage to tree and shrub foliage. Their mostly white, C-shaped larvae (see a larva in Natural History Misc. Section #52-15) can cause more damage to plants than the adults. Larvae feed underground on roots of trees, shrubs, grasses, corn, soybeans, other crops and soil humus. Photographed in Lancaster County, Nebraska with a 60 mm lens, F-11, 1:1 ratio, and double fill flash on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-213750411713001..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="41-2. NOTCH-MOUTHED GROUND BEETLE -- Dicaelus sp. is in the 3rd largest beetle family Carabidae with about 2,600 species in North America. Beetles have chewing mouth parts that move side to side, and as this ground beetle's common name describes, there is a deep groove at the tip of their labrum (upper lip). The antenna is threadlike and in ground beetles, as in most beetle species, the antenna has 11 segments. Most ground beetles are all black and, as in all beetles, most of the body is covered on top with a ridged, grooved, shell-like covering called the elytra. Ground beetles are most active at night and during the day they are found beneath objects away from sunlight. They are omnivores that feed on living, dying or dead insect adults, larvae, and caterpillars. They also eat fungi, pollen, seeds, decayed fruits and berries. Photographed in Lancaster county, Nebraska with a 60 mm lens, F-32, 1:1 ratio, and fill flash on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-213750411713101..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="41-3. DARKLING BEETLE -- Eleodes obscura is in the 6th largest beetle family Tenebrionidae with about 1,180 species in North America. Beetles can easily be identified from other insects by the hard, shell-like covering over most of the top of their body called the elytra. It is actually a highly modified front pair of rigid, hard wings used to cover a 2nd pair of thin, soft, flexible hind wings used for flying that are folded over the top of the abdomen. When a beetle is at rest, the elytra closes together and meets in a straight line down the middle of its back. The elytra alone is a key characteristic separating beetles from almost all other insects. Arthropod beetle animals are insects classified in the order Coleoptera and the word coleoptera means "sheath wings". As in nearly all beetles the antenna has 11 segments, an it is usually threadlike, beadlike or slightly clubbed in darkling beetles. Photographed in the Boise, Idaho foothills with a 60 mm lens, F-11, and fill flash on Ectachrome 100 VS film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-213750411713201..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="41-4. BROAD-NECKED DARKLING BEETLE -- Note that the large pronotum (on top of prothorax) between the head and elytra is wider than long and this gives it the common name "broad-necked". Eleodes species' normally feed on seeds and roots of native plants, but because of widespread agriculture, they feed primarily on wheat. Beetles have complete metamorphosis which means their young are worm-like larvae that do not look like the adults. Eleodid larvae are called false wireworms that feed on sprouting seeds of wheat and corn, but they also eat sprouting seeds of grasses, legumes, sugar beets and garden crops. They also feed on fungi and windblown organic matter. Photographed in Idaho in Swinging Bridge Campground with a 60 mm lens, F-22/32, and fill flash on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-213750411713301..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="41-5. TYPICAL DARKLING BEETLE -- In this Eleodes sp. note the notched eye behind the base of antenna that is nearly always a key characteristic of darkling beetles. In the arid West, they are commonly called "head stander" beetles because they take a defensive posture of head down and rear end raised high off the ground, even while moving they appear to be standing on their head when running. They squirt or spray offensive volatile chemicals from the tip of their raised rear end to defend against predators. This behavioral adaptation in effective most of the time. Grasshopper mice, however, overcome this maneuver by using their front feet to jam the beetle's rear end down into the ground and eat it at the head end on down to avoid the offensive spray. Photographed near the I-80 Pine Bluffs Rest Area on the Wyoming/Nebraska border with a 60 mm lens, F-11, 1:1 ratio, and fill flash on Provia 100F film. ">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-213750411713401..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="41-6. TOOTH-NECKED LONG-HORNS -- The Prionus genus has about 16 species ranging across North America. A key characteristic is the tooth-like projections on the outer edge of the pronotum located between head and abdomen, and this gives it the common name "tooth-necked". Prionus is in the Cerambycidae family, and some are among the largest (about 3 inches long) of beetles. Their larvae feed on roots of living deciduous and coniferous trees. They also feed on trees that have been dead for several years, telephone poles and structural timber. This individual was on a Yucca plant in grassland habitat with many invasive coniferous Eastern Red Cedar trees and very few deciduous trees in the Sandhills of Nebraska. Photographed with a 60 mm lens at F-11 and fill flash on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-213750411713501..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="41-7. CARRION BEETLE (Necrodes surinamensis) -- Note that the shiny black pronotum is much larger than the head, and the somewhat dull black elytra does not completely cover the rear segments of the abdomen. Note 11 segments in a clearly focused right antenna, and that the last few segments at the end of antenna are "clubbed". Also note, that the left rear leg shows part of the enlarged "thigh" under its abdomen and all of the bowed "shin", indicating this is a male. This individual is resting on the hair of a dead calf. There are reports that these adult beetles feed on carrion (decaying animal flesh), but close observation shows that they feed on maggots (larvae) of flies. The carrion beetle larvae, however, do feed on carrion. Carrion beetles are in the Silphidae family of beetles. Photographed in Republic County, Kansas with a 60 mm lens, F-11, 1:1 ratio, and fill flash on Provia 100F film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-213750411713601..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="41-8. CARRION BEETLE (Nicrophorus marginatus) -- Key characteristics are a shiny black elytra with 2 separate wide orange bands, and several rear abdominal segments not covered by the elytra. Note the pronotum is missing, exposing a yellow "hairy" prothorax. This carrion beetle is active during the day in meadows and grasslands ranging over most of U.S. and southern Canada. They feed on small dead animals such as mice and birds as well as fly larvae. (I have found that older model Subaru automobiles attract mice. I routinely set mouse traps in upper levels of the engine compartment to kill mice and prevent electrical wire damage. Two nights of car camping in grasslands of the Nebraska Sandhills produced this dead mouse and 2 carrion beetles. The other beetle is in the next photo #41-9 ) Photographed with a 60 mm lens, F-11, and fill flash on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-213750411713701..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="41-9. CARRION BEETLE (Nicrophorus sp.) -- Note that this carrion beetle has orange spots and patches on its elytra, orange "clubs" at the ends of its antennae, yellowish "hairs" showing through the slight separation between pronotum and head, and a piece of dead mouse in its jaws. This individual was found with the dead mouse and beetle in the previous photo #41-8). Photographed on sand in the Sandhills of Nebraska with a 60 mm lens, F-11, and fill flash on Velvia 50 film">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-213750411713801..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="41-10. BUMBLE BEE SCARAB (?) -- Note hairy body and 3-prong lamellate segments at the end of antennae that appears to be characteristic of the Glaphyridae family of beetles. This beetle was flying during the day in sandy habitat of the Sandhills of Nebr. A 60 mm lens and flash on Astia 100 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-213750411713901..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="41-11. WHITE-SPOTTED SAWYER -- Monochamus scutellatus is also known as the Black Pine Sawyer, and it varies in color and pattern; but a key characteristic is the white spot on the upper anterior elytra. Note extremely long antennae that are at least 1/2 the body length or longer in long-horned beetles, and they can be up to 3 times the body length in males. Each side of the pronotum, located between the head and elytra, has a prominent blunt, spine-like projection (not clearly visible in this photo). It is in the sawyers, pruners, borers and girdling Cerambycidae family of long-horned beetles. They range in coniferous forests across North America except in the central U.S. Adults are active during the day and feed on twig bark. Females chew slits in twig bark and lay eggs in the slits. The hatched larvae then bore into cambium sapwood where they introduce a blue-staining fungi that can be seen in resin oozing from bark. The larvae are white with brown heads and they make U-shaped tunnels (packing sawdust and dried poop called frass behind them) in dying and dead conifers, usually pine trees. When walking in a forest, you may hear a noisy, dead log or snag (standing dead tree) with streams of sawdust and frass falling out of holes in the wood--check it out more closely. The sound of rhythmic, sawing-like gnawing of larvae can be heard more clearly by pressing one's ear against a log, snag or bark of an infested tree. This adult long-horn beetle was photographed in Glacier National Park with a 60 mm lens, F11/8, 1:5 ratio, and fill flash on Velvia 50 film. ">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-213750411714001..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="41-12. CEDAR TREE BORER -- Semanotus ligneus is about 1/2 inch long and found throughout the U.S. It is in the Cerambycidae family of long-horned beetles. Females deposit eggs under bark of dying or recently dead conifers of cedar, arborvitae and junipers in spring. Larvae hatch and bore mostly into cambium sapwood and sometimes into central heartwood of conifer trees. Photographed in Thayer County, Nebr. with a 60 mm lens, extension tubes (2x), F-11, and fill flash on Velvia 50 film. ">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-213750411714101..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="41-13. LOCUST BORER -- Megacyllene robiniae is about 3/4 inch long and has a velvety black body with yellow bars on the head, pronotum and elytra, including a distinct letter "W" on top of the elytra in the middle of its body. The antennae are very dark brown (almost black) and the legs are reddish brown. The adults are abundant in the fall feeding on goldenrod flower pollen and nectar, and the larvae bore into the sapwood (cambium) of living Black Locust trees, causing considerable damage. They range in eastern Canada, and in central and eastern U.S. Photographed in Republic County, Kansas on a tree stump with a 60 mm lens, F-11, 1:1 ratio, and fill flash on Provia 100F film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-213750411714201..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="41-14. BANDED ASH BORER -- Neoclytus acuminatus is about 3/4 inch long, has 1 yellowish band on the front of its prothorax, 4 yellow bands on its elytra, and the 1st two bands meet forming 2 circles on top of the front part of its elytra. The female lays eggs deep into bark cracks, and the larvae completely bore honeycomb patterns in sapwood (cambium) that causes much damage to ash logs left in forest areas or stored logs with bark left on wood. They range throughout the northern and southern U.S. Photographed in Lancaster County, Nebraska on a leaf with a 60 mm lens, F-11, 1:1 ratio, and double fill flash on Velvia 50 film. ">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-213750411714301..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="41-15. HAIRY PINE BORER -- A key characteristic of adult long-horned beetles in the Tragosoma genus is a hairy thorax. Tragosoma depsarius is common in coniferous forests of western Canada down to California, east to Montana, and in northeastern U.S. Larvae bore throughout the tree sapwood (cambium) of dead, downed pine and Douglas-fir trees. Photographed along Pahaska Trail near the east entrance of Yellowstone National Park with a 60 mm lens, F-11, and fill flash on Velvia 50 film. ">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-213750411714401..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="41-16. RED MILKWEED BEETLE -- There are about 13 species of these long-horned beetles in the Tetraopes (tetra means 4) genus in the Cerambycidae family of beetles. Included among the black markings on their all reddish-pink bodies, there appears to be 4 black eyes on their head! The base of the in focus left antenna of adult in this photo of T. tetrophthalmus shows the unique key characteristic of each compound eye divided into 2 eyes. Also note, they have 4 black spots on their pronotum located between head and abdomen. The Red Milkweed Beetle (about 1/2 inch long) is the most common species present in the central and eastern U.S. and is also found in Canada, and it feeds primarily on the Common Milkweed. Adults are most abundant when milkweed is blooming, and both larvae and adults feed on milkweed plants. Adults are immune to the white, toxic latex fluid that flows from torn milkweed leaves and stems, and the larvae bore into stems, overwinter in roots, pupate in spring and adults emerge in early summer. Photographed on Common Milkweed blossoms in Lancaster County, Nebraska with a 60 mm lens, F-16, 1/8 sec, 1:1.5 ratio, mirror lockup, tripod, mechanical release, and in bright overcast natural light on Velvia 50 film. ">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-213750411714501..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="41-17. BLACK-SPOTTED LADY BEETLE -- These small (about 1/4 inch long) beetles in the Coccinellidae family are also known as ladybird beetles or ladybugs. One genus of about 18 species has various arrangements of black spots, blotches or stripes on the top of their bodies. Even an individual species shows much variation in black markings on the pronotum and elytra covering their bodies. Note that their body form is more elongate in shape compared to most more round lady beetle species. Both adults and larvae (they look like fat baby alligators) feed on large numbers of aphids, mites, eggs and larvae of many other insects. Studies show that a lady beetle larva eats about 25 aphids per day and an adult eats about 56 aphids per day! They are the most beneficial of beetles. Many lady beetles have a "reflex bleeding" for defense against predators by oozing irritating liquid chemicals from their knee joints. Photographed in Lancaster County, Nebraska with a 60 mm lens, F-11, extension tubes (3x), and double fill flash on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-213750411714601..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="41-18. ASIAN MULTICOLORED LADY BEETLE -- The genus Harmonia in the Coccinellidae family of lady beetles includes 3 introduced species in the U.S. One arboreal (tree-dwelling) species, H. axyridis (about 1/4 inch long), is used for biological control of aphids in pecan and apple orchards. It ranges from southeastern Canada throughout most of the eastern half of the U.S. It may be competing with and displacing native lady beetles. They hibernate in masses of thousands of beetles in the fall, and produce a permeating odor. Photographed in Lancaster county, Nebraska with a 60 mm lens, extension tubes (2x), F-16/11, and double fill flash on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-213750411714701..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="41-19. TWICE-STABBED LADY BEETLE -- Chilocorus stigma (about 1/8 inch long) is named for the 2 red spots on its black elytra, and the ventral abdomen is also red. Adults and larvae are beneficial predators of tiny scale insects. They range in the eastern U.S. and west to Alberta Canada and Arizona. Photographed in the Needles Wilderness Area near Lake Havasu City, Arizona with a 60 mm lens, extension tubes (2x), and fill flash on Provia 100F film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-213750411714801..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="41-20. SWAMP MILKWEED LEAF BEETLE (?) -- The key characteristic of a black X across the midline of an orange elytra is not very prominent in this individual. However, this leaf beetle (about 1/2 inch long) was found in wetlands habitat beside a river. It ranges throughout most of North America. Leaf beetles are in the 4th largest family Chrysomelidae in the order Coleoptera in the class Insecta. Leaf beetles are very diverse, colorful vegetarians of over 1,700 species with many newly discovered species waiting to be named. Larvae usually feed on foliage, some feed on roots, and a few are leaf miners, making tiny tunnels within leaves as they feed. The adults feed on leaves and flowers. Adult Milkweed Leaf Beetles nip milkweed leaf veins to drain the white, toxic, latex fluid before feeding. Photographed near the Big Fork River in northern Minnesota with a 60 mm lens, extension tubes (3x), F-11, and double flash on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-213750411714901..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="41-21. PENNSYLVANIA LEATHERWING -- Chauliognathus pennsylvanicus (about 1/2 inch long) is in the soldier beetles Cantharidae family that resembles fireflies without light-producing ability. Their soft, thin elytra loosely covers the abdomen (giving the name leatherwing), and about a 3rd of soldier beetle species have a short elytra that exposes the ends of the flight wings and abdomen. The pronotum slightly extends over the mostly visible head viewed from above. The adults fly well and are abundant during the day on flowers eating pollen, nectar and providing pollination, and on foliage eating aphids and other insects. Soldier beetle larvae live mostly in leaf-litter, downed logs, decaying wood, debris, or even under stones where they feed on grasshopper eggs and other insects' eggs, larvae, small caterpillars and even other small beetles. There are more than 470 species in North America, mostly east of the Rocky Mountains. Photographed on a native Tall Thistle flower in Lancaster County, Nebraska with a 60 mm lens F-11/8, 1:2 ratio, and fill flash on Velvia 50 film">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-213750411715001..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="41-22. BLACK BLISTER BEETLE -- Blister beetles are in the Meloidae family of beetles. Their body is soft and the leathery elytra loosely covers the abdomen, but sometimes its short so that part of the rear end is exposed. A key characteristic of a Black Blister Beetle, as in nearly all blister beetles, is a broad head wider than the pronotum connected with a short, narrow "neck". As a defense against predators such as birds or large ground beetles, blister beetles produce "reflex bleeding"--they ooze blood containing cantharidin from their knee joints and other body parts. The chemical irritant cantharidin causes blisters on human skin, giving them their common name. However, it does not stop mantids or robber flies from preying on blister beetles. In some species the larvae undergo unusual, complex development called "hypermetamorphosis". The female lays eggs in soil and after the larvae hatch, they search for grasshopper egg pods for food, and one larva can eat 30-40 eggs. As the larva grows it develops long, slender legs on a sleek, fast-moving body that climbs up flower stems to climb on a bee visiting the flower. When the bee flies to its burrow, the larva jumps off, molts into a typical sedentary grub, eats the stored pollen and nectar for the bee's young larvae, and eats the bee's larvae too! The last larval molt changes into a pupa that overwinters to eventually produce an adult that emerges in summer. Adults are vegetarian and feed on flowers and foliage. Photographed in Lancaster County, Nebraska with a 60 mm lens, F-11/8, 1:2 ratio, and fill flash on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-213750411715101..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="41-23. FALSE BOMBARDIER BEETLE -- This ground beetle (about 1 inch long) closely resembles the smaller bombardier beetle (about 1/2 inch long) except that it has a black head; bombardier beetles do not have black heads. Note that the pronotum is much narrower than the elytra, and the antennae have 11 segments. These beneficial beetles feed mostly on cankerworm caterpillar pests. The 11 species of Galerita range mostly in the southern half of the U.S. Photographed in Lancaster County, Nebraska with a 60 mm lens, F-32, 1:1 ratio, and double flash on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-213750411715301..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="41-24. ROVE BEETLE -- Paederus sp. belongs to the largest family of beetles, Staphylinidae, in the arthropod insect order Coleoptera. There are over 4,100 rove beetle species in North America! They are tiny to small (usually about 1/20 to 1/2 inch long) and tend to go unnoticed living everywhere on Earth in soil, soil litter, logs, caves, and in ant, termite, mammal and bird nests; on flowers, fungi, carrion and manure; under stones, logs, bark and other objects on the ground; and along the shores of streams, lakes and oceans. Even though they have very short wing covers (much reduced elytra) exposing much of their abdomen, most fly really well with well-developed wings and when not flying they neatly fold under the elytra. Most rove beetles are not harmful to humans and many are beneficial predators of insect pests. It's important to note that even though Paederus spp. do not bite, sting or produce "reflex bleeding", they do produce the toxic irritant pederin in their blood (hemolymph), and in eggs of most females. Research by Kellner, R.L.L., 1996 & 2001 in Germany found paederines with pederin provided protection from predators (wolf spiders avoid larvae containing pederin), and adult rove beetles crushed on human skin cause severe dermatitis and blisters, especially in tropical regions. Studies by Piel, J. at the Max Planck Institute in a report by Gertsch, J., 2010 from Switzerland found that pederin actually comes from bacteria (Pseudomonas sp.) that live symbiotically inside rove beetles. Their research also found that pederin blocks cell division and may be useful as an anticancer treatment. Photographed in wetlands habitat of the Squaw Creek National Wildlife Refuge in northwestern Missouri with a 60 mm lens, extension tubes (3x), F-11, and fill flash on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-213750411715401..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="41-25. DUNG BEETLE -- Canton sp. is about 1/2 inch long. There are about 21 species in this genus known as large dung beetles ranging in size from about 1/2 to 1 inch long. They are also called "tumble bugs" because they are quite comical in the way males roll dung balls with energetic effort, while females ride on top or assist along side, and sometimes working against each other in moving the dung ball over obstacles. They eventually bury the balls of dung a few inches underground and an egg is laid on a dung ball that then becomes a "brood ball" with a larva developing inside. Other dung balls become "food balls" the adults eat. Photographed on sand in the Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge in the Sandhills of Nebraska with a 60 mm lens, F-11, 1:1 ratio, and fill flash on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-213750411715501..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="41-26. FLOUR BEETLE AND LARVA -- They are in the Tenebrionidae family of beetles and are found primarily on milled grain products throughout the world. Two species of flour beetles are best separated by form and structure of their antenna segments. If the antenna club segments form abruptly in large size compared to the preceding segments, it is a Red Flour Beetle. If antenna club segments form gradually in larger size than preceding segments, it is a Confused Flour Beetle. The antenna on the flour beetle in this photo is not completely visible, but it appears to be rather abruptly clubbed. Beetle and larva were found in a bag of flour in our kitchen in Lancaster County, Nebraska and photographed with a 60 mm lens, extension tubes (3x), F-32, and flash on Kodachrome 25 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-213750411715601..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="41-27. CHECKERED BEETLE ON YUCCA -- Note the threadlike antenna is somewhat clubbed, the bulging eye, the head as wide as the cylindrical pronotum, the pronotum narrower than the elytra, the tarsi (last segments of leg below the tibia) have lobes, the body (about 1/2 inch long) covered with bristly hairs, and it is brightly colored with orange and blue/black. These characteristics indicate this is a checkered beetle. Checkered Beetles are in the Cleridae family of the beetles insect order Coleoptera, and they often have red, orange, yellow, white and blue/black colors. This individual appears to be Enoclerus sp., and they are among the most colorful checkered beetles. They are active during the day and range throughout North America. Photographed on a yucca pod in daylight on a Yucca plant in the Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge in the Sandhills of Nebraska with a 60 mm lens, F-11 1:1 ratio, and fill flash on Provia 100F film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-213750411715701..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="41-271. CHECKERED BEETLE ON DEAD LEAF -- Note the thread-like antenna is clubbed, the bulging eye, the head appears to be as wide or wider than the cylindrical pronotum, the pronotum is narrower than the elytra, the body (about 1/2 inch long) is covered with bristly hairs, and it is a colorful orange, yellow and black. These characteristics indicate this is a checkered beetle. Checkered beetles are in the Cleridae family of the beetles insect order Coleoptera, and they often have red, orange, yellow, white and blue/black colors. This individual appears to be Enoclerus sp., and they are among the most colorful checkered beetles. Both adults and larvae of the genus Enoclerus are active predators of bark beetles, weevils and other insect borers (both the adults and their larvae are eaten by checkered beetles). They are active during the day and range throughout North America. Photographed in Lancaster County, Nebraska with a 60 mm lens, 1:1 ratio, F-11, and double fill flash on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-213750411715801..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="41-28. CRIMSON SALTFLAT TIGER BEETLE -- Cicindela fulgida shows the distinctive characteristics of tiger beetles as seen from above: threadlike antennae that usually curve down near the end, large bulging eyes, head including eyes usually wider than pronotum, pronotum narrower than front of elytra, elytra usually widest behind the half way length, long slender legs (tarsi 5-5-5, means the ends of 3 legs on one side below the tibia each have 5 segments), note the last segment has 2 claws, and most have colorful, sometimes iridescent bodies with light-colored patterns on the elytra. Tiger beetles are active during the day, especially bright sunny days. They run fast, stop, and run again, then fly rapidly a short distance to quickly land on the ground and run, stop, and run again. The adults are ferocious predators on the prowl catching and pouncing on their insect prey, killing and eating with there powerful sickle-shaped jaws. This hunting and feeding behavior gives them their common name. Tiger beetles are in their very own Cicindelidae family with 4 genera ranging throughout North America. They are found on almost every part of the Earth, except Antarctica, Tasmania, small oceanic islands and atolls. Their habitats are edges of lakes, rivers and streams, on sandy areas, sand dunes, beaches, dry open ground, saline wetland salt flats, mud flats and open paths. Photographed on salt flats of the saline wetlands near Arbor Lake north of Lincoln, Nebraska with a 60 mm lens, 1:1 ratio, F-32, and fill flash on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-213750411715901..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="41-29. BRONZED TIGER BEETLE -- Cicindela repanda is widespread in North America except in parts of the far West. Their preferred habitat is the beach areas of lakes, rivers and streams. This cicindelid is in the genus Cicindela in the Cicindelidae family with about 2,700 species so far and probably another 200 waiting to be discovered (published in Wings from The Xerces Society For Invertebrate Conservation). This ties the tiger beetle family as the 3rd largest along with the ground beetles family Carabidae. It's important to note that the light-colored pattern of the elytra is in some form of variation on 90 species of cicindelids in the U.S. This is an example of an evolving color pattern that seems to have arisen from light markings similar to those on the Bronzed Tiger Beetle. Photographed on the dry salt flat areas of the saline wetlands near Little Salt Creek in Lancaster County north of Lincoln, Nebraska with a 60 mm lens, F-16/11, 1:1 ratio, and fill flash on Velvia 50 film. ">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-213750411716001..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="41-30. TWELVE-SPOTTED TIGER BEETLE -- Note that most of the 12 "spots" on Cicindela duodecimguttata are tear-shaped, 4 are on the front edge of the elytra, the 4 on the middle edge of elytra are double tears touching or separated, and 4 are on the rear edge of elytra. Adult females lay one egg in each of several small pits dug in the ground under the shade of a small plant. When larvae hatch, they dig and form vertical burrows in dry, hard soil. Then they position themselves with their flat heads flush with the soil surface, and wait and watch to grab insects that pass by. During the action of grabbing prey with their well-developed jaws, they anchor themselves by jabbing curved hooks on their 5th abdominal segment into the side of the burrow to prevent them from being pulled out of the burrow. Photographed on dry salt flats in the saline wetlands habitat near Little Salt Creek in Lancaster County north of Lincoln, Nebraska with a 60 mm lens, F-16/11, and fill flash on Velvia 50 film. ">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-213750411716101..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="41-31. BIG SAND TIGER BEETLE -- Cicindela formosa (about 3/4 inch long) is also known by another common name, Beautiful Tiger Beetle-and it is. Note the metallic blackish-bronze iridescent head, thorax, legs and underside with a few white bristly hairs, and iridescent blue-green antennae. Note the light-tan pattern markings in the blue-black elytra, and the elytra edges of iridescent red, green and blue. Its habitat is the sand dune edges of the Midwest and northeastern U.S. and adjacent Canada. Photographed on sand of the Sandhills of Nebraska with a 60 mm lens, F-11, 1:1 ratio, and fill flash on Velvia 50 film. ">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-213750411716201..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="41-32. FESTIVE TIGER BEETLE -- Cincidela scutellaris (about 1/2 inch long) is obviously a solid-colored iridescent beautiful tiger beetle. Tiger beetles have now attracted thousands of amateur biologists, photographers and passionate hobbyists who can help guide future conservation policy and budget planning by professional biologists, politicians and legislators. Already, in the U.S., 4 species of tiger beetles have been declared threatened or endangered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service lending more evidence that the 6th major mass extinction of life on Earth is real and occurring right now! Photographed on sand in the Sandhills of Nebraska with a 60 mm lens, F-11, 1:1 ratio, and fill flash on Provia 100F film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-213750411716301..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="41-33. WHITE-CLOAKED TIGER BEETLES -- Cicindela togata beetles with the male on top in mate-guarding position. Note the well-developed sickle-shaped mandibles (jaws) gripping the female behind the thorax. Also, note the well-developed jaws and upper lip (labrum on this female). This tiger beetle's habitat is on the salt flats of the Little Salt Creek that is subject to periodic flooding for days or weeks. The adults can run or fly away, but larvae are sedentary predators confined to their burrows from 1 to 3 yrs. before completing all 3 instar moults to pupate and eventually become an adult. Research by Hoback, W.W., Higley, L.G., et. al., 1998 in the American Midland Naturalist found that C. togata larvae are adapted to survive more than 10 days under anoxic (no oxygen) conditions in their flooded burrows. This is a much longer time period than previously reported for and insect larva without gills for breathing under water, and apparently they enter a physiological quiescent state to survive this long under water. Photographed near Arbor Lake in the saline wetlands north of Lincoln, Nebraska with a 60 mm lens and fill flash on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-213750411716401..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="41-34. WEEVIL (Listronotus sp. ?) -- This weevil was on vegetation by the Big Blue River in Gage County, Nebraska. Note key characteristics of weevils: usually an elongated, narrow "snout", chewing mouth parts (rostrum) at the end of "snout", "elbowed" antennae with "clubs" at the ends about midway down on "snout", swollen femurs, and a body often covered with scales. Weevils are insects in the order Coleoptera and in the 2nd largest family of beetles, Curculionidae, with about 3,000 species in North America. They are vegetarians and nearly every plant on Earth is affected by at least one species of Curculionid. Photographed with a 60 mm lens, F-11, 1:1 ratio, and flash on Velvia 50 film. ">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-213750411716501..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="41-35. WEEVIL (saline wetlands) -- This weevil was found on salt flats in the saline wetlands near the Little Salt Creek north of Lincoln, Nebraska. Note the black "snout" and swollen femurs in this individual. Photographed with a 60 mm lens, F-11/8, 1:1 ratio, and fill flash on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-213750411716601..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="41-36. WEEVIL (head on view) -- This weevil was found near the Big Fork River in northern Minnesota. It was on white birch bark and this in the face photo was shot with a 60 mm lens, extension tubes (3x), F-11, and double flash on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-213750411716701..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="42-1d. DOG DAY CICADA -- This insect is in the order Hemiptera and the family Cicadidae with more than 160 cicada species in North America. The species in the genus Tibicen are called "dog day cicadas" because they emerge in abundance during hot summer days. Note this is a freshly emerged winged cicada adult from the split in the wingless exoskeleton of the nymph. They are called annual cicadas because adults emerge every year, but the life cycle of an individual is spent mostly as a nymph underground usually 2 to 5 years feeding on sap from tree roots. One of the natural, really loud sounds of summer is the intense, pulsating, grinding, whining, and buzzing (like a power saw cutting a hard board) of adults. This sound is produced by a pair of special membranes (tymbals) that are muscle-vibrated to produce the echoed, amplified sound from a male's air-filled abdomen. Slight variations in the sound are specific enough to attract females to the calling male of the same species for mating. Photographed in Lancaster County, Nebraska with a 60 mm lens and flash on Fuji 100 film.">Open Image width="501" height="483"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-213750411716801..jpg"> height="29"/>height="40"/> tooltip="42-2d.17-YEAR PERIODICAL CICADA -- Magicicada sp. is one of 3 species on the 17-year cycle in the central, eastern and northern U.S., and there are 4 species on the 13-year cycle in the southern states. Natural selection has evolved unusually long developmentally synchronized time periods so that all cicadas emerge at once in a few weeks in the same year every 13 or 17 years. Sometimes adult cicada abundance is more than 1 million individuals per acre. These huge population explosions have known impacts on the ecosystem: the year before emergence causes decreased tree growth because of the increased feeding of nymphs on tree roots, mole populations increase the year before emergence because of the increased nymph food supply, wild turkeys do well during the year of emergence because of an increased adult cicada food supply on the ground, but squirrels do not do well because female adult cicadas make damaging slits in twig bark to lay eggs and this reduces the following years acorn nut mast food supply for squirrels (and other animals too). In 1907, periodical cicadas were grouped into 30 different broods in the U.S. and they were assigned Roman numerals. Unfortunately, 2 of the broods, #XI and #XXI that existed in the past are now confirmed extinct, and now only about 20 broods are left. The individual in this photo is from brood #IV, the Kansan Brood. It was photographed in extreme southeastern Nebraska near the Kansas/Missouri border in 1998. This brood will emerge again in 2015. An idea to explain how natural selection evolved synchronized emergence of huge populations of cicadas is that the time gap of large prime numbers essentially makes it impossible for predators to synchronize their life cycle to take advantage of an increased food supply every 13 or 17 years. Another idea is that natural selection evolved huge cicada populations to overwhelm predators with an over abundance of food in a given year so that they cannot begin to eat all of them and thus insuring cicadas survival. This is known as predator satiation survival strategy. Another more recent idea is that natural selection evolved long developmental time intervals (that by chance happened to be prime numbers) as an adaptation to colder soil temperatures during Pleistocene glacial periods. Geneticists have discovered that cycle length appears to be controlled by one gene locus of cicadas' DNA. Thus, predatory avoidance strategy is actually an inadvertent secondary adaptation (incidental to the primary adaptation) to colder soil temperatures in explaining such unusually long developmental time intervals for this animal. Note the beautiful transparent wings with rust-tan veins, the deep red eyes on a black body, and the thin short antennae of this periodical cicada. Photographed in the Rulo Bluffs Preserve of the Nature Conservancy near Rulo, Nebraska with a 60 mm lens, F-22, 1:2 ratio, and flash on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-213750411716901..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="42-3d. PERIODICAL CICADA NYMPHAL EXOSKELETON -- A photo of a recently shed nymphal exoskeleton made of the flexible, plastic-like material called chitin (pronounced kyten). Chitin (a flexible polysaccharide) is an important component of all insects' exoskeletons. Photographed at Indian Cave State Park in Nebraska with a 60 mm lens, F-11/8, 1:3 ratio, and flash on Velvia 50 film. ">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-213750411717001..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="42-4d. COMMON HOUSE CRICKET -- Acheta domesticus (about 3/4 inch long) is more common than ever because pet stores and bait shops sell these crickets as food for other animals. It was introduced from its native area in Africa and Asia, and now it is found throughout much of the U.S. and southern Canada. Some females are fully winged or as in this photo, some females have only small nubbins of rudimentary, nonfunctional wings. Note the stout, cylindrical, light, yellowish-brown body. This cricket can be an indoor nuisance because of its continuous chirping. Photographed in Lancaster County, Nebraska with a 60 mm lens, extension tubes (2x), F-32, and double flash on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-213750411717101..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="42-5d. FIELD CRICKET -- Gryllus sp. (about 1 inch long) is in the grasshoppers, katydids and crickets order Orthoptera, and in the Gryllidae family of crickets with about 115 species in North America. These insects have simple metamorphosis that produces young that develop and grow resembling miniature, wingless adults. Males have forewings modified into "scraper" and "file" structures for stridulation (making sound by moving body parts together) that amplify and broadcast sound. Scientists in the growing new field of sensory ecology are now beginning to realize how complex and diverse acoustical communication in insects really is. Field crickets' common sounds are a series of triple chirps, and courtship "songs" to attract females are a continuous trill pitch at the upper limits of human hearing. Note that field crickets are usually glossy black, have antennae longer than their body, and have hairy cerci (2 pointy spikes by their rear end). The female has a 3rd spike-like, longer, thin structure between the cerci called an ovipositor for laying eggs in soil or in plants. Also note, showing in this photo, the flat, round tympanum membrane located on the right front leg's upper tibia just below the femur (1st leg segment). The tympanum is part of the cricket's hearing organ. They range throughout North America feeding on plant material including seeds, seedlings, small fruit and even dead or dying insects. Photographed in Lancaster county, Nebraska with a 60 mm lens, F-22, 1:2 ratio, and double flash on Velvia 50 film. ">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-213750411717201..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="42-6d. CAMEL CRICKET -- Most camel crickets in North America (about 90 species) are in the genus Ceuthophilus in the Rhaphidophoridae family of orthopterans. They are wingless, hump-backed insects commonly found in caves, cellars, old mines and wells, and other dark, damp places. However, some are called "sand treaders" with broad, spiny feet (clearly in focus in this photo) that give good traction on sand and facilitate burrowing in sand dunes. This individual was on young blossoms of a Yucca plant in the Sandhills of Nebraska. Photographed with a 60 mm lens, F-11/8, 1:2 ratio, and fill flash on Provia 100F film. ">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-213750411717301..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="42-7d. SPRINGTAIL -- Springtails are 1 of 3 lines in the evolution of living wingless hexapods (6 legs) other than insects: springtails, diplurans and proturans. Biologists no longer consider these 3 lines to be insects. They are now considered to be "non-insect hexapods", and even placed in their own class of arthropods outside the insects. However, usually they are classified as orders in the class Insecta. Springtails (1/16-1/4 inch long and have no compound eyes) in the order Collembola (means glue dart and this name comes from the sticky secretion of a gland near the mouth that allows them to adhere to objects) with about 675 species; diplurans (1/4-3/8 inch, and look like a white silverfish insect, but with 2 instead of 3 tails) in the order Diplura (means 2 tails) with about 70 species; and proturans (less than 1/16 inch, ivory colored, cone-shaped heads, no eyes, no antennae, a short tail/telson, and the front pair of 1-clawed legs are not used for locomotion, but instead held forward and appear to be used like antennae) in the order Protura (means 1st tail) with about 20 species in North America. Proturans appear to be the most non-like insect arthropods of the "non-insect hexapods" and may look similar to the ancient ancestor(s) from which the diverse array of present day insect lines evolved. Unfortunately, no fossil proturans have been found, but springtail fossils go back about 400 million yrs. and are the oldest known terrestrial arthropods. Most springtail species have a tail-like appendage (furcula) folded forward under the abdomen that is used for jumping when threatened. The furcula is held under tension by a latch structure (tenaculum) that when released causes the furcula to snap against the ground and flings the springtail high into the air many times its body length. They also have a unique tube-like structure (collophore) projecting down under the front part of their abdomen. It appears to be used in regulating osmotic water balance by absorbing moisture from the environment. Springtails are among the most abundant invertebrates in leaf litter, in decaying material and in soil pretty much everywhere on Earth, even in desert and Antarctic extreme habitats. Some species in North America swarm in the millions on warm winter days as "snow fleas" peppering snowfields. Springtails are beneficial in soil by carrying mycorrhizal fungi spores on their bodies that help to establish a plant root/fungal symbiosis necessary for robust growth of trees, grasses, other plants, and for agricultural crops. All of these hexapods are found in moist environments of decaying organic matter and soil. Photographed with a 60 mm lens, extension tubes (3x), F-11, and double flash on Velvia 50 film. ">Open Image width="698" height="451"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-213750411717401..jpg"> height="29"/>height="27"/> tooltip="42-8d. EARWIG -- Earwigs are in the insect order Dermoptera (means skin wings) with their flying wings folded under short fore wing coverings. However, they rarely fly. A key characteristic is the cerci, a pair of pincers on the rear end of their abdomen that can inflict a painful "bite" to a person if handled carelessly. They produce a creosote smelling liquid when disturbed. Earwigs hide during the day under objects and come out at night to feed on plant materials, organic wastes, and smaller insects. They are among the few non-social insects that actively care for their eggs and young. The female lays and cares for her eggs in special moist micro-habitats in soil, even cleaning fungi from the eggs. The young hatch and look like miniature adults (simple metamorphosis), and these nymphs go through 4 to 6 instar molts to eventually become mature adults. It is a myth that earwigs go into a person's ear and dig into the brain to lay eggs. Fossil evidence shows a long evolutionary history for earwigs going back about 208 million years ago. This individual was found in a box of fruit in Boise, Idaho and photographed with a 60 mm lens, extension tubes (2x), F-11, and fill flash on Velvia 50 film. ">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-213750411717501..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="42-9. COCKROACH -- These brown to reddish-brown winged insects have flattened oval bodies with a pronotum extending far forward covering most of the head and long, thin antennae. Cockroaches have wings, but almost never fly. Instead, they run swiftly on well-developed legs. Their fossil record goes back about 350 million years, making them among the oldest winged insects. They are classified in the insect order Blattodia with about 68 species in North America. This photo of Parcoblatta sp., a native wood cockroach (note 2 tail-like cerci on its rear end), in the Blattellidae family. They have simple metamorphosis: nymphs resemble miniature adults. Contrary to popular myth, cockroaches probably do not transmit human diseases. However, people who are continuously exposed to dust with crushed cockroach body parts may develop allergic reactions or asthma. Nevertheless, efforts to kill them have evolved some species of cockroaches essentially immune to pesticides. Their diet is almost anything organic, and some cockroaches have been known to live for months eating only dust! Photographed with a 60 mm lens, extension tubes (2x), F-11, and double flash on Velvia 50 film. ">Open Image width="698" height="462"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-213750411717601..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="42-10. GRASSHOPPER EMERGING FROM OLD EXOSKELETON -- This photo captured a grasshopper in the process of freshly emerging from its old exoskeleton on Big Bluestem grass. The thin, flexible, plastic-like material of the non-cellular exoskeleton is made of a material known as chitin (pronounced kyten). Grasshoppers have simple metamorphosis: the young hatch from eggs and look like miniature adults and as they grow, the hard exoskeleton splits lengthwise on top and the grasshopper crawls out with another soft exoskeleton that soon hardens (in the "non-insect hexapods" proturans and springtails, the exoskeleton splits across the top). All invertebrates, for example grasshoppers, have their skeletons on the outside of the body with muscles attached on the inside of the skeleton. All vertebrates, for example people, have their skeletons on the inside of the body with muscles attached on the outside of the skeleton. Photographed with a 60 mm lens on Fuji 100 film.">Open Image width="493" height="483"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-213750411717701..jpg"> height="29"/>height="41"/> tooltip="42-11. DIFFERENTIAL GRASSHOPPER -- Note key characteristics are a shiny brownish-yellow body, a large hind leg femur that is yellow with black herringbone pattern, and a hind leg tibia that is yellow with a row of black pointed spines. Melanoplus differentialis is in the insect order Orthoptera (means straight wing) in the Acridae family of grasshoppers with about 630 species in North America. They have powerful muscles in the femur of their hind legs used for jumping long distances. Their pair of long, narrow, leathery fore wings assist somewhat in flying. The hind wings used for flying are thin membranes with radiating veins, and these wings can be folded like a fan under the fore wings when not flying. (The vein structure of wings are well preserved in ancient insect fossils, and the cross vein patterns to longitudinal veins are used to show lines of evolutionary divergence millions of years ago, even to wing-vein patterns of present day insects.) Males stridulate by rubbing the hind tibia against raised veins on the fore wings. It's one of the commonest grasshoppers ranging throughout the U.S. Photographed with an 85 mm lens, extension tube, F-8, tripod, and mirror lockup on Provia 100F film. ">Open Image width="491" height="483"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-213750411717801..jpg"> height="29"/>height="41"/> tooltip="42-12. GRASSHOPPER HEAD UP CLOSE -- Note that insects have most of their mouth parts exposed outside the head ( a later in time derived evolutionary condition from ancestor[s]) in contrast to "non-insect hexapods" with mouth parts enclosed within the head (an ancestral-evolved condition). A grasshopper's chewing-type mouth parts from front to back are: a labrum ("upper lip") of 2 plate-like structures connected to the lower front part of the head, a pair of jaw-like mandibles visible at the sides of labrum and a pair of jaw-acting maxillae with only its front pair of finger-like palps visible in photo, and in the back to complete the externally visible mouth parts is the labium ("lower lip") with a pair of finger-like palps visible in photo (for a better photo of grasshopper mouth parts, go to Gallery Arthropods Vertical #45-4 Nebraska Cone-head). On top part of head, note a pair of large compound eyes with 100's of tiny facets on the surface with each facet having its own lens in the eye, providing a mosaic image of objects. Note a simple eye (ocellus) between and 2 simple eyes behind each of a pair of antennae. The 2 thin, finger-like projections on top of head are antennae. Antennae very greatly in structure and form (morphology), and are used as key characteristics to classify insects into an order, a family or even into species. Photo with a 60 mm lens, ext. tubes (2x) and 2 flashes on Velvia 50 film. ">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-213750411717901..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="42-13. GRASSHOPPER NYMPH WITH RED MITES -- Note what appears to be external parasitic red mites on the back of this nymph grasshopper. Note the stick-like fore wing and tiny hind wing in an early stage of development. Also note, the circular tympanum used for hearing just below the tiny wing. Photographed with a 60 mm lens, extension tubes (3x), F-11, and fill flash on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-213750411718001..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="42-14. GREEN FOOL GRASSHOPPER -- Acrolophitus hirtipes, also called a slant-faced grasshopper, ranges east of the U.S. Continental Divide from Canada to Mexico. Photographed in the Sandhills of Nebraska with a 60 mm lens, F-11, and fill flash on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-213750411718101..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="42-15. BAND-WINGED GRASSHOPPER -- These grasshoppers are well camouflaged at rest with wings folded against their bodies. But in flight, the hind wings have broad bands of all orange in some species, all yellow in other species, and all black or even all blue displaying in other species. Their initial sudden flight also produces loud snapping noises. A key characteristic in identifying band-winged grasshoppers is a prominent ridge (keel) in the middle on top of the pronotum (shield-like covering over the prothorax behind the head and extending to the wings). In the basic body plan of a grasshopper divided into head, thorax and abdomen, the photo shows rather well the 3 divisions of the thorax: 1st, the prothorax with pronotum on top and the 1st pair of legs at the bottom; 2nd, the mesothorax with the 2nd pair of legs and the fore wings, and 3rd, the metathorax with the 3rd pair of legs, hind wings and tympanum for hearing. Photographed in the Sandhills of Nebraska with a 300 mm lens, extension tube, F-16, and fill flash on Provia 100F film. ">Open Image width="698" height="468"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-213750411718201..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="42-16. BIRD GRASSHOPPER -- This is most likely Schistocerca alutacea, the Leather-colored Bird Grasshopper, ranging from the U.S. East Coast to Arizona. It was found near the Republican River at the Kansas/Nebraska border by Superior, Nebraska. Photographed with a 60 mm lens, F-11, and fill flash on Ectachrome 100VS film. ">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-213750411718301..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="42-17. WHEEL BUG -- Arilus cristatus (about 1 1/4 inch long) is an example of a "true" bug because it has always been classified in the order Hemiptera in the class Insecta. Key characteristics of hemipterans are: piercing-sucking, beak-like mouth parts that are held beneath the head and thorax when not in use, simple/incomplete metamorphoses meaning the young look like miniature adults, and all other characteristics of bugs in this order are highly variable. The Wheel Bug is in the Reduviidae family. This family of bugs has powerful front legs to hold prey so they can stab their sharp beak into the body of prey, and the front legs hold prey while sucking out body fluids. Most species in this family have a groove across the head between the eyes on their narrow, elongated head and their strong, sharp beak rests in a groove in the thorax between the front legs. Sounds are produced when rough parts of the beak are moved against ridges of the groove. In the photo, note curved, cog-like teeth on the mid line of a raised prothorax. If handled carelessly, a Wheel Bug can inflict a painful stab of its beak into a person. They range east of the Rocky Mountains from southern Canada to the Gulf States feeding on caterpillars, beetle larvae and other insects. Photographed in Lancaster County, Nebraska with a 60 mm lens, F-32, 1:2 ratio, and double flash on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-213750411718401..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="42-18. ASSASSIN BUG -- This insect lives up to its name by killing other insects, and often their prey is larger than themselves. Not only does their sharp beak pierce into prey, but it also injects a lethal saliva of digestive enzymes that liquefies the prey's insides to facilitate sucking up its food. Some species have tiny hairs on their legs (as in this photo) that help hold prey. If assassin bugs are handled carelessly, they can inflict an excruciating painful stab of their sharp beak into a person. In some species, the nymphs cover themselves with plant debris or dead insect parts for camouflage (see #52-21 Geometrid Moth Larva in Natural History, Arthropods horizontal, for a larva that covers itself with plant material for camouflage). Photographed in Sandhills of Nebraska with a 60 mm lens, F-11, 1:1 ratio, and fill flash on Provia 100F film. ">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-213750411718501..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="42-19. LARGE MILKWEED BUGS AND NYMPHS -- This is another example of a "true bug" because it has always been classified in the order Hemiptera in the class Insecta. Milkweed bugs are in the Lygaeidae family whose species suck juices from dry seeds, sprouting seeds and sap from green plants, but some are predators. Unlike similar insects in this order, most species in the family have both simple and compound eyes, and all have 4-segmented antennae projecting from the front of the head. They range east of the Rocky Mountains where adults overwinter and on warm winter days they may appear in large numbers. Photographed in Lancaster County, Nebraska with a 60 mm lens, F-8, 1:3 ratio, tripod, and mirror lockup on Velvia 50 film. ">Open Image width="698" height="459"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-213750411718601..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="42-20. BOX ELDER BUG -- This bug is in the Rhopalidae family with about 35 species in North America. They are also called scentless plant bugs because they do not have stink glands like most other true bugs. Note a prominent key characteristic of narrow brick-red lines along each side of its body, down the mid line of pronotum and 2 diagonal lines on fore wings (there is an unnatural white smudge near the rear end of this individual). They range east of the Rocky Mountains feeding on Boxelder tree sap and foliage, other maple trees and fruit trees. Huge swarms of these bugs congregate on buildings before hibernating during the fall season of the year. Photographed with a 60 mm lens, F-11/8, 1:1 ratio, and fill flash on Velvia 50 film. ">Open Image width="698" height="467"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-213750411718701..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="42-21. LEAF-FOOTED BUG -- This bug is in the Coreidae family of leaf-footed and squash bugs with about 80 species in North America. Note the leaf-like flange and the thick, spined "thigh" on the right rear leg. The strong, spined rear legs in males are used in fighting each other for access to females. On the head note the 4-segmented antennae, compound and simple eyes. They produce a droning sound when flying. When pinched tightly during handling, they emit a pungent odor from their scent glands. They range in the eastern 1/3 of U.S. feeding by sucking plant juices. Photographed in Lancaster County, Nebraska with a 60 mm lens, 1:2 ratio, F-32, and double flash on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-213750411718801..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="42-22. SPITTLEBUG NYMPHS -- Note 2 spittlebug nymphs visible in the mass of bubbly spittle (part of spittle was pushed aside for this photo). Nymphs feed on plant juices in an upside down position and cover themselves with wet spittle secreted from their anus. The spittle flows from the anus over their body and mixes with gland excretions from the abdomen. The spittle is whipped into air-bubbly foam with finger-like appendages at the end of the abdomen. This foamy spittle hides the nymphs from predators, protects them against parasites and keeps the bugs from drying out. The nymphs develop into mature winged adults that do not produce spittle. The adults fly and crawl around, but mostly, they jump about freely and are commonly called froghoppers. They are in the spittlebugs family Cercopidae with about 54 species in the U.S. and Canada. Photographed in Lancaster County, Nebraska with a 60 mm lens, extension tubes (2x), F-11, and double flash on Velvia 50 film. ">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-213750411718901..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="42-23. SPITTLEBUG NYMPH (spittle removed) -- This is a photo of the same larger nymph in the previous photo #42-22 with the same lens setup and film. The spittle was wiped away from this bug for a full view of a spittlebug nymph. Note the round bulbous front of head, the very short antenna on top of head, the eye behind antenna, the developing wing dark patch above the legs, and the short appendage in front of the left 3 legs of this individual (Is this a rudimentary developing 4th leg instead of normally 3 legs on each side of an insect?).">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-213750411719001..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="42-24. GIANT WATER BUG -- The very large adults are usually a little more than 2 inches long, up to 1 inch across at the widest midsection of the body, and are considered to be the "truest" of the true bugs because they have always been classified in the order Hemiptera. Hemiptera means half wings. "Hemi" means half and "ptera" means wings and refers to the front pair of fore wings that are leathery at the front half but membranous at the back half. The hind wings are thin membranes used for flight and fold under the fore wings at rest. Their 2 front legs are modified into strong grasping appendages; the stout front leg femora have grooves for the tibiae to fold into. The mid and hind pairs of legs are flattened with fine hairs on the back side to help this bug swim swiftly underwater. Giant water bugs spend much of their time hidden in mud bottoms of stagnant or slow-moving water. They grab their prey (insects, tadpoles, salamanders and small fishes) with their grasping-appendage front legs and jab their strong sucking beak into them injecting a powerful anesthetic saliva to subdue them and liquefy the insides of the prey. They breathe underwater by raising 2 tail-like tubes at the tip of their abdomen to the water surface. Both large nymphs and adults will "play dead"when threatened, and if a person picks them up, they can suddenly make a painful stab of their beak into a finger or hand. These bugs are in the Belostomatidae family of giant water bugs with about 20 species in North America. They range throughout the U.S. and Canada. Photographed near the edge of the Big Fork River in northern Minnesota with a 60 mm lens, F-11, 1:1.6 ratio, and fill flash on Velvia 50 film. ">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-213750411719101..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="42-25. WINGED ANT -- New reproductive winged adult ants (also called winged alates) usually swarm once a year. Alates are winged reproductive adults of colonial social insects. Key characteristics are elbowed antennae, unequal length of the 2 pairs of wings with hind pair shorter (winged termites have 2 pairs of wings equal in length), and distinctly segmented bodies. Ants are in the insect order Hymenoptera (means membrane wings) that includes wasps, bees and ancestral-like sawflies with about 17,000 species in North America. Hymenopterans as a group are characterized by 2 pairs of membranous wings; the hind wings are smaller (worker ants and females of some wasp species are wingless), and commonly a very narrowly constricted connection of its body between the thorax and abdomen. These insects have complete metamorphosis of eggs hatching into worm-like larvae that molt several times as they grow and then pupate to complete final development into an adult. Photographed in Lancaster County, Nebraska with a 60 mm lens, extension tubes (2x), F-11, and fill flash on Provia 100F film. ">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-213750411719201..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="42-26. BROWNISH BLACK ANT (Formica sp.) -- An ant moving backwards pulling and dragging an insect. They feed on other insects, flower nectar and honeydew from aphids. Their habitat is in wooded slopes at high elevations. Photographed beside the Pahaska Trail near the east entrance of Yellowstone National Park in Wyoming. Formica spp.) ants do not have a stinger at the rear end of the abdomen, but other ant species can sting similar to a bee or wasp. The venom of ant and bee stings is formic acid. The ancestral evolved ants descended from insect lineages of wasp-like ancestors and this explains why ants have stingers. However, many recently evolved ant species have a much reduced stinger incapable of piercing the tough exoskeleton of insects, or have no stinger at all. Natural selection has evolved alternative adaptations of waving a flexible stinger with droplets of offensive volatile chemicals or smearing venomous droplets on objects and intruders. Formica spp. do not have stingers, but instead they position the abdomen underneath their body between their legs toward the front under their head and spray formic acid straight ahead at intruders. Photographed with a 60 mm lens, F-11, 1:1 ratio, and fill flash on Provia 100F film. ">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-213750411719301..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="42-27. RED ANT (Formica sp.) -- This ant (about 1/4 inch long) is moving backwards pulling and dragging a treehopper insect larger and heavier than itself. They are in the Formicidae family of ants and nearly all species are colonial social insects. The Red Ants are also known as mound or thatch building ants. These ants do not have a stinger, but instead spray formic acid from the tip of their abdomen ( spray technique described in previous photo #42-26). Photographed in the Sandhills of Nebraska with a 60 mm lens, F-11, 1:1 ratio, and fill flash on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-213750411719501..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="42-28. BLACK CARPENTER ANT -- Camponotus pennsylvanicus (about 1/2 inches long) gets its common name from its ability to make nest sites by chewing wood into random-styled galleries with their strong, saw-like jaws. Unlike termites, carpenter ants do not eat wood, but they can chew tunnels across as well as with the grain of wood to produce smooth, clean gallery nests. Termites tunnel into and damage wood by eating with the grain only, and often smear mud in their messy-looking gallery nests. Carpenter ants make nests in wood walls of buildings, beneath insulation, in structural timber, and in satellite colonies in mature hardwood trees near buildings. Their colonies can number over 10,000 ants. Carpenter ants make semi-permanent trails through grass from their nest to areas where they can rely on a constant food supply up in trees to feed on sugar-rich honey dew droplets on aphid and scale insects feeding on tree sap. Note in the photo, key characteristics of the Black Carpenter Ant are a dull black body color, elbowed antennae with a long 1st segment and 11 shorter segments, a 1-segmented "waist" with a prominent hump (pedicel) between thorax and abdomen (note a missing left rear leg in this individual), and an abdomen sparsely covered with long yellow "hair". They do not have a stinger at the end of their abdomen, but they can bite with large, powerful jaws on their head. Ants with stingers, typically sting a person by grabbing the skin with pincer-like jaws that raise the skin up slightly while simultaneously arching the abdomen underneath its body between the legs toward the jaws to jab the pointed sting at the tip of the abdomen into the skin. They range in the eastern half of the U.S. and Quebec, Canada. Photographed in southeastern Nebraska with a 60 mm lens, F-22, 1:1 ratio, and fill flash on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="698" height="467"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-213750411719601..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="42-29. ANTLION LARVA -- Myrmeleon sp. gets its common name from its large, ferocious-looking, sickle-like, spiny jaws that clamp together to hold and kill small insects (mostly ants), and from its voracious feeding behavior on prey. Their jaws have a hollow tube for injecting venom into prey. They are mostly known for their cone-shaped pit constructed in fine dry soil and sand that small insects wander into and slide down into the Antlion's jaws at the bottom of the pit. If after building the pit with their abdomen as a "plow" and their movable large flat head as a "shovel", a small pebble is encountered that is too heavy for its head to flick out from the pit, the antlion rapidly engages its 6 short legs in a frantic push with its head guiding the pebble up the pit walls until it is up and out over the rim of the pit. In North America, antlions are also called "doodlebugs" because of the narrow, irregular, winding and even spiral trails they leave in fine dry soil and sand that look like doodling while searching for a place to build their pit-traps. Antlions are found everywhere on Earth in dry and sandy soil habitats. They are in the Myrmeleontidae family in the insect order Neuroptera (means nerve wings) of net-veined insects. In this instance, the order-name refers to non-nerve crisscrossing of veins on the wings of adults that gives an appearance of a net-like nerve pattern. The order-name comparison is rather mild compared to the stark difference between the adult "beauty" and the larval "beast" in the antlion family. This order of net-veined insects have complete metamorphosis in that the predatory larvae look completely different than the delicate adults. Antlion adult "beauties" are much larger with soft, elongate bodies up to 1 3/4 inches long, and 4 delicate, net-veined, transparent wings spanning up to 2 1/2 inches compared to the much smaller (about 1/4 inch long) flat-headed, long-spiny-jawed, short-legged, and stiff-bristle-covered body of the larval "beasts". Antlion adults actually resemble damselflies, but with a bent club at the tip of much longer antennae, and when the wings are raised up there is a distinct gap between the base of the 2 fore wings and base of the 2 hind wings. The adults are not predators, but instead feed on flower nectar, a little pollen, or do not eat at all. Photographed in Lancaster County, Nebraska with a 60 mm lens, extension tubes (3x), F-11, and double flash on Velvia 50 film. ">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-213750411719701..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="42-30. BLUE BOTTLE FLY -- Flies are a huge, diverse group of arthropods in the class Insecta in the order Diptera (means 2 wings) with about 17,000 species in North America. Flies are amazingly abundant and have exploited nearly all habitats and feeding behaviors one can imagine, including human flesh and blood. Unlike bees and wasps, flies have only 2 wings because natural selection has evolved the 2nd pair of hind wings into knob-like structures (halteres) that function as gyroscopes to better allow for acrobatic maneuvering in flight. Most real flies have their name as 2 words such as house fly or robber fly (exceptions are dipterans such as mosquitoes, gnats and midges), while non-flies have their name as one word such as butterfly and mayfly. Calliphora sp. (Blue Bottle Fly or Common Blow Fly) is in the Calliphoridae family of blow flies with about 10 species of bluebottles in North America. Some of the iridescent blue color of the abdomen is showing through the clear wing in this photo. Calliphora vicina (about 1/2 inch long) is present on all continents on Earth except Antarctica. They have a complete metamorphosis life cycle of egg to larva (maggot) to pupa to adult where the developing young look completely different than the adult. Blow flies are useful in forensic science detective investigations of murder victims. Some species of carrion flesh-breeding blow flies arrive on a dead body in a predictable time sequence so that one can go backward in time from a part of their life cycle to accurately estimate time of death. Photographed with a 60 mm lens, 1:1 ratio, F-ll, and double fill flash on Velvia 50 film. ">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-213750411719801..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="42-31. ROBBER FLY -- Many species are slender with abdomens tapering to a narrow rear end, but this is a rather stocky species (about 3/4inch long) with a tapering rear end. Note the typical so-called "beard" of dense, hair-like bristles on its face and head. They are also known as "bee mimics" because the stocky species closely resemble bees. Robber flies fly on the wing preying on other flying insects similar to small hawks preying on other birds. They behave similar to the flycatcher bird by perching on plants or on the ground cocking their heads to focus on insects flying nearby and then suddenly, swiftly fly out and onto its prey. They also fly down to pounce on resting insects. Robber flies have short, strong, tubular, piercing-sucking mouth-parts (proboscis) that punch through their preys' tough exoskeleton to suck out its liquid insides for food. They have a complete metamorphosis life cycle where their worm-like larvae feed as external parasites on beetle grubs and other insect larvae living in loose soil, leaf litter or decaying wood. Robber flies are in the Asilidae family in the insect order Diptera (means 2 wings) with about 1,000 species in North America. Photographed in the Frank Church River-Of-No-Return Wilderness with a 60 mm lens, 1:1 ratio, F-8, and fill flash on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-213750411719901..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="42-32. DRONE FLY -- Note the similarity of this fly to a Honey Bee, but without the narrow "waist" connecting the thorax and abdomen in bees. Drone flies are in the flower flies Syrphidae family also know as bee and wasp mimics with about 870 species in North America. Unlike bees and wasps, drone flies do not have stingers and are harmless to people. Robber flies do not discriminate between them, attacking and feeding on both drone flies and honey bees. Adult drone flies feed on nectar and pollen, making them beneficial flower pollinators, and their larvae feed on aphids. Some species in the genus Eristalis in this family produce unusual larvae know as rat-tailed maggots with a long, narrow, snorkel-like tube connecting the underwater-living larva to the water surface for breathing air. They scavenge in oxygen deficient polluted water and even feed on soaking-wet floating carcasses. Some completely grown larvae crawl from their aquatic environment onto soil to pupate and emerge as adult flies, and some emerge from floating carcasses in the water. Intestinal infestation (myiasis) may occur in people if drone fly eggs or larvae are swallowed with food or if eggs are laid on the lips around the mouth of a person. Occasionally, the larvae feed on living tissue in humans known as flystrike on skin, around eyes, or in the nose. Flystrike myiasis is rare in the U.S. and is more common in subtropical and tropical regions. However, there are occasional large public events in U.S. public lands where people construct large open latrines that can attract drone flies. Drone flies range throughout most of North America. Photographed with an 85 mm lens (3x), F-16, and fill flash on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-213750411720001..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="42-33. HOVER FLY -- It gets its name from the way it rapidly flaps its wings to hover stationary in air by flowers. Hover flies are in the flower flies Syrpidae family also known as bee and wasp mimics with about 870 species in North America. Note key characteristics of extremely large eyes that cover most of the head, 3 flat segments in each antenna, yellow color on the face, wide yellow stripes on sides of thorax, 3 complete yellow stripes on the abdomen, and two clear wings. The adult flies feed on flower pollen and nectar, and their larvae prey on aphids and other small insects. This individual appears to be a Syrphus sp. hover fly. This genus of hover flies ranges over most of North America, Central America, Europe and Asia. Photographed near the Big fork River in northern Minnesota with a 60 mm lens, extension tubes (3x), f-11, and double flash on Velvia 50 film. ">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-213750411720101..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="42-34. GIANT STONEFLY -- Stoneflies are in the insect order Plecoptera (means folded wings) with about 600 species in North America. This is a photo of an adult Pteronarcys sp. (about 2 1/2 inches long) in the giant stoneflies Pteronarcyidae family. Its life cycle is characterized as partial metamorphosis where the young, called naiads, live underwater in streams and rivers feeding as "shredders" of decaying leaves or as predators for up to 3 years before they mature and climb out of the water and shed their exoskeleton "skins", that remain attached to rocks, to emerge as adults. The adults have undeveloped, vestigial mouth parts and most cannot eat during their brief 2-3 weeks of life. Stoneflies have 2 pairs of wings and males of many species vibrate their abdomens against twigs or foliage producing a drumming sound to call in nearby females. If there are no stoneflies in streams where they typically occur, this indicates pollution and a lack of oxygen in water. Photographed near the Big Fork River in northern Minnesota with a 60 mm lens, F-11, and fill flash on Provia 100F film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-213750411720201..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="42-35. MAYFLY -- Mayflies are in the insect order Ephemeroptera (means short-lived winged insect) with about 600 species in North America. The adults have undeveloped, vestigial mouth parts and do not eat during their very short 1 or 2 days of life. Unlike other insects, the 1st winged adult stage (subimago) molts from this winged adult into another fully developed winged adult stage called the imago. The male and female imagos live just long enough to mate and lay their eggs on aquatic plants or in water. The gilled larvae (also called nymphs or naiads) "hatch" from the eggs and live up to 4 years underwater (molting by shedding their exoskeletons several times before leaving the water to emerge as winged adults) in streams and lakes feeding mostly on plants or organic material, but some species are predators. Specific aquatic habitat requirements of may larval species make them sensitive to pollution and some mayflies are endangered, or have recently become extinct. Many species in the burrowing mayflies Ephemeridae family are not noticed because they live in sediments down to a few yards deep at the bottom of streams and lakes. The adults, however, were greatly noticed in huge drifts of billions of dead mayflies on sidewalks in the cities of Chicago, Toledo and Green Bay until the 1960s when the southern Great Lakes became too polluted. Later, when Lake Erie was cleaned up and stronger pollution regulations enforced, the "nuisance" of drifts of dead insects became a welcome sight indicating the southern Great Lakes region had recovered to a more fully functional natural ecosystem. Photographed with a 60 mm lens, F-11, and fill flash on Provia 100F film">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-213750411720301..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="42-36. FIREFLY -- It is commonly called a "lightning bug", but a firefly is not a bug (see previous image #42-17 Wheel Bug for description of a bug), nor is it a fly (see previous image #42-30 Blue Bottle Fly for description of a fly). A firefly is a soft-bodied beetle (see previous images #41-1 Ten-lined June Beetle and #41-3 Darkling Beetle for description of a beetle). Note that in most beetles, the pronotum (on top of prothorax) is usually between the head and elytra, but in fireflies the pronotum extends far forward above the head so that most or none of the head can be seen from above. In this image pretty much only the 2 antennae on the head show from beneath the pronotum. This pronotum has a large, shiny-smooth, reddish middle area with a black spot in the center and a dull-textured, yellow-tan band around the edge indicating this is a photo of the Pyralis Firefly. This individual (about 1/2 inch long) is most likely Photinus pyralis. It is in the fireflies family Lampyridae in the insect order Coleoptera. Adult lampyrids have evolved toxic lucibufagin steroids in the blood that exudes as droplets from the base of their wing covers (elytra) as a defense against predators. As has happened in poisonous butterflies, other beetles (soldier and net-winged beetles) have evolved to mimic fireflies in a similar color and body form, taking advantage of fireflies' defense mechanism even though the mimics do not exude toxic blood. Like mayflies, fireflies do not eat and their primary function is to mate, to lay eggs, and to reproduce the next generation during their short life span. In some species the larvae (up to 1 inch long) are predators feeding underground on insect larvae, snails, slugs, and some even hunt in packs to attack and eat earthworms. In some species the larvae become sexually mature, mate and lay eggs for reproduction, and some adult females have no wings (natural selection giveth and taketh away!). The adults signal each other for mating by flashing light from their glowing abdomen in light-flashing patterns specific to their species. In some species the adults do not glow, but all known larvae have light-producing cells. The glowing and flashing bioluminescent light energy is produced from chemical reactions of the luciferin protein pigment and the luciferase enzyme combined with oxygen to emit photons of light that is extremely efficient (more than 90 percent, and in living bodies to boot; only recently have humans produced efficient LED lights outside living bodies!) in producing green/yellow light with virtually no energy lost as heat. Bioluminescence technology is now being used in medical imaging by not only using this light to monitor the progression of human disease, but also potentially using this light to cause cancer cells to self-destruct. Future use could produce genetically engineered potatoes that glow when needing water, glow-in-the-dark trees, and maybe even bioluminescent pets! Fireflies range east of the Rocky Mountains in North America with about 200 species, and on Earth about 2,000 species occurring primarily in Europe, Asia and the Americas. Photographed in Lancaster County, Nebraska with a 60 mm lens, F-11, 1:1 ratio, and fill flash on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-213750411720401..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="42-37. WIDOW SKIMMER -- This dragonfly (about 2 inch body length and 3 inch wing span) is in the Libellulidae family of the insect order Odonata (means toothed jaws). This large family of dragonflies has over100 species in North America, and about 300 species in the order Odonata. The Widow Skimmer is common across most of the U.S. They spend most of their life underwater as larvae (also called nymphs or naiads) that are aggressive predators on aquatic insects, tadpoles and small fish. The larvae live in wetlands, ponds and lakes, but not in flowing streams, from 1 to 5 yrs. before emerging as winged adults. The adults are found in open country as well as near still water where they emerge. Adults are ferocious flying hunters holding their spiny legs in a basket-like fashion to scoop up flies, beetles, mosquitoes and other small insects in flight, even eating its prey while flying. Dragonflies are one of the most dynamic fliers on Earth. Unlike most insects, each of the 4 wings works independently of the other 3, enabling them to hover, turn abruptly, stop, dart upward or downward, and even fly backwards. Fossils of giant proto-dragonflies with wingspans over 2 ft. in the Meganeuridae family are 300 million yrs. old. Photographers can add to a database by submitting images to www.odonatacentral.org. Photographed in Lancaster Co., Nebr. with a 60 mm lens, F-8, 1:5 ratio, 1/30 sec, tripod, mirror lock up on Velvia 50 film. ">Open Image width="698" height="457"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-213750411720501..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="42-38. DAMSELFLY -- This early morning dewy damselfly is probably a Familiar Bluet that ranges throughout southern Canada and the U.S. It is in the narrow-winged, pond damselflies Coenagrionidae family in the insect order Odonata. Unlike the larger dragonflies, damselflies are small, slender insects that fold their wings along or just above the abdomen when at rest. There is also a broad-winged damsel family with much larger wings, and a spread-wing damsel family that splays its wings out to the sides when at rest. Mating is an intricate unique process and even occurs in flight. Males have forceps-like structures on the tip of their abdomen that are used to grab the female behind the head. She then curves the tip of her abdomen up to the male's genitalia to lock into place for sperm transfer. The mating pair is now in a circular relationship called the "wheel" position in dragonflies, but curiously, the "wheel" arrangement in damselfly mating is shaped more like a heart similar to a heart pendant on a necklace. Damselflies (about 120 species) are found throughout most of North America, and 48 percent (241 species) of all dragonflies and damselflies are found in the southeastern U.S. Photographed with a 60 mm lens, F-8, 1/8 sec, tripod, and mirror lockup on Velvia 50 film. ">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-213750411720601..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="42-39. FRESHLY EMERGED MIDGE (about 1/8 in. long resting on its shed exoskeleton) -- Midges are in the Chironomidae family in the insect order Diptera. They are often mistaken for mosquitoes. Midges in this family do not have a long, piercing proboscis and do not "bite" people. When at rest, midges hold their front pair of legs up, whereas mosquitoes usually hold their hind pair of legs up. The hairy antennae of male midges sense the high-frequency wing beats of females. Photographed near the Big Fork River in northern Minnesota with a 60 mm lens, extension tubes (3x), F-11, and double flash on Velvia 50 film. ">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-213750411720701..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="42-40. PAPER WASP (on nest) -- Polistes sp. is in the Polistinae subfamily of the Vespidae family in the wasps, bees and ants insect order Hymenoptera. The order name means membrane wing and they have 2 pairs of wings. This order of animals includes the social insects, but most species lead solitary lives. All adults in this order have chewing mouth parts, but bees and some wasps have mouth parts evolved into tongue-like structures for drinking liquids. These are the stinging insects and those that do sting are females only, but many species do not sting. Paper wasps are not as aggressive as yellow jackets and hornets, and usually sting only when the nest is disturbed. In wasps that do not sting, natural selection has evolved a "tail-like" structure at the tip of the abdomen into an egg-laying apparatus called an ovipositor. There are 20 species of paper wasps included in about 17,000 species of hymenopterans in North America. These insects are indispensable to humans because about 1/4 of agricultural crops depend on bee and wasp pollinators for pollination of farm and garden plants. Paper wasps are beneficial insects because they prey on pest caterpillars. They are also called umbrella wasps because of the shape of their paper-like nest made of wood pulp and saliva, and the nest can grow into a colony of as many as 200 individuals including one queen. Photographed in Boise, ID with a 60 mm lens, F-11, 1:1.5 ratio, and fill flash on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-213750411720801..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="42-41. YELLOWJACKET -- Vespula sp. (about 5/8 inch long) is in the yellowjackets and hornets Vespinae subfamily of the Vespidae family in the wasps, bees and ants insect order Hymenoptera. Yellowjackets in the genus Vespula usually nest underground, using abandoned rodent burrows that may provide room for up to 5,000 wasps by mid summer from one reproductive female queen. In late summer males develop from unfertilized eggs and mate with females to produce reproductive queens. In late fall when cold weather comes, the entire colony of worker females, males, and old queen die except the mated young queens that overwinter in litter and soil underground to begin the life cycle again in spring. They build their paper nests of chewed wood and plant fibers in other locations too, such as crawl spaces, eaves, attics of human built environments, and the familiar ball-shaped, hornets'-nest structures with 200-300 female workers (Dolichovespula wasps) hanging in tree branches. Most yellowjacket species are pollinators and beneficial predators of crop pest insects, but some can be a real nuisance to people at outdoor cookouts. They are attracted to meat and sugary drinks-be careful about drinking from an open beverage can that could have a wasp in it! Female yellowjacket worker wasps can sting repeatedly at the least provocation (unlike female worker honeybees that sting only once and the barbed stinger pulls out of the back end of its abdomen). If the jellowjacket underground nest can be found by following wasps during the day, one can push a clear glass bowel firmly into the soil around the burrow entrance at night time. The next day the wasps will be confused buzzing around under the bowel and will not burrow out underneath the bowel. In a few days, the whole colony will starve to death. This jellowjacket was photographed in Lancaster County, Nebraska and is most likely the Eastern Yellowjacket (Vespula maculifrons) because it appears that the 1st antennal segment is black. The Western Yellowjacket has a yellow 1st antennal segment followed by all black segments. Photographed with a 60 mm lens, 1:1 ratio, F-8, and double fill flash on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-213750411720901..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="42-42. SCOLIID WASP (female) -- Campsomeris sp. is a large (about 1 1/8 inch long), hairy wasp that is an external parasite on scarab beetle larvae. The female digs in soil or decaying wood in search of a larva grub. If necessary, she stings the larva to control it, digs a small chamber around it, lays and egg on it, and then leaves the egg to develop and grow her own larva to feed parasitically on the beetle grub. If disturbed, female scoliid wasps can deliver a painful sting to people. The males are smaller and look very different than females. The adults feed on nectar. Note that unlike yellowjackets, scoliid wasps do not have yellow marks on the head and thorax. Photographed in the Sandhills of Nebraska with a 60 mm lens, F-11 on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-213750411721001..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="42-43. ICHNEUMON WASP -- Of about 17,000 species in the insect order Hymenoptera in North America, over 3,300 species are in the Ichneumonidae family of ichneumon wasps. This is the largest and one of the most diverse families of hymenopterans. Their order name means membrane wing and they have 2 pairs of wings. The long, string-like "tails" (not present in this individual) at the tip of the abdomen in females are not stingers. It is an apparatus called an ovipositor that is used to lay eggs. Most female ichneumon wasps (only females sting) do not sting. Ichneumon antennae are long too, in constant motion, and more conspicuous because many species have middle segments of showy white or yellow in black antennae. Note the white segments in the black antennae of this individual (Eutanyacra sp.,). Adult wasps drink nectar and water, and their young (larvae) are parasites in and on caterpillars, and sometimes spiders or larvae of other insects. They most often parasitize caterpillars of butterflies and moths. Ichneumons use their very long, tail-like ovipositor looped high above and braced against the abdomen to punch through the exterior of caterpillars to lay eggs inside. The larvae emerge from the eggs and feed on the insides of caterpillars. The wasp larvae grow and develop inside by first feeding on non-vital tissue and last on vital organs to keep the caterpillar alive as long as possible for fresh food. The fully grown larvae then bore through the caterpillars' exterior exoskeleton to spin their cocoons on the outside. The many cocoons on the back and sides of the dying caterpillar look like Q-tip cotton ends sticking out. The larvae pupate inside the cocoons and when fully developed, adult wasps emerge from the cocoons. Sometimes a wasp larva in a butterfly caterpillar grows and develops inside the butterfly pupa, and then instead of a butterfly, an adult ichneumon wasp emerges from the pupa. These wasps range throughout North America. Photographed in Lancaster County, Nebraska with a 60 mm lens, 1:1 ratio, F-16, and fill flash on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-213750411721101..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="42-44. BRACONID WASP -- These wasps appear similar to ichneumon wasps, but most are rather small (1/16 to 5/8 inch long) compared to the larger (1/8 to 3 inches long) ichneumons. Braconid wasps' antennae are long, but never have white or yellow segments in the middle. They are in the Braconidae family with more than 1,900 species. In all known species, the young larval stages are parasites in or on other insects, usually caterpillars. A few species have polyembryonic eggs, a process that yields hundreds of larvae from a single egg. Moth caterpillar horn worms that appear to have many white, oval "sprouting" eggs on their sides and back are actually spun cocoons of brachonid pupae from the larvae that were feeding inside the caterpillar. The parasitic larvae feed similarly to that of ichneumons, and eat their host caterpillar from the inside out. The caterpillar usually dies before it can complete its own metamorphosis in its pupa, and wasps only, not moths are produced from the caterpillar body. As in ichneumon wasps, braconid wasp adults drink water and nectar. They range throughout North America. Photographed in Lancaster County, Nebraska with a 60 mm lens, extension tubes(2x), F-11/8, and double flash on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-213750411721201..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="42-45. CONIFER SAWFLY -- This individual is most likely the introduced European Pine Sawfly ( Neodiprion sertifer ). Note the conspicuous pectinate (comb-like) antennae that is charcteristic of the male adult sawfly. It is in the conifer sawflies Diprionidae family with 48 species in North America in the insect order Hymenoptera. Unlike bees, wasps and ants that have a narrow constriction ("waist") of their body called a pedicel between the abdomen and thorax, sawflies do not have a pedicel because the abdomen is broadly connected to their thorax. Most species of female sawflies have evolved well-developed saw-tooth-edged ovipositors at the tip end of the abdomen. This structure is used to cut slits in plant material for laying eggs, and the source of their common name. In wasps, some bees and ants, natural selection has evolved this structure into a stinger (only females sting). In spite of ovipositors' appearance similar to a stinger, sawflies and their kin (horntails) do not sting. Sawflies and their kin are considered to be representative of the ancestral insect in the order Hymenopter because of their abdomen/thorax connection, their complex wing venation, and their vegetarian larvae in most species resemble butterfly or moth caterpillars. Adults are all vegetarians. Bees and wasps are considered to be more recently evolved because of their simpler wing venation, their pedicel abdomen/thorax connection, their complex social structure and behavior, and most species have carnivorous grub-like larvae feeding on other insects and spiders. They range throughout North America. Photographed in Lancaster County, Nebraska with a 60 mm lens, F-11/8, and double flash on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-213750411721301..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="42-46. YELLOW BUMBLE BEE -- This is the common name for Bombus fervidus in the Apidae family of bees in the insect order Hymenoptera. They range over most of North America, except for some southern regions, and are even found high in mountains and in the far north near the Arctic Circle. Note the black face and head, the black band between wings, the mostly yellow thorax, and the yellow front part of most of the abdomen. Almost all the black and yellow color is in the dense blanket of "hair" that helps insulate bumble bees into a "warm-blooded" condition that allows flight at lower temperatures than most pollinators. Bumble bees sometimes bypass the co-evolved pollination route into the open flower by chewing a hole on the outside at the bottom of the flower to feed on nectar. Most of the time they enter the open flower for effective pollination that is beyond the capability of honey bees. Bumble bees generate a vibration frequency at the base of their wings to "buzz pollinate" inside of flowers. Some plants such as tomato, eggplant and nightshade are effectively pollinated by buzz pollinators only. The bumble bee life cycle resembles that of the yellowjacket wasp in that only young mated queens overwinter (the old queen and the rest of the colony dies in late fall). Males are not produced until late fall to mate with the mature queen to produce young queens (males then die after mating). In spring the young queen starts a new colony in a hollow cavity usually underground by building a nest lined with plant material. The eggs are laid in prepared egg cells, the emerging larvae feed on a nearby food supply of pollen, and she constructs wax honey pots to provide food for the developing larvae and for her. In 10 days, the larvae pupate and adult female workers emerge that do not mate with males. Photographed in Lancaster County, Nebraska with a 60 mm lens, 1:1 ratio, F-16, and fill flash on Velvia 50 film. ">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-213750411721401..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="42-47. CAROLINA MANTIS -- Stagmomantis carolina (about 2 1/4 inches long) has evolved its front pair of legs into vise-like appendages with spiny teeth for grasping and holding prey. Their prey food of flies, bees, wasps, bugs, caterpillars, moths and butterflies are eaten alive with strong chewing mouth parts. The modified, powerful fore legs are held upright in a prayer pose that gave rise to the common name "praying mantis". Mantids are unique among insects in having a neck so flexible that its head turns easily from side to side and even turning to look over its back. There are about 20 North American species in the Mantidae family in the insect order Mantodea. All mantids are voracious eaters and females are often cannibalistic of males during mating. A male can literally "lose his head" over sex when a female eats the head off her mating male, and apparently this enhances copulation by the male. In the fall of the year females lay hundreds of eggs in large oval foamy masses that dry out and harden to be resistant to being eaten by birds. Metamorphosis from egg to adult is simple with newly hatched young resembling tiny versions of adults. The tiny mantids can immediately begin eating small insects and even cannibalize each other as well. The Carolina Mantis ranges throughout much of the eastern two-thirds of the U.S. and the Southwest. The large plump flightless females and slender flying males are green or mottled gray in color. Photographed in Lancaster County, Nebraska with a 50 mm lens, F-11/8, and fill flash on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-213750411721501..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="43-1d. CECROPIA MOTH (female) -- Moths are in the phylum Arthropoda (means jointed legs), class Insecta (have 6 legs), and order Lepidoptera (means scaled wings). Butterflies are also classified as lepidopterans, but there are many more moths (over 10,000 species!) than butterflies (about 700 species) in North America. The Cecropia Moth is a giant silkmoth (wingspan of 4 3/4 to 6 inches) in the Saturniidae family with about 70 species in North America. The silkmoth's common name comes from the large silk cocoons the larvae spin. The larval caterpillar (up to 4 1/2 inches long) is mostly green with bluish tint on its sides, and many spectacular red, yellow and bluish tubercles in rows along its sides and back. The larvae feed on foliage of many different trees and shrubs that include alder, apple, ash, birch, elm, maple, lilac, wild cherry, wild plum and willow. The larvae overwinter as pupae in a large, brown cocoon that weathers to a gray color. Note that Hyalophora cecropia's wings are covered with fine speckled creamy/gray/brown patterns and rusty shading; and they have beautiful white/rusty dark edged crescents, white/rusty crossbands, and a pale lilac color with eyespots near the tips of the forewings. They range east of the Rocky Mountains in the U.S. and southern Canada. Photographed in Lancaster County, Nebraska with a Zeiss 50 mm lens, snap ring, and flash on Kodachrome 64 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-213750411721601..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="43-2. CECROPIA MOTHS MATING ON COCOON -- Note that the beautifully colored features on the upper side of the wings described in the previous photo are also present on the under side of the wings. Also note the colorful rust-red bands and spots on their thick, furry white bodies, and the rusty-colored, fuzzy legs. The adults have vestigial mouth parts incapable of feeding, and they will soon die of starvation in about 2 weeks. The function of adults emerging from their cocoons is not to eat, but to mate and pass their genes on to future generations. The somewhat smaller moth with the large plumose antennae on the left is the male. The males' antennae have olfactory receptors that are capable of "smelling" the sex-attractant, pheromone scent of the female and locating her from several miles away! Note that cocoon is attached along the entire length of a wild plum twig, and even enclosing the twig within the structure of cocoon. Photographed in Lancaster County, Nebraska with a 55 mm lens and flash on Fuji 100 film. ">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-213750411721701..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="43-3. POLYPHEMUS MOTH (female) -- Antheraea polyphemus (wingspan around 6 inches) is the only giant silkmoth species in the genus antheraea, and it is found throughout southern Canada and most of the U.S., except some desert regions. This moth gets its name from a Greek myth about a one-eyed giant called Polyphemus, referring to the conspicuous eyespot on each hindwing. Giant silkmoths are nocturnal and often fly to artificial lights. Note 2 eyespots circled in yellow with black trim on the upperside of the forewings, and larger eyespots circled in yellow with black trim and blue "eye shadow" on the upperside of the hindwings. Note that all 4 center areas of eyespots are transparent allowing one to see the background habitat in the photo. When startled, they quickly flick their forewings forward to suddenly flash the larger, more prominent hindwing eyespots. This defensive behavior startles predators and helps to prevent being eaten. Polyphemus larvae are beautiful bright green, yellow-banded, plump, 3 1/2 inch long caterpillars with red and silver tubercles. The larvae have many predators, even squirrels will eat the pupae inside cocoons. Like cecropia larvae, polyphemus caterpillars eat a wide variety of tree and shrub foliage. One caterpillar can eat an amazing 86,000 times its weight in about 2 months after hatching from its egg. The adult moths do not eat and will die in about 2 weeks. Photographed in the Pine Ridge of northwestern Nebraska with a 60 mm lens, F-8, 1:4 ratio, and fill flash on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-213750411721801..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="43-4. WHITE-LINED SPHINX -- Hyles lineata (wingspan of 2 1/2 to 3 1/2 inches) is in the insect order Lepidoptera in the sphinx moth Sphingidae family with about 125 species in North America. In Canada and Europe, they are called hawk moths. Hyles l. is the most commonly seen sphingid, flying day or night. They have such a rapid wing beat that a whir-sound is produced and they can hover by flowers like a hummingbird. Note the uncoiled proboscis used to sip nectar is in focus in this photo, and the white line on the forewing and the mostly pink color of the hindwing is in focus too. When not in use the proboscis is coiled tightly under the head. Sphingids lack hearing organs; thus, unlike most insects, sphinx moths do not have external tympana. The larval caterpillars are highly varied in color patterns, and they feed on a remarkable wide variety of weeds, flowers, shrubs, and garden fruit and vegetable foliage. The caterpillars may be bright green or yellow with lengthwise rows of colored spots and yellow lines. An upright prominent pointed "horn" of orange or yellow is on the back of their rear end; thus, they are commonly called horn worms. Most sphingid larvae do not spin silken cocoons. They instead pupate in organic litter near the soil surface, and in some species the developing proboscis is so long that a separate narrow pupa sheath curves away from the head, resembling a cup handle. They range throughout North and Latin Americas. Photographed by the Middle Fork of Salmon River in Idaho with a 60 mm lens, F 11/8, 1:4 ratio, and flash on Velvia 50. ">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-213750411721901..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="43-5. WASP MIMIC CLEARWING MOTH -- They are also called hornet clearwings because of their resemblance to hornets and wasps. This moth is in the Sesiidae family of clearwing moths with about 110 species in North America. Ironically, this lepidopteran (means scaled wings) lacks the colored scales that cover the wings of most moths. Note the clear transparent left hindwing in this photo. This adult flies during the day and its larvae are borers inside oak trees. Photographed in Lancaster County, Nebraska with a 60 mm lens, F-11, 1:1.6 ratio, and fill flash on Provia 100F film. ">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-213750411722001..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="43-6. SNOWBERRY CLEARWING HUMMINGBIRD MOTH -- Hemaris sp. (1 1/2 to 2 inches wingspan) is a lepidopteran (means scaled wings ) whose reddish-brown scales drop off its wings, except on the edges, after their first flight as adults. This leaves the wings mostly clear and transparent. It is in the Sphingidae family of sphinx moths and ranges throughout southern Canada and the U.S. They are good mimics of bumble bees flying by day; they hover with a soft buzzing of their wings similar to a hummingbird, and they drink nectar from flowers. Their larval caterpillars feed on foliage of honey suckle plants. Photographed in Lancaster County Nebraska with a 60 mm lens, F-11/8, 1:3 ratio, and fill flash on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-213750411722101..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="43-7. AHOLIBAH UNDERWING MOTH -- This moth is in the owlet moths Noctuidae family that is the largest family of moths with more than 2,900 species in North America (about 24,000 species on Earth!). This moth is a member of the true underwings genus Catocala with about 110 species in the loopers subfamily Plusiinae. This subfamily refers to their larvae which lack 1or 2 pairs of prolegs on the back half of the body and that causes them to loop up the middle of their body (loopers) as they move forward (about 1 inch) in an "inchworm" form of locomotion. This family of moths makes up more than 25 percent of all species of moths and butterflies in the insect order Lepidoptera! This means that 1 in 4 lepidopterans is a noctuid! They are mostly nocturnal and have cryptic brown or gray patterns on their forewings that give them excellent camouflage as they rest during the day. The colorful yellow/black hindwing (underwing) is partially exposed in this photo. Aholibah underwings are commonly found in the western U.S., and its plain-looking grayish larvae feed on oak leaves. Photographed near Lynx Creek in the Sawtooth National Recreational Area of Idaho with a 60 mm lens on Provia 100F film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-213750411722201..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="43-8. AHOLIBAH UNDERWING (yellow) -- This noctuid underwing is displaying much of its colorful underwings and even with the rather colorful forewings there is good camouflage with the forest floor background. Usually when at rest during the day, the forewings cover the hindwings for much better camouflage. However, if disturbed, the sudden exposure of the bright colored underwings startles a predator enough at flight takeoff allowing the moth to fly to a new location. Photographed in the Frank Church River-Of-No-Return Wilderness of Idaho with a 60 mm lens, F-11/8, 1:4 ratio and fill flash on Velvia 50 film. ">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-213750411722301..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="43-9. NOCTUID FLOWER MOTH -- Here is one of more than 2,900 species of owlet moths in the largest family (Noctuidea) in the insect order Lepidoptera of moths and butterflies. Photographed in the Frank Church River-Of-No-Return Wilderness of Idaho with a 60 mm lens F-11/8, 1:2 ratio, and fill flash on Provia 100F film.">Open Image width="698" height="460"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-213750411722401..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="43-91. HELIOTHINE MOTH -- It is in the subfamily Heliothinae (120 species in N. America), in the largest family Noctuidae (over 2,900 species in N. America), in the insect order Lepidoptera of moths and butterflies. Many heliothine moth adults visit flowers by day. The larvae usually feed on the flowers, buds, or seedheads of their host plants. Photographed in Lancaster County, Nebraska with a 60 mm lens, F-11/8, 1:3 ratio, and flash on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-213750411722501..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="43-10. NOCTUID MOTH ON DOGWOOD BLOSSOM -- Here is one of more than 2,900 species of owlet moths in the largest family (Noctuidea) in the insect order Lepidoptera of moths and butterflies. Photographed in Lancaster County, Nebraska with a 60 mm lens, F-11, 1:2 ratio, and fill flash on Provia 100F film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-213750411722601..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="43-11. LESSER UNDERWING -- It appears to be Zale sp. Its wings are spread flat out to the sides and the color pattern is continuous across both forewings and hindwings. There appears to be raised bristles on top of the thorax. Photographed in the Sawtooth National Recreational Area in Idaho with a 60 mm lens, F-11, and fill flash on Provia 100F film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-213750411722701..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="43-12. GREEN CLOVER WORM MOTH -- This moth is in the Erebidae family and Hypeninae subfamily of moths. Note the snout-like mouth with proboscis extended, and that all segments of the left front leg are in focus. The larval caterpillars of these moths feed on leaves of clover, alfalfa, soybeans, beans, ragweed and raspberries. Photographed in Lancaster County, Nebraska with an 85 mm lens extension tube, and fill flash on Provia 100F film. ">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-213750411722801..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="43-13. NEVADA BUCK MOTHS (mating) -- The male is on the right and the female is on the left in this photo. Note the large feathery antennae of the male that is used to detect sex pheromone fragrance of the female from 1/2 mile away! Also note black eyespots on the white area of the wings. The adults have vestigial mouthparts and do not eat. They will die of starvation in about 2 weeks. Their larvae feed on foliage of willow, cottonwood and oak trees. Their habitat is in riparian and high groundwater areas. This Nevada Buck Moth pair (their common name comes from the timing of emergence with the fall buck deer rut.) was found in a high groundwater area of the Sheyenne Native Grasslands southwest of Fargo, North Dakota. Hemileuca nevadensis (wingspan 2 to 2 1/2 inches) is in the insect order Lepidoptera, in the silkmoths family Saturniidae, in the subfamily Hemileucinae, and in the genus Hemileuca with about 15 species. Most species are in the western U.S. This Buck Moth is one of the few eastern members of this genus. They range from Wisconsin west to Oregon and south from Oklahoma to California. Photographed with a 28 mm lens, F-11, less than 1 ft. focus, and fill flash on Provia 100F film. ">Open Image width="698" height="467"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-213750411722901..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="43-14. COLONA -- Haploa colona (wingspan 1 1/2 to 2 1/4 inches) is in the tiger moths Arctiidae family with more than 250 species in North America. Note the bold contrasting black and white pattern of this tiger moth. Their conspicuous black and white pattern is a warning to predators that they are toxic (a warning similar to a skunk). Many species of adult tiger moths do not feed and will soon die of starvation. Their larval caterpillars are also boldly marked and bristly to warn that they are toxic. They feed on ash, elm, hackberry, apple and peach tree foliage. They range in the southeastern 1/2 of the U.S. Photographed in Lancaster County, Nebraska with a 60 mm lens, F-11/8, 1:3 ratio, and fill flash on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-213750411723001..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="43-15. PERICOPID MOTH -- It is in the tiger moths Arctiidae family. Like most tiger moths, the larvae are densely coated with hair-like bristles (some are called "Woolly Bears") that can make it difficult for predators to grasp, especially when they roll up in a tightly-coiled posture. They range in the southwestern U.S. Photographed near Lynx Creek in the Sawtooth National Recreation Area in Idaho with a 60 mm lens, F-11, and fill flash on Provia 100F film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-213750411723101..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="43-16. CLYMENE HAPLOA -- Haploa clymene has a conspicuous, bold chocolate-and-cream forewing pattern. Underneath the forewings most of its body and all of hindwings are a yellow-orange color except 2 small black eyespots. Adults visit flowers during the day or night. Its blackish larvae with yellow-orange side stripes eat a variety of plant leaves,including Eupatorium (ie. Common Boneset and Joe-Pye Weed) in the aster flower family, oak, peach and willow. Clymene Haploa is in the tiger moth Arctiidae family of insect lepidopterans. Photographed in Indian Cave State Park in southeastern Nebraska with a 60 mm lens, F-11, 1:3 ratio, and fill flash on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-213750411723201..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="43-17. OECOPHORID MOTH -- Antaeotricha sp. is a microlepidopteran in the insect order Lepidoptera, and in the Oecophoridae family of micromoths. Note that the right forewing overlaps the left forewing, and that the gray mottling on white wings in this small, narrow (about 5/8 inch long) moth produces the appearance of a bird dropping on a leaf (natural selection can produce creative camouflage that works for an individual's survival). Also note the pretty iridescent tufts of dark bristles on top of the thorax. Photographed in the Loess Hills by the Missouri River near Onowa, Iowa with a 60 mm lens, F-11, 1:1 ratio, in sunlight, with tripod, at 1/15 sec on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-213750411723301..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="43-18. CODLING MOTH -- Cydia pomonella is a micromoth in the Tortricidae family of tortricid moths with over 1,100 species in North America. A Codling Moth is rather small (about 3/8 inch long) with forewings narrowly rounded in front and flared or squared in back. Its larvae tunnel into and feed on several types of fruit, but they are most infamous as "worms" in apples. Photographed in Lancaster County, Nebraska with a 60 mm lens, extension tube, F-11/8, and double fill flash on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-213750411723401..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="43-19. PYRALID MOTH -- It is commonly called the snout moth. Note the rather long snout with proboscis extended in this photo. This individual may be a Brown Snout Moth (?). This is one of the more than 1,100 North American species in the largest family (Pyralidae) of microlepidopteran moths in the order Lepidoptera of moths and butterflies. They occur almost everywhere and many are very common. Larvae have variable feeding habits, including eating foliage, boring into stems to feed, eating grass roots, eating stored grain, and a few feed in aquatic habitats. The infamous European Corn Borer agricultural pest is a pyralid moth. Photographed in Lancaster County, Nebraska with a 60 mm lens, F-11, 1:2 ratio, and fill flash on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-213750411723501..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="43-20. CHICWEED GEOMETER -- Haematopis grataria is in the large geometer moths family Geometridae with more than 1,400 species in North America. They are also commonly called measuringworm moths because of the way the larvae move. Their slender caterpillars lack 1 or 2 pairs of prolegs on the back half of the body and that causes them to loop up the middle of the body as they move forward in a looping method of locomotion. The names "measuringworm" or "inchworm" come from looping or "inching" forward about an inch each move rather than crawling like most other caterpillars. The Chicweed Geometer larvae feed on chickweed and many other low growing plants. Adult geometrid moths rest with their wings spread out flat showing the similarly patterned fore and hindwings, and they have a tympanum (hearing organ) on each side of the abdomen. This moth is widespread and common as it flutters across fields by day throughout the U.S. and most of Canada. Photographed in Johnson County Park in Kansas City, Kansas with a 105 mm lens, extension tubes, F-11/8, 17 inches focus distance, and fill flash on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="698" height="468"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-213750411723601..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="43-21. GEOMETRID MOTH -- This photo is most likely the underside of the wing of the Common Lytrosis geometrid moth resting on a green plant. This classic wing pattern provides good camouflage when the moth is resting on tree bark. Photographed in the Bear Valley Creek area of the Boise National Forest in Idaho with a 35-135 mm lens on macro, F-22, 1:4 ratio, and flash on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-213750411723701..jpg"> height="29"/>height="28"/> tooltip="16. DEER MOUSE -- Flash captured this wild mouse through a basement window at a sunflower seed feeder. Note a striped sunflower seed in mouse's mouth. In 1993, it was discovered that deer mice (Peromyscus) spread the deadly hantavirus to people in their contaminated urine and feces. [Please note there is a small unwanted reflection in lower part of photo.] A Zeiss 50mm lens at F-22 with snap ring was used for this image on Kodachrome 25 film. ">Open Image width="590" height="472"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg1246070131101..jpg"> height="29"/>height="34"/> tooltip="16-10. WHITE-FOOTED MOUSE -- Wood Mouse (head/body 3½-4¼ in.) is another common name for this species. Its scientific name is Peromyscus leucopus, and the photo of the preceding Deer Mouse (head/body 3-4 in.) is Peromyscus maniculatus. The White-footed Mouse has a slightly bicolored, less dense hairy, and somewhat shorter tail than its head and body. The Deer Mouse has a distinctly bicolored (dark on top, light on bottom), more dense hairy, and usually somewhat longer tail than its head and body. Both species ranges overlap (sympatric) and evidence of intergrades between the two species occur making accurate identification in some individuals difficult. P. maniculatus has the most widely distributed range of any mammal in North America, ranging from central Alaska, throughout all of Canada, most of the U.S., and well into Mexico. P. leucopus ranges through all of central and most of eastern U.S., and well into Mexico. They have variable body fur color from pale gray to deep rusty brown, but the belly and feet are usually always white. The habitat preference of leucopus is more wooded and brushy than that of maniculatus which prefers more open dry-land habitat. They build their nests in grass and leaf litter on the ground, in burrows underground, in shrubs and trees, in bird and squirrel nests, logs, stumps, and buildings. They store seeds and nuts for food and eat berries, fruits, insects, and carcasses. They are nocturnal and have a leaping mode of locomotion, not running. One field guide reports that when alarmed, they rapidly vibrate their front feet on the ground or wood producing a drumming sound. Photographed in a hollow log through a basement window in Lancaster County, Nebraska with a 60 mm lens, F-11, 1:5 ratio, and flash on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="700" height="473"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg1246070131501..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="16-11. HOUSE MOUSE -- Mus musculus (head/body 3¼-3½ in.) is a pretty much uniformly colored gray or brownish mouse in the wild with somewhat paler belly, but not white as in Peromyscus. Its tail is a uniform color, scaly, scantily haired, and as long or a little longer than the head and body. The all white albino mutant House Mouse is a standard laboratory mammal for studying the effects of drugs, chemicals, antibiotics, and other test for the benefit of humanity. In the wild its habitat is farm buildings, warehouses, and food storage areas, and it has been completely destructive to food, to buildings, and to people in transmitting communicable disease. It causes 10's of millions of dollars damage annually in the U.S. It is an example of the harm caused by introducing a non-native alien species into a country or area where it has not evolved to be a part of the natural ecosystem. Photographed in a hollow log through a basement window in Lancaster County, Nebraska with a 50 mm lens, snap ring, and flash on Kodachrome 64 film.">Open Image width="700" height="473"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg1246070131601..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="17. MASKED SHREW -- Flash captured this wild, live shrew through a basement window at a sunflower seed feeder. This small mammal has a heart beat more than 1,200 per minute and eats up to 3 times its own weight each day. A zeiss 50mm lens at F-22 with snap ring was used for this image on Kodachrome 25 film.">Open Image width="700" height="482"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg1246070131201..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="17-10. SHORTTAIL SHREW -- Blarina brevicauda (3-4 in.) has a uniform dark gray color, velvety fur, and a short tail (about 1 in. long, but not showing is this photo). Note the tiny black eye showing in this photo. Concerning this shrew's ears, three field guides report the following: one tells us "...no ears...", another "...no external ears...", and still another, "No apparent external ears." Note the apparent round tuft of fur on the head indicating a possible external ear. This shrew is active day and night throughout the year and feeds on insects, worms, snails, seeds, and probably baby mice. It is one of the very few poisonous mammals with a toxic saliva that can paralyze its prey, and its bite is painful but not dangerous to humans. They range from the southern part of eastern Canada throughout the eastern half of the U.S. Photographed in a hollow log through a basement window in Lancaster County, Nebraska with a 60 mm lens, F-32/22, and flash on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="700" height="473"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg1246070131701..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="17-30. RACCOON -- Procyon lotor (18-28 in.; tail 8-12 in.; wt. 12-35 lb.) is one of only three species in the raccoon family Procyonidae in the order Carnivora. Procyon means before dog and lotor means washer. The other two species are the ringtails found in the southwest U.S. up to southwest Oregon, and the coatis found in the extreme southwest U.S., but not common. Raccoons range from parts of northern and most of southern Canada, throughout most of the U.S., and well into Mexico. Key characteristics are the black mask across the eyes and 5 to 7 black rings on a long black tipped tail. Mostly they dwell on land (terrestrial), but frequently they are in trees (arboreal). Mostly, they are active at night (nocturnal), but sometimes during the day (diurnal). Usually they feed along streams and lakes eating both plants and animals (omnivorous). They have a habit of dunking their food in water before eating crayfish, frogs, and anything available including fruits, nuts, bird eggs, and grains. In farm areas, field corn is a major part of their diet and high populations of raccoons can occur near cornfields. Raccoon home ranges have readily expanded into urban and suburban areas, and park campgrounds to the extent they are becoming a nuisance to humans. In the U.S., 90 percent of all rabies cases occur in wildlife, and rabid Raccoons cause the most at about 40 percent of all wildlife rabies cases followed by skunks, bats, and foxes. Raccoons as well as any wildlife should not be kept as pets. Photographed in the Republican River near the Kansas/Nebraska border with a 500 mm lens, F-5.6, and tripod on Provia F-100 film.">Open Image width="700" height="473"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg1246070131901..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="17-40. EASTERN COTTONTAIL -- Sylvilagus floridanus (14-17 in.; ear 2½-3 in.) is in the hare and rabbit family Leporidae. Key characteristics are long ears, long hind legs, large hind feet, shorter front legs, soft fur, and a short cottony tail. A key feature separating rabbits from rodents is two pair of upper incisors with one less developed pair directly behind the more developed front pair. Rodents have one pair of upper incisors. The Eastern Cottontail is the most common rabbit throughout the central and eastern U.S. It feeds on plants (herbivorous). It eats green vegetation in summer, bark and twigs in winter, and eats (coprophagy) its own droppings (feces). In warmer climates rabbits carry the disease tularemia which can infect humans during improper field-dressing of killed rabbits, or improper cooking of the meat. A good natural history story of a cottontail's life cycle is given by Ernest Thompson Seton in his classic book, Wild Animals I Have Known. Their favorite habitat is heavy brush, brush piles, and weed patches beside open areas (See animal gallery section of this website for natural camouflage of an alert standing Eastern Cottontail in heavy brush ready to bolt into an open area.). Photographed in Lancaster County, Nebraska with a 400mm lens and F-5.6 on Provia F-100 film.">Open Image width="700" height="473"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg12460701311001..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="17-41. DESERT COTTONTAIL -- Sylvilagus auduboni (12-15 in.; ear 3-4 in.) has noticeably larger ears compared to the previous photo of the Eastern Cottontail. To avoid overheating, natural selection has evolved large, extensive blood vessel-supplied ears to dissipate body heat, a light-colored fur to reflect solar heat, and to conserve moister and energy by being active in late afternoon, at night, and early morning during hot, dry summer months. Natural selection, most likely, also evolved behavioral adaptations in this rabbit. Usually cottontails "freeze" by remaining motionless to avoid predators or they run away from large predators in a sudden zigzag pattern, but also defends itself by kicking small predators with its powerful hind feet. It is reported that they will swim in water and climb trees to escape predators. As in other mammals, the underside of the rabbit's tail produces a "white flag" as a danger warning signal to other rabbits. Like most rabbits, it has a coprophagous diet by eating its own fecal droppings to extract more nutrients from food by recycling its waste. It feeds mostly on grasses, but will eat cacti, bark, twigs, and mesquite. It rarely drinks, depending mostly on plants and dew for water. Their habitats are dry upland desert-type grasslands and shrublands, but also riparian areas and pinyon-juniper forests. It ranges from south of the Missouri River in Montana and southwestern North Dakota well into Mexico, and into most of the southwestern U.S. Photographed in the Bill Williams River National Wildlife Refuge near the Colorado River in Arizona with a 500 mm lens, F-5.6, tripod, and electronic release in late afternoon sun in January. ">Open Image width="700" height="465"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg12460701314301..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="17-42. PIKA -- The grayish or brownish Pika looks similar to a small cottontail rabbit except the ears are much smaller and rounded, the front and hind legs are about the same size, and it has no visible tail. Its habitat is in boulder fields, rockslides, and talus slopes at high elevations on mountains usually near timberline, but can be found at sea level in the North. Pikas range from central British Columbia to northern New Mexico. It feeds on grasses and herbs, and stores this food in hay piles by collecting and packing the vegetation in its mouth and then depositing it in a pile (note the pile of vegetation in this photo). They store piles of vegetation under boulders for food in winter and they do not hibernate. Pikas are cold temperature adapted to such a degree that a warm temperature at 80 degrees F. for a few hours will kill them. Natural selection may have inadvertently "boxed" Pikas into a specialized cold-climate adapted physiology with nowhere to go but up because of global warming. But going up to higher elevation may not keep them from the lethal temperature which could result in endangered Pikas very likely going extinct and lost forever. There probably will not be enough time for natural selection to react quickly enough to adapt Pika physiology to warmer temperatures at the present rapid rate of global warming. Photographed in the Eagle Cap Wilderness Area of southwest Oregon with a 70-210 zoom lens at 210, F-5.6, tripod, and electronic release on Provia F-100 film.">Open Image width="700" height="473"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg12460701314401..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="16-20. THIRTEEN-LINED GROUND SQUIRREL -- Citellus tridecemlineatus (head/body 4½-6½ in.; tail 2½-5¼ in.) is in the gnawing mammals order Rodentia (about 2,275 species ) and in the Sciuridae family of marmots, prairie dogs, tree squirrels, and chipmunks. Over 40 percent of all mammals are rodents! They all have 4 toes on the front and 5 toes on the hind foot. The tail is always covered with hair. All are active during daytime (diurnal) except nighttime (nocturnal) flying squirrels. C. tridecemlineatus is the most common and wide ranging of the ground squirrels from central Canada, throughout the Midwest, down through the middle of Texas to the Gulf Coast. It is the only striped ground squirrel in North America with 13 long light stripes on its sides and back; some of the upper stripes are broken up into rows of light spots. Its habitat is mostly in grassland where they feed on grass, weed seeds, grain, insects, and sometimes meat. While being near these ground squirrels and their burrows over a number of years, I have noted in many instances an unusual voice call ability of this rodent. I have heard their bird-like voice call coming from a definite, small area of ground surface many feet from its nearest burrow opening. I suppose it was in a shallow burrow and the sound came through the soil, but why would it give away its location underground to a predator like a badger that is capable of rapidly digging down to it? Note this individual is almost completely out of its burrow. Photographed in native prairie near Byron, Nebraska with a 35-135 mm zoom lens at 135 at F-11 on Provia F-100 film. ">Open Image width="700" height="473"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg12460701311201..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="16-21. TOWNSEND GROUND SQUIRREL -- This plain gray ground squirrel (5½-7 in.; tail 1¼-2¼ in.) shot in the Snake River Birds of Prey Area in Idaho was caught yelping in this photo. They form large colonies in dry soil, sagebrush land, and grassland where they feed on green vegetation and seeds. Females have 5 to 10 and sometimes 15 young born in March. They reproduce in such high numbers that they become a reliable food source to support some of the highest concentrations of badgers and birds of prey on Earth. A 400 mm lens, F-8, and tripod put this image on Ectachrome 100 S film. ">Open Image width="700" height="473"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg12460701311301..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="16-22. UINTA GROUND SQUIRREL -- Citellus armatus (8¾-9 in.; tail 2½-3¼ in.) has brownish fur in the middle of its back and long light hairs mixed with pale fur on the belly. The tail is grayish brown. Their habitat is open ground in foothills and mountain meadows nearly to the timber line. They range from southwestern Montana south through western Wyoming and eastern Idaho to central Utah. They feed mostly on green vegetation and like many ground squirrels, they hibernate in winter. Photographed at the corner of Highways 135 and 289 in western Wyoming with a 400 mm lens, F-8, at 1/500 sec. on Provia F-100 film.">Open Image width="700" height="473"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg12460701311401..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="16-23. GOLDEN-MANTLED SQUIRREL -- Citellus lateralis's identifying feature is a white stripe bordered with black on each side behind the shoulders and no stripes on the sides of its head. Its habitat is in burrows near trees, logs, and rocks in the forests of mountains. From personal backpack experience, I know of one individual that can climb trees to get into a plastic bag of food hanging some distance from a tree limb. They feed on seeds, fruits, insects, eggs, and meat. They range from central British Columbia to northern New Mexico, and other western states. Photographed in the Vedauwoo of Wyoming off of I-80 with a 400 mm lens, F-8, 1/500 sec., and tripod on Provia F-100 film.">Open Image width="700" height="473"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg12460701311501..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="16-24. LEAST CHIPMUNK -- Eutamias minumus (3½-4½ in.; tail 3-4½ in.) is the most far ranging and has the greatest altitude variation, from deserts to high mountains, of the chipmunks. They range throughout most of Canada and many of the western states in the U.S. Key characteristics are stripes on the side of head and stripes on the side of its body go to the base of tail. They run with their tail straight up. Note the abnormal, large tumor on the chest of this individual. They feed on vegetation, seeds, nuts fruits, insects, and meat. They make their own burrows beneath stumps, logs, rocks, and they hibernate. Photographed near the Grayback Camp Ground south of Idaho City, Idaho with a 300 mm lens, F-8, and tripod on Provia F-100 film.">Open Image width="700" height="473"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg12460701311601..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="16-30. BLACKTAIL PRAIRIE DOG -- A key characteristic of this yellowish brown prairie dog (11-13 in.; tail 3-4 in.) is about 1 inch of black on the end of its tail. Just 100 years ago there were colonies of prairie dog "towns" in the 100's of millions in the Midwestern U.S. Now, less than 5 percent of their habitat remains and it is fragmented. Conservation biology research shows that the prairie dog is a keystone species necessary for biodiversity and the health of the grassland prairie ecosystem. Prairie dogs have been needlessly persecuted and need to be restored to the prairie ecosystem. Some colonies are being preserved on public land in Wind Cave National Park, Custer State Park, and near Lubbock, Texas. On private land, conservation biologists are working with Ted Turner on his large ranches and are making a great effort to restore grasslands by successfully reintroducing prairie dogs on many areas of his property. Photographed in Custer State Park in South Dakota with a 400 mm lens, F-8, and tripod on Provia F-100 film.">Open Image width="700" height="473"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg12460701311701..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="16-31. WHITETAIL PRAIRIE DOG -- A key characteristic of this yellowish prairie dog (11-12 in.; tail 1¼-2½ in.) is a white-tipped tail. They range through most of Wyoming, Colorado, New Mexico, Utah, and Arizona at higher elevations (5000-8500 ft.) than blacktail prairie dogs. Photographed in the Red Desert of Wyoming with a 500 mm lens at F-5.6 on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="700" height="473"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg12460701311801..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="16-40. EASTERN FOX SQUIRREL -- Sciurus niger (10-15 in.; tail 9-14 in.) is found pretty much anywhere there are nut trees in its range throughout the eastern two-thirds of the U.S. Color variation occurs North to South from the usual reddish-gray above and yellowish-orange below to grayish, to steel-gray and even to black (a melanistic color phase) with nose and ears white. They have been introduced into cities of Western states. It feeds on nuts, acorns, seeds, fungi, bird eggs, and cambium and buds of small branches on trees. Photographed in Lancaster County, Nebraska with a 400 mm lens, F-8, and fill flash on Astia 100 film.">Open Image width="700" height="473"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg12460701312001..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="16-41. EASTERN GRAY SQUIRREL -- Sciurus carolinensis (head/body 8-10 in.; tail 8-10 in.) is pretty much the only tree squirrel with a bushy tail bordered with white hair. It ranges from southeastern Canada throughout the eastern half of the U.S. Black melanistic phase squirrels are present in parts of its range. Like the Eastern Fox Squirrel, they build leaf nests high in trees, store nuts and acorns in small holes in the ground, and have a similar diet. In some parts of their range, gray squirrels promote reforestation with the many nuts they bury. Photographed in Amicolola State Park near Jasper, Georgia with a 400 mm lens, F-11/8, and fill flash at 16 ft. on Provia F-100 film.">Open Image width="700" height="473"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg12460701311901..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="16-50. BOBCAT -- A key characteristic of Lynx rufus (head/body 25-30 in.; tail 5 in.; wt. 15-35 lbs.) is a short tail with black on top of a white-tipped tail. The top of its ear hair tufts are short compared to a Lynx. It feeds on small mammals and large birds such as turkeys. It ranges from southern Canada into Mexico and throughout the U.S. except in the heavily human populated parts of the East where it is now extirpated. Photographed on the banks of the Republican River at the Kansas/Nebraska border with a 500 mm lens at F-5.6 on Provia F-100 film.">Open Image width="700" height="473"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg12460701312101..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="16-60. COYOTE -- Canis latrans (head/body 32-37 in.; tail 11-16 in.; wt. 20-50 lbs.) is gray or reddish gray in color, and the tail is held down when running. They are usually nocturnal and eat pretty much anything from scavenging carcasses to vegetables and fruit, but mostly small rodents and rabbits. They usually hunt alone, but sometimes in pairs, and their normal hunting route is about 10 miles, but may cover up to 100 miles. They will kill larger animals by attacking the throat. The history of a bounty on coyotes has not reduced their populations, has been a failure, and is not recommended by the vast majority of biologist or game managers. Occasionally coyotes kill sheep and calves, but records show that domestic and feral dogs kill more livestock than coyotes. Most people find the yapping yelp/howl of coyotes a pleasant sound to hear in nature. Coyotes range from most of Alaska, throughout most of Canada and the U.S., and into Mexico and Central America. Photographed in the Bill Williams River National Wildlife Area in Arizona with a 400 mm lens at F-5.6 on Provia F-100 film.">Open Image width="700" height="473"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg12460701312201..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="16-61. GRAY WOLF – Canis lupus (head/body 43-48 in.; tail 12-19 in.; wt. 70-120 lbs.) is our largest wild dog that pretty much stays in wilderness areas. Wolf packs can have a 60 mile or more hunting territory area which is scent marked to help keep other wolf packs in their separate territories. Wolf fur color varies from white to black, but most wolves are gray. When they run, their tail is straight out or up. Their original range is circumpolar. In North America., wolves in large numbers are confined to Alaska, Northwest Territories, most of Canada, northern Minnesota and Wisconsin, Isle Royal and upper Michigan. The great reintroduction success story for wolves has been growing populations in Yellowstone National Park and wilderness areas of Idaho, Montana, Wyoming and New Mexico. Evidence is mounting that wolves as predators are a necessary part of a fully functional ecosystem. The cooperative, social, family wolf packs (2 to rarely more than 12) kill and eat rodents, deer, elk, caribou, wild sheep and moose for food, but mostly it's the old, the weak and the sick large prey that are eaten. Natural selection has evolved this natural predator/prey interaction which has been unfolding for millions of years to the benefit of both predator and prey. It has also evolved a fascinating complex social behavior among wolves. A documentary film/DVD titled "Living with Wolves/Wolves at our Door" is a long-term study of wolf social behavior on the edge of Idaho's Sawtooth Wilderness. However, this study, as in most wolf pack research, is based on non-natural conditions of captive wolves. The most recent, updated research by L.D. Mech explains that so-called "alpha, beta and omega" dominance hierarchies are probably appropriate for breeding captive packs of an assortment of wolves from various sources. In wild nature, a free-living wolf pack behaves differently than a captive pack. Mech concludes: "The typical wolf pack, then, should be viewed as a family with the adult parents guiding the activities of the group and sharing group leadership in a division-of-labor system in which the female predominates primarily in such activities as pup care and defense and the male primarily during foraging and food-provisioning and the travels associated with them... The one use we may still want to reserve for "alpha" is in the relatively few large wolf packs comprised of multiple litters. Although the genetic relationships of the mothers in such packs remain unknown, probably the mothers include the original matriarch and one or more daughters, and the fathers are probably the patriarch and unrelated adoptees (Mech et al. 1998). In such cases the older breeders are probably dominant to the younger breeders and perhaps can more appropriately be called the alphas. Evidence for such a contention would be an older breeder consistently dominating food disposition or the travels of the pack. The point here is not so much the terminology but what the terminology falsely implies: a rigid, force-based dominance hierarchy." For an updated scientific study of wolves, read the work of internationally known wolf expert—David Mech [Mech, L. David. 1999. Alpha status, dominance, and division of labor in wolf packs. Canadian Journal of Zoology 77:1196-1203. Jamestown, ND: Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center Home Page Http://www.npwrc.usgs.gov/resource/2000/alstat/alstat.htm (Version 16 MAY 2000)]. People with superstitious beliefs that wolves are "bad" do not understand that wolves are just as much a part of the natural ecosystem as all other biodiversity of native animals and plants—there is no "bad" or "good" in nature; it just is, because nature is amoral. I think the wailing howl of wolves provides a pleasant satisfying sound of wilderness for most people. Photographed in northern Minnesota early in the morning on the banks of the Big Fork River with a 400 mm lens, F-5.6 on Provia 100F slide film.">Open Image width="700" height="473"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg12460701312301..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="16-62. RED FOX -- A close-up photo of Vulpes fulva (head/body 22-25 in.; tail 14-16 in.; wt. 10-15 lbs.) showing key characteristic of black feet and black on ears. The only fox in North America with a white-tipped tail. They feed on insects, fruits, berries, mice, rabbits, and they cache their food near trails. Their dens for birth of pups are usually on slopes of loose soil. The male brings food to the vixen when pups are first born and then both parents bring food to the young in the den. Their home range is about 2 square miles and they range from Alaska to the Northwest Territories and throughout Canada, and most of the U.S. Photographed in the foothills of Boise, Idaho with a 500 mm lens at F-5.6 on Ectachrome 100VS film.">Open Image width="700" height="473"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg12460701312401..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="15-10. PRONGHORNS -- A herd of nine Pronghorns in the Red Desert of Wyoming. Antilocapra americana is the only Pronghorn genus left in the Antilocapridae family. It is found only in North America where it evolved about 25 to 15 million years ago into a diverse family of ruminants, and now fossil evidence shows that over deep time 13 pronghorn genera have become extinct. For millions of years, natural selection forged a predator/prey interaction between the now extinct American cheetahs and pronghorns resulting in the present day Pronghorn as the fastest mammal in North America (see the "Expose Illusions" section of My Philosophy in this website as to whether this photo represents a fast herd of pronghorn or a fast pronghorn herd). As of the last ice age about 10,000 years ago, the Pronghorn appears to have lost very little of its evolved cheetah-forged swiftness which otherwise makes no evolutionary sense in light of the fact that no present day predator comes close to running down a Pronghorn. Pronghorns are also an example of how natural selection has "pushed" the limit in the evolution of two contrasting functions of hair in this mammal. The horns of Pronghorns are actually an accumulation of matted, stuck together hairs forming a keratinous sheath over a bony core, and their horns are shed annually which is the unusual exception for mammals with horns. The rump of Pronghorns has a large patch of long, white, erectile hairs which seem to function like a "white flag" warning of danger when walking alertly as they look for a threat (see some erected white hairs at the top of rump on the walking individual 2nd from the left in the photo). (Of course, this does not mean that natural selection proceeded with foresight toward a goal of horn and rump hair adaptations, but rather it is actually a natural, mechanistic, gradual process over time of non-random accumulation of random inherited traits over many generations of pronghorns.) They have evolved the largest eyes of any ungulate in North America, and the eyes position high on the side of the head nearly provides a 360 degree field of vision. Both male and female have horns, but when running the buck's nose points down and the doe's nose points straight ahead. This wondrous, beautifully adapted Pronghorn was nearly lost forever by extinction in the 1900's because of ignorant exploitation by Europeans. Fortunately, enlightened people of science and reason prevailed in conservation management practices, in strict protection, and in reintroduction programs to bring Pronghorns back from the brink. Since the 1930's, conservation management has greatly increased their numbers to the point they are legally hunted annually. They range from southwestern Canada through most of the western states in the U.S. into Mexico where they can survive during severe drought and winter by feeding pretty much only on sagebrush. Photographed in the Red Desert of Wyoming with a 500 mm lens, F-8, tripod, and electronic release on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="700" height="473"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg12460701312501..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="15-1. PRONGHORN -- This mammal is found only in North America. Both sexes have true horns made of sheaths of matted hair that are shed each year. This is one of the fastest running animals in the world. Speeds of 70mph for 3-4 minutes have been clocked, and 30mph is an easy cruising speed over long periods of time. In the summer, it grazes on grasses, forbs, and cacti; in winter, it browses on sagebrush. In his book Built for Speed: A Year in the Life of Pronghorn, 2003 John Byers tells us “Natural selection can shape the brain to make anything that contributes directly to reproduction feel like fun.” After giving birth the mother pronghorn eats up the placenta followed by several weeks of chowing down on her fawn’s feces. (It tastes good!) A decaying placenta could attract predators and eating her fawn’s feces apparently helps produce disease-fighting antibodies for her offspring through the mother’s milk. The 400mm telephoto at F-5.6 and 1/500 sec. shutter speed put this Pronghorn antelope on Provia 100F film. ">Open Image width="693" height="482"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg1246070131301..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="15-20. BISON ROUND-UP -- This photo shows a herd of about 1000 bison running down a high hill in Custer state Park in South Dakota. This annual round-up (eventually the bison end up in holding pens) auctions off about 20 per cent of the bison herd to ranchers and food processors for grocery stores and restaurants. Maintaining the bison herd at sustainable numbers is necessary in order to not exceed the carrying capacity of this natural ecosystem. Many scientists tell us that native grassland prairies are our most endangered ecosystem. There is, however, hope and a plan fostered by the Grassland Foundation conservation organization in Nebraska advocating a goal of increasing protected native prairies from the current 1.5 percent to 10 percent. The Grassland Foundation has forged alliances with the O'Connor Center for the Rocky West at the University of Montana in Missoula and the World Wildlife Fund among others for promoting creation of protected grassland natural areas, promoting sustainable grassland communities, and promoting a nature-based economy through multiple uses of private land in the Northern Great Plains. A 70-210 mm zoom lens at 210, F-5.6, 1/60 sec., polarizer filter, tripod, and remote release put this image on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="700" height="473"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg12460701312601..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="15-2. AMERICAN BISON -- Bison bison is a large wild ox weighing up to one ton with a shoulder hump height up to 6 ft. The thick neck and huge head have abundant blackish brown long shaggy hair that hides eyes and ears. Bison (buffalo) are gregarious, diurnal beasts tending to form large herds that migrate during the day. They graze on grasses, but also eat some browse. Just 200 yrs. ago there were 70 million wild bison ranging from Alaska to Mexico. George Catlin traveled, wrote about, and painted the Great Plains in the 1830s. He proposed that the national government create a grassland park to protect the vast herds of elk and buffalo 30 yrs. before Yellowstone became the world’s first national park in 1872. By 1889 there were only 541 bison left in the U.S. Urgent last-minute conservation efforts just barely saved the species. By 1951 there were about 23,000 and now there are about 200,000 roaming the U.S.">Open Image width="688" height="482"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg1246070131401..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="15-21. BISON -- Bull bison like this one in Yellowstone National Park can weight up to 2,000 lbs. By the 1890's Europeans had hunted and killed nearly all of the 70 million bison that originally ranged from southern Canada throughout the Midwest grasslands and into Mexico. Like the over exploited pronghorns, bison were reduced to about 500 individuals and were just barely brought back from the brink of extinction of being lost forever by a few conservation minded people. A 300 mm lens, F-4, and 1/500 sec. put this image on Provia F-100 film.">Open Image width="700" height="473"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg12460701312701..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="15-30. DESERT BIGHORN -- Bighorn Sheep are in the same Bovidae family as are domestic cattle, sheep, and goats. In this family both males and females have unbranched horns that are never shed. When a male ram is about 8 yrs. old, its horns usually have a full curl with the tips of the horn making a full circle level with the base of the horn. Ram horns can weigh up to 30 pounds. Some old rams deliberately rub off the tips of their horns on rocks if the horn interferes with their peripheral vision. Desert Bighorn do not require drinking water in winter if green vegetation is available, but in summer they need to drink at least every 3 days. Photographed in the Needles Wilderness Area north of Lake Havasu City, Arizona in January with a 400 mm lens, F-5.6, 1/500 sec., and tripod on Velvia 100 film.">Open Image width="700" height="473"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg12460701312801..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="15-31. BIGHORN SHEEP -- Note the conspicuous creamy white rump patches on the upper back legs. Natural selection has produced this beneficial "white flag" alarm signal in many evolutionary lineages of herbivores such as rabbits and deer with their white tails, elk and mule deer with their rump patches, and of course, the Pronghorn as explained in the photo of Pronghorns showing erectile white hair on a rump patch. Bighorn Sheep have a complex 9-stage digestive process to efficiently extract nutrients from poor quality food. In spite of these adaptations for survival, bighorn numbers are less than 10 per cent of their original populations before Europeans began exploiting the Rocky Mountains, and even less than 3 per cent in Baja California. Disease from domestic sheep, competition from trespassing cattle, illegal poaching, and increased predation by cougars are reducing Bighorn Sheep numbers. Photographed in Custer State Park in the Black Hills of South Dakota with a 400 mm lens at F-8 on Provia F-100 film.">Open Image width="700" height="473"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg12460701312901..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="15-32. WILD HORSE -- Even though most horses ( family Equidae) originally evolved in North America over the last 20 million years (and, of course, they co-evolved with native plants), many became extinct and some emigrated over landbridges to Eurasia from their region of origin. Then the horse was reintroduced about 500 yrs. ago into North America by Spanish explorers. Paul S. Martin in his book, Twilight of the Mammoths: Ice Age Extinctions and the Rewilding of America, 2005, brings clarity to the issue for biologists and land managers of what is "natural" for ecosystems in North America. The long term 10's of millions of years of ecosystem evolution with its predator/prey interaction and co-evolution with native plants prior to human invasion (when most of the megafauna went extinct) must be given priority over short-term thinking of the last few thousand years or worse still the historical last 500 years. Martin points out that if like Henry David Thoreau, we really want to know an "entire earth", it would have to be the enormous expanse of time prior to human influence. Martin tells us "...for example, we must reckon with mammoths, mastodons, camels, cheetahs, lions, ground sloths, and other lost megafauna. These are the evolutionary legacy of America. They are what is natural. If we do not consider them, we sell the continent short." I think science and reason are on Paul Martin's side as I quote the last two closing sentences of this book: "I can think of no better or more important monument to the discovery of America than efforts at restarting the evolution of our extinct fauna. It is already underway wherever free-roaming horses or wild burros roam the range." They graze on grasses. Photographed in Teddy Roosevelt National Park in North Dakota with a 300 mm lens and F-8 on Ectachrome 100VS film.">Open Image width="700" height="473"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg12460701313001..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="15-33. WILD BURROS -- This photo shows Wild Burros (family Equidae) in a dry shrubland riparian habitat near the Colorado river in Arizona. Fossil evidence shows the origin and peak evolution of the horse family in North America during the Miocene about 15-8 million years ago. During this time period a landbridge allowed the horse to migrate to Eurasia, but this Old World horse went extinct. Then about 2 mya another landbridge allowed the horse to migrate again from its place of origin in North America to Eurasia and Africa where it continued to evolve (into the African Wild Ass) until the present time, but this time the New World horse went extinct at the end of the last Ice Age. Then, 500 yrs. ago the Spanish explorers reintroduced the Old World horse and burro (descendant from the African Wild Ass) back into North America where gold rush miners brought burros (donkeys) to the Southwest from which the present day Wild Burros descended. And now, after 25 yrs of work, efforts by concerned citizens and conservation biologist finally got Congress to pass the Wild-Free roaming Horses and Burros Act of 1971 to stop the killing of these equids. However, documentation from C. R. MacDonald's publication, "Wild Burros of the American West: A Critical Analysis of National Status of Wild Burros on Public Land 2006" reveals that the cattle industry and certain Bighorn Sheep hunting advocates have lobbied the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) with misleading information resulting in the killing of Wild Horses that reduced their populations by over 50 percent since the passage of the law in 1971 (Laws are only as good as their enforcement!). Wild Burros have been killed off to even lower numbers to the extent that most populations are in danger of going extinct. There are only 5 viable, self-sustaining gene pool populations (at least 150-200 individuals) of Wild Burros left in the U.S. There obviously is unnecessary killing of Wild Burros on our public lands. Paul Martin (see mammal references) points out that various reasons were given by park rangers at Grand Canyon National Park for shooting and killing nearly 3000 Wild Burros between 1924-69, but they ignored the fact that North American plants had co-evolved in the presence of the horse family for millions of years. I quote again from Paul Martin's book: "...efforts at restarting the evolution of our extinct fauna. It is already underway wherever free-roaming horses or wild burros roam the range." Wild Burros require water year round and in desert habitat they are usually within 10 miles of drinking water. They can dehydrate up to 30 per cent of their body weight and replenish water lost in 5 minutes of drinking. (if humans lose just 10 per cent of their body weight from dehydration, they require medical attention and 24 hrs. of re-hydration.) Wild Burros feed primarily on grasses and also eat forbs and browse shrubs. They are capable of stripping pointed thorns covering certain cacti, enabling them to eat these plant too. They range in scattered wild populations mostly in Arizona, California, and Nevada. Photographed in the Needles Wilderness Area north of Lake Havasu City in Arizona with a 300 mm lens at F-4 on Velvia 100 film.">Open Image width="700" height="473"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg12460701313101..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="15-34. WILD PIG -- This photo shows a Wild Pig (family Suidae) in riparian habitat of the Colorado River in the Needles Wilderness Area in Arizona. Wild Pig hair consists mostly of stiff bristles, but finer dense fur will grow for the winter. They eat almost anything they come across, including grass, nuts, berries, carrion, roots, tubers, refuse, insects, any wild animals large or small, small and large domestic livestock are killed and eaten, and last but not least-pigs eat coal! Paul Martin (see mammals references) points out that javelina (peccary) have recently extended their range up to Grand Canyon National Park. Fossil evidence shows that a much larger peccary was native to the Southwest thousands of years ago. Thus, like Wild Horses and Wild Burros, Wild Pigs evolved to be a part of this natural ecosystem. Available on the Web, Lee Ditman, a former 9 yr employee with the Henry W. Coe State Park in California gives a comprehensive explanation of the interaction of Wild Pigs with the native ecology and people in the park. The generally assumed Wild Pig uprooting of the soil as destructive to the ecology of the park is in fact consistent with Grizzly Bear (now extinct in California) beneficial soil disturbance-the only difference is that pigs do it with their noses and bears do it with their claws. The danger of Wild Pigs to humans has been highly exaggerated and proper caution applies as with all wild animals in a park setting. Overpopulation of Wild Pigs, as with any wild animal, can be a problem in some parks, but it can be handled by trapping and humane killing of the animals, and in some instances birth control measures. However, as with most wild animals, populations are usually naturally self-regulated without massive starvation by lower reproduction rates during times of inadequate food supply, and by eventually higher predation by cougars and coyotes. A 400 mm lens, F-5.6, tripod, and electronic release after sunset put this image on Velvia 100 film.">Open Image width="700" height="473"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg12460701313201..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="15-40. WHITETAIL DEER BUCKS -- Hoofed mammals (ungulates) with bony antlers that are shed annually are in the deer, elk, caribou, and moose family Cervidae. Whitetail males have antlers with prongs rising up from a main beam. They (both sexes) have a loud alarm snort and their white underside tail raises up and wags like a "white flag" when alarmed and running away from danger. During the fall mating (rut) season, old male bucks make guttural grunts. Their fur is reddish brown in summer and grayish brown in winter (this photo). Whitetail deer are coexisting remarkable well with the human built environment and agriculture. Whitetail deer are an exception in the recent history of most large mammals in that they are actually much more abundant now than 100 yrs. ago. Many areas of the U.S. experience Whitetail Deer overpopulations that is a nuisance and causes much economic damage, one example being the hazard of deer/vehicle collisions. These two running bucks were photographed in the historically unnatural habitat of deciduous shrub/forests of the Platte River valley. Dams for irrigation, hydropower, and flood control prevent the natural scouring of trees and shrubs from historical flooding that results in unnatural shrub and tree growth spreading in riparian areas providing habitat supporting high numbers of Whitetail Deer. A 400 mm lens at F-5.6 put this image on Fuji 100 film.">Open Image width="700" height="473"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg12460701313301..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="15-41. WHITETAIL DEER -- A Whitetail Deer crossing a river in early morning. Note the white underside of tail that gives this deer its name. Also, note the nubbins of growing antlers in front of its ears. This individual may be a young buck or possibly a doe with antlers. About 1 in 10,000 females also grow antlers and they are usually intersexed (an individual with variable development of both male and female gender). A survey of the animal kingdom shows at least half of all species have some degree of development of both male and female sex organs in an individual (see examples of some leopard frogs and toads in the amphibians section). Not completely a male or female gender is quite common rather than a rarity in nature (about 1 in 2,000 humans have the intersex condition). Deer are browsers eating twigs, shrubs, fungi, acorns, and sometimes grass and herbs. They range from the southern half of Canada throughout most of the U.S. into Mexico, and Central America down to northern South America. Photographed on the Republican River at the Kansas/Nebraska border with a 500 mm lens at F-4 on Provia F-100.">Open Image width="700" height="473"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg12460701313401..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="15-42. YOUNG MULE DEER -- The antlers of this young buck show the Y-branching form of growth as compared to the prongs on a main beam of the whitetail buck. Mule Deer tails are rope-like in form, black-tipped or black on top, and their ears are larger than Whitetail Deer ears. They are browsers feeding mostly on twigs and shrubs, and also grasses and herbs. They range from southeastern Alaska, the western half of Canada, the central and western U.S., and into Mexico. Photographed in the foothills of Boise, Idaho with a 700 mm lens, F-5.6, tripod, and electronic release on Velvia 100 film.">Open Image width="700" height="473"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg12460701313501..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="15-43. MULE DEER BUCK -- Note how well a motionless large deer can be camouflaged in a mountainous habitat of snags, dead fall, and pine trees. Note the rump showing whitish rump patches and the rope-like tail with a black tip on a second Mule Deer to the right of the large buck looking at the photographer. Photographed in Rocky Mountain National Park with a 500 mm lens, F-5.6, tripod, and electronic release at 1/60 sec on Provia 400X film. ">Open Image width="700" height="473"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg12460701313601..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="15-44. BULL ELK -- Wapiti is another common name for Elk and in Shawnee Indian language "wap" means white referring to the creamy-white rump patch on Elk. It is the largest deer with narrow, unpalmated, branching antlers that are shed every year. In the fall males call with a high-pitched bugling sound that fills the air during the rut mating season. Elk feed on twigs, bark, grasses, and herbs. By the late 19th Century careless overhunting exterminated Elk (Merriam's Elk) in the eastern U.S. They now range mostly in the Rocky Mountains from central Canada to New Mexico. Photographed near Jackson, Wyoming with a 400 mm lens at F-8 on Fuji 200 film.">Open Image width="700" height="473"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg12460701313701..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="15-45. FEMALE ELK -- An Elk with two Magpies on its back. These birds were observed hopping about on this Elk's back pecking in its fur. Females rounded up in bull Elk's harems begin breeding at about 2½ yrs old. The babies gestation period in the mother is 8½ months and at birth the light-spotted baby calves are able to walk a few minutes after birth. Photographed in the foothills of Boise, Idaho with a 700 mm lens, F-5.6, tripod, and electronic release on Velvia 100 film. ">Open Image width="700" height="473"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg12460701313801..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="15-60. YELLOWBELLY MARMOT -- Marmots (head/body 14-19 in.; tail 4½-9 in.; wt. 5-10 lbs.) are included with a variety of mammals in the Sciuridae family of woodchucks, prairie dogs, ground squirrels, chipmunks, and tree squirrels. Most of them nest in burrows underground or beneath rocks and logs, sit up on hind legs to see over vegetation, have internal cheek pouches, store food, and all are active in the daytime and always have a tail covered with hair. Note the yellowish edge of the yellow belly in this photo of a young Yellowbelly Marmot, and that it has white between the eyes and its feet are never black, but light to dark brown. They range mostly in rocky habitats from central British Columbia to northern New Mexico. Photographed in the foothills of Boise, Idaho with a 700 mm lens, F-5.6, 1/350 sec, tripod, and electronic release on Velvia 100 film.">Open Image width="700" height="473"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg12460701313901..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="15-61. BADGERS -- Badgers (18-22 in.; tail 4-6 in.; wt. 13-25 lbs.) are in the weasel, otter, and skunk family Mustalidae that usually have long slender bodies, short legs, small, rounded ears, and anal scent glands. It is the only mammal in North America with a white stripe from its nose over the top of its head. In Badgers the lower jaw articulates to the upper jaw with a condyle bone firmly locked into the skull. Dislocation of their jaw is almost impossible and this produces the tenacious jaw gripping hold of a Badger, but it limits a side to side twisting movement of the jaws as in most mammals. They dig into the ground with powerful front legs and claws with amazing speed to feed on ground-dwelling rodents. Active digging and living underground is termed a fossorial adaptation, and Badgers are one of the few animal that have added a verb to the English language. The Badger is a robust, fierce, tenacious animal protecting itself and its young at all costs. Badgers range from the central southern half of Canada throughout central and western U.S. and well into Mexico. Photographed in Yellowstone National Park with a 700 mm lens, F-5.6, 1/125 sec, tripod, and electronic release on Provia F-100 film. ">Open Image width="700" height="473"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg12460701314001..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="15-62. BEAVER -- The Beaver (25-30 in.; tail 9-10 in.; wt. 30-60 lbs.) is the only species in North America in the family Castoridae. Natural selection has evolved a wide array of adaptations in this one animal: the largest rodent in North America, the only land mammal with a wide, flat tail, a dense waterproof fur, a large head with powerful jaw muscles to operate large chiseling incisors and high-crowned grinding molars, and strong webbed hind feet for swimming. Natural selection has honed the Beaver's body form and structural adaptations to correlate with its behavior adaptations: they gnaw down trees, cut up trees, float logs, store tree branches under water for winter food, tunnel into stream banks, build large cone-shaped lodges of sticks and mud, build dams of sticks, mud, and even rocks across streams, constantly repair the dams, and accomplish all this by having aquatic, fossorial, and terrestrial adaptations, making them nature's outstanding engineers in modifying their environment. (Find a thoughtful, comprehensive explanation of the genes influence beyond an animal's own body in Richard Dawkin's book, The Extended Phenotype.) They are a keystone species in the ecosystem by extending their phenotype beyond their body to produce beaver ponds that provide habitat for many other fish, bird, large and small mammal species such as moose, wolves, coyotes, mink, other small rodents, and arthropods. Some states even provide financial incentives to private landowners in the upper reach of watersheds to encourage the presence of Beavers and their beaver ponds as a natural flood control protection downstream by holding more water upstream. Photographed in the rice Beds Creek Wildlife area in Wisconsin with a 400 mm lens, F-8, 1/250 sec, and tripod on Provia F-100 film.">Open Image width="700" height="473"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg12460701314101..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="15-64. RIVER OTTER -- Lutra canadensis (26-30 in.; tail 12-17 in.; wt. 10-25 lbs.) is found anywhere in North America where there is easy access to water and a year round food supply. They are sensitive to pollution and leave areas of polluted water. They live in freshwater and marine habitats of rivers, lakes, wetlands, and estuaries ranging from all of Alaska, Yukon, Northwest Territories and Canada, and throughout most of the U.S., except the Southwest. It is a semi-aquatic, weasel-like mammal with a long streamlined body, thick tapered tail, short legs with feet completely webbed, a broad snout, small ears, and eyes with a pale amber shine. Its fur is dark brown above, lighter brown with a silvery sheen below, and throat and cheeks usually a golden brown. It is an excellent diver and swimmer capable of staying 8 minutes underwater. Its lifespan is about 8 to 9 yrs. in the wild. It eats crayfish, crabs, amphibians, fish (mostly rough fish), turtles, and some aquatic invertebrates and plants. It lives in dens in river banks with an underwater entrance that leads to a nest chamber. Photographed in the Snake River south of Lewiston, Idaho with a 300 mm lens, F-4, 1/1000 sec, propped on a side rail of a boat on Provia 400X film.">Open Image width="700" height="473"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg12460701314601..jpg"> height="29"/>height="28"/> tooltip="15. MARMOT -- Midmorning found this Marmot sunning on a rock in the Snowy Range of Wyoming. This mammal goes into a dormant condition, estivation in June, hibernation in August, and emerges again in March. The 400mm telephoto at F-8 and tripod put this image on Ektachrome 100s film.">Open Image width="490" height="703"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg1889892610101.jpg">Open Image width="29" height="42"/> tooltip="15-63. STRIPED SKUNK -- The only small black mammal in North America with a large white V along the top of its head and back. The presence of this skunk (13-18 in.; tail 7-10 in.; wt. 6-14 lbs.) is usually detected by strong odor of its anal scent gland and often seen as a road-kill on highways. It is a nocturnal mammal and usually within 2 miles of water. Skunks den in ground burrows, under abandoned building, and wood or rock piles, but they do not hibernate and are active year round. They are omnivorous feeding on small rodents, insects, grubs, eggs, berries, and carrion. They range throughout most of Canada, all of the U.S. and well into Mexico. In pondering the question, "Why do skunks stink?", Jared Diamond uses the skunk as an example in his book, The Third Chimpanzee, to distinguish between a proximate and an ultimate explanation of something. A biochemist might explain it by describing certain chemical compounds secreted from the anal glands that have a particular molecular structure that stimulates the nerves in the nose of other mammals sending nerve impulses to their brains that perceive an offensive odor. Also, it might be pointed out that these chemical compounds would stink even if they did not come from a skunk. An evolutionary biologist would explain that the skunk is rather small and slow moving making it an easy meal for predators. Natural selection over time evolved a gradual increase in more potent, offensive stinking, chemical compound secretions from the anal glands, and gradually increased the gland musculature to squirt a more copious liquid of secretions more accurately in the direction of threatening predators. Natural selection evolved an offensive stinking, slow moving skunk adaptation to warn away danger instead of a fast moving skunk adaptation to flee from danger in this instance. Conspicuous black/white contrasting coloration and a large, bushy, waving tail probably evolved as a "secondary adaptation" along with the primary anal gland adaptation as a warning to predators to keep their distance. (Of course, this does not mean that natural selection proceeded with foresight toward a goal of a stinking skunk with a warning black/white color adaptation, but rather it is actually a natural, mechanistic, gradual process over time of non-random accumulation of random inherited traits over many generations of skunks.) The biochemist produced a proximate explanation which is an immediate response expressing a current reason for the present condition in answering the question. The evolutionary biologist produced an ultimate explanation which required a historical account of the function of a series of events leading up to what caused the present condition and thus a more profound reason for why a skunk stinks. This Skunk was photographed in the Gray's Lake National Wildlife Refuge in Idaho.">Open Image width="478" height="708"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg1889892610201.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="15-65. LEAST CHIPMUNK -- It is the smallest and most widespread of 23 species of chipmunks in North America. Like ground squirrels, chipmunks have internal cheek pouches for food storage and are in the squirrels family Sciuridae. All mammals in this family are active during the day (diurnal) except the flying squirrels that are active at night (nocturnal). Key characteristics are black and white stripes on the side of its head and on the side and back of its body that goo to base of tail. They feed on vegetation, seeds, berries, nuts, fruits, insects, and meat. They do not have to drink water because water from their food is sufficient, and their tolerance of concentrated urine has adapted them to live in arid sagebrush habitat. They make their own underground burrow beneath stumps, logs, and rocks where they store food and live for the winter. Their hibernation is more like an inactive state of torpor. It ranges throughout most of Canada, most of the western third of the U.S., and in northern Minnesota, Wisconsin and Michigan. Photographed near the upper reach of the South Fork Boise River with a 300 mm lens, F-5.6, 1/250 sec, tripod, and electronic release on Provia 100F film.">Open Image width="478" height="708"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg1889892610601.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="17-20. HOARY BAT -- It is among the largest (forearm 2+ in.; wt. 1+ oz.) and most widely distributed bat of North America, and ranges in most of Canada, throughout all of the U.S., well into Mexico, and Hawaii. Lasiurus cinereus is a "hairy-tailed bat" in the largest bat family Vespertilionidae. It is classified in the order Chiroptera (means hand wing) with about 950 species of bats making it the second largest to the largest order Rodentia. Note the large ears that are densely furred on the lower half of the outer side and patches of yellowish hair on the inner side. The outside edge of the ear membrane is black. Most of this bat is covered in fur that is a rich colorful mixture of yellowish brown, dark brown, and white. Note the small patch of fur at the end of the forearm. Bats are an amazing, wondrous product of natural selection pushing the extreme sophisticated limits of evolutionary adaptation. The sophisticated, elaborate product is the bat's echolocation system. Bats can literally hear in the dark much like humans see in daylight. A most eloquent explanation of the evolution of the bat by natural selection is given in Richard Dawkin's book, The Blind Watchmaker. Its diet is mostly moths, some mosquitoes, wasps, grasshoppers, and beetles. This bat was photographed hanging in a tree in Lancaster County, Nebraska with a 55 mm lens and fill flash on Fuji 100 film.">Open Image width="478" height="708"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg1889892610301.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="49. HIGHBUSH CRANBERRY -- Late afternoon sunlight revealed the rich, red berries and lush, green leaves of this shrub. The 60mm lens at F-8 was used for this image on Kodachrome 25 film. ">Open Image width="690" height="483"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-737841880201..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="50. DUCK TRACKS -- A warm filter and bright, overcast light accented these fresh duck tracks in a light snow on ice in the wetlands of the Rainwater Basin in Nebraska. The 60mm lens at F-5.6 put these tracks on Kodachrome 25 film. ">Open Image width="689" height="483"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-737841880301..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="51. COILED MILLIPED -- This wild, large millipede or "thousand legger" was placed on moss growing on the deciduous forest floor of the Rulo Bluffs Preserve in southeast Nebraska. Spiders have 4 pairs of legs, insects have 3 pairs of legs, and millipedes have 2 pairs of legs per segment of their body. Most also have pores on the side of the segments that discharge strong-smelling secretions that repel other animals. The 60mm lens at F-32 and flash were used for this image on Velvia 50 film. ">Open Image width="599" height="479"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-737841880401..jpg"> height="29"/>height="34"/> tooltip="51-10. Narceus americanus -- This is the same individual as the previous coiled millipede in photo # 51, and is about 4 inches long. Unlike most Orders of millipedes, the Order Spirobolida,which includes this species, have only one pair of legs on the 5th ring (not visible in this photo). Millipedes are in the Class Diplopoda (known as "thousand leggers") and they have 2 pairs of legs on most body rings, which are 2 fused segments. Millipedes are slow-moving, but adapted to exerting a powerful pushing force with its legs that enable it to push through humus, leaves, and loose soil. This powerful method of locomotion probably co-evolved with the fused segments forming the ring to produce a more rigid body trunk. Muscles activating the wave-like, pushing legs stroke is of longer duration than the fore stroke. The number of legs involved in a single wave stroke is proportional to the amount of force required for pushing. Thus, while running, as few as 12 legs or less are used in a wave stroke, but with hard pushing, a wave stroke may engage up to 50 legs. Millipede habitat is under wood, stones, in moist soil and leaf litter, and they avoid light and feed on soft decomposing plant material. About 35 species are in the U.S. Photographed in The Nature Conservancy's Rulo Bluffs Preserve in southeastern Nebraska with a 60 mm lens, F-32, 1:2 ratio, and fill flash on Velvia 50 film. ">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-7378418801601..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="51-11. BLACK SPIROBOLIDA MILLIPEDE (?) -- This black millipede has the similar body morphology of N. americanus in the previous photo #51-10, but there appears to be 2 pairs of legs on the 5th ring and the 6th ring appears to have no legs. Note the much longer antenna on this millipede than on the #51-10 purple millipede. Also, this individual is smaller at about 2 inches in length. Perhaps, this is one of the 35 species of spirobolids that occur in the U.S. north of Mexico. Photographed on a rust-red lichen covered rock by the East Fork Salmon River in Idaho with a 60 mm lens, F-11, 1:1 ratio, and fill flash on Provia 100F film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-7378418803301..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="51-12. POLYDESMIDA MILLIPEDE -- In the Order Polydesmida most millipedes have 10 rings usually with prominent side keels which give its round body a flat-looking back, and all have no eyes and one pair of antennae. Millipedes in this Order have evolved a pair of repugnatorial glands in most of their segments for a defense against predation. These glands exude a toxic secretion of hydrocyanic acid, iodine, and quinone. One Haitian species can spray fluid 28 inches from both sides of its body. There are about 250 species in the U.S. Note that 20 rings can be seen in this photo starting with the 1st one behind the head and including the very last 2 rings not showing legs. Photographed in the Lime Creek Nature Center in Iowa with a 60 mm lens, F-22, 1:3 ratio, and fill flash on Velvia 50 film. ">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-7378418801701..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="51-13. POLYDESMIDA MILLIPEDE (close up) -- Note the one pair of antennae that represent a key characteristic of this Order and the fusion of 2 segments to form a ring with 2 pairs of legs. Also, the side keels described in the previous photo show prominently in this photo. Photographed in Lancaster County, Nebraska with a 60 mm lens, F-11, 1:1 ratio, and fill flash on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-7378418801801..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="51-14. EARTHWORM -- This segmented worm is about 4 to 6 inches long. Note the segments at the head end (left part of image) of this worm are elongated (contracting circular muscles) and the other segments along its body toward the rear end are shortened (contracting longitudinal muscles). This lengthening and shortening of segments while extending out (anchoring into the soil) several pairs of setae (bristles) on each segment produce a smooth wave-like locomotion of a worm moving through or on soil. This lengthening and shortening of segments by contracting muscles along the length of its body causes the worm to be longer and shorter. This individual is Lumbricus terrestris in the Phylum Annelida and in the Lumbricidae family of segmented worms. It is native to Europe. In Great Britain it's known as the Common Earthworm, and in North America it is called a Nightcrawler. It is a non-native earthworm in North America and is now widely distributed around the World by human introduction. It makes temporary burrows in soil and comes out at night to feed. It pulls leaves into the entrance of the burrow for decaying before eating the leaves and eats its own weight in food each day. Earthworms benefit agricultural soils by facilitating soil mixing (nature's "plows"), by decomposing organic matter, by increasing soil porosity, by formulating nitrogen residues for plants and microorganisms, and by decreasing bulk density of soil. There are about 2,700 species of earthworms on Earth. Native earthworms are rare in northern North American forests. Since the last glaciation and many preceding glaciations over 100s of thousands of years, northern deciduous forests evolved with a thick forest floor of leaves, duff, and organic debris which protects against soil erosion and helps in regenerating forests after disturbances by fire and tree harvesting. Introduced non-native earthworms may be detrimental to this forest ecosystem which evolved without earthworms. Photographed on soil in Lancaster County, Nebraska with a 60 mm lens, F-32, 1:2 ratio, and fill flash on Kodachrome 25 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-7378418801901..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="52-10. PILL BUG -- Pill bugs are 14-legged Arthropods in the 2nd largest Order Isopoda in the Class Crustacea and are in the Armadillidiidae family. Most of about 4000 species of isopods are marine, and pill bugs are the only large group of terrestrial crustaceans. Note in this photo a pair of antennae and one of two compound eyes on its head. They have the ability to easily roll their tank-like armored body into a tight little ball for a defensive posture, hence the common name, pill bug. They live only in a moist environment such as leaf litter or house basements. They feed mostly on any decaying vegetable or animal matter, but also on algae, moss, and bark. A 60 mm lens with extension tubes at about 3X life size, F-32, and flash put this image on Velvia 50 film. ">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-7378418802001..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="52. SOW BUG -- Flash and F-22 gave full length depth of field from tips of feet to body midline of this sow bug crawling on a dead leaf. This animal is a crustacean related to crayfish, and it lives in a moist habitat eating dead decaying vegetation and fungi. The 60mm lens at 1:1 ratio with extension tubes was used for this 2x life size image on Kodachrome 25 film.">Open Image width="588" height="472"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-737841880501..jpg"> height="29"/>height="34"/> tooltip="52-11. ELLLYCHINA LARVA (?) -- This may be the larva of one of the dozen species of Ellychina day-active non-luminescent beetles. It would be in the fireflies family Lampyridae, commonly known as lightening bugs. It was found underground in garden soil. Photographed in Lancaster County, Nebraska with a 60 mm lens, F-32, 1:1 ratio, and fill flash on Kodachrome 25 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-7378418803401..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="52-12. UNKNOWN INSECT LARVA (?) -- It was found underground in garden soil. Photographed in Lancaster County, Nebraska with a 60 mm lens, F-32, 1:1 ratio, and fill flash on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-7378418803501..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="52-13. PYROCHROID LARVA -- This larva was found under bark of Mulberry tree wood. It is in the fire-colored beetles family Phyrochroidae. These larvae feed on decaying wood and fungi under bark of rotting logs. Adults have bright red and black colors and bright colors usually warn of danger. Cantharidin, a toxic poison found in blister beetles, is also found in fire-colored beetles. Horses are very sensitive to cantharidin and suffer adverse reactions to this toxin. Even without insect bodies, this toxin can be present on alfalfa hay and even heating or drying does not degrade it. People, however, can supposedly benefit from cantharidin as a treatment for removing warts. Photographed in Lancaster County, Nebraska with a 60 mm lens, F-32/22, 1:1 ratio, and fill flash on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-7378418803601..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="52-14. ROUND-HEADED BORERS -- Round-headed borer larvae are in the long-horned beetle family Cerambycidae with more than 900 species in North America. Most larvae are found under bark of dead or dying trees, but some feed in live plants. The larvae in this photo were under the bark of a dead Mulberry tree. Artistic, sepentine paths are etched in the wood and fibrous frass (dried poop) from feeding larvae is also present especially when initially exposed after removing bark from wood. When the dark oval mouth at the front of the head is viewed head-on, the white larval head region is round in round-headed borers. In flat-headed borers, this region is flat. Larvae metamorphose into adult long-horned beetles (See adult Ash and Locust Long-horned Beetles in the Insect Section.) Photographed on Mulberry tree wood (with much frass present) in Lancaster County, Nebraska with a 60 mm lens, F-11, 1:1 ratio and fill flash on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-7378418803701..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="52-15. WHITE GRUB -- This larva feeds underground on roots of grasses and forbs. Depending on the species and climate, the life cycle as a larva may be 1-4 days. This larva is in the scarab beetle family Scarabaeidae with about 1,700 species in North America. These C-shaped grubs are eaten by moles and parasitized by wasps and flies. (See adult scarab beetles in the Insect Section.) Photographed with a 60 mm lens, F-11, 1:1 ratio and fill flash on Velvia 50 film in Lancaster County, Nebraska.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-7378418803801..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="52-16. BLACK WALNUT HUSK MAGGOT LARVAE -- In early autumn, female adult husk maggot flies lay eggs on the green outer husks of walnuts on branches of walnut trees. Dark spots on green husks show where eggs are layed. When eggs hatch, tiny larvae burrow and feed inside the husks producing black slimy husks that stain the nut shell black, and on maturing into large larvae, they leave the rotting husk to burrow into soil and pupate until spring to emerge as adult flies. Photographed with a 60 mm lens, F-32, 1:1.8 ratio, and fill flash on Ectachrome 100 film in Lancaster County, Nebraska.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-7378418803901..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="52-17. WALNUT CATERPILLARS -- Walnut caterpillar moths deposit eggs on the underside of walnut tree leaves in the spring. The eggs hatch into larvae in about 8 to 10 days, the larvae grow into larger caterpillars of two generation life cycles and feed on walnut leaves throughout the summer, and then the last generation drops to the ground usually by the end of September. In the soil, the mature caterpillars (1& 1/2 inch long) pupate until spring to emerge as moths. Five or more larval aggregates of hundreds of caterpillars can completely defoliate a 25 ft. tall tree in one growing season. Amazingly, however, this usually does not kill the tree. Photographed with a 60 mm lens, F-11, 1:3 ratio, and fill flash on Provia 100 film in Lancaster County, Nebraska.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-7378418804001..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="52-18. SPINED SOLDIER BUG -- Podisus maculiventris is a predatory stink bug that preys on larvae and caterpillars. This individual appears to be the 5th instar nymph with wings starting to be visible in its last moult before moulting into an adult. The prominent spines on the shoulder region and front legs of the adult do not appear on the nymphs. Note piercing-sucking, stylet mouth parts projecting from its head and impaled into the side of this walnut caterpillar to suck out internal body fluids. Photographed with a 60 mm lens, F-11, 1:1 ratio, and fill flash on Provia 100F film in Lancaster, County Nebraska.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-7378418804101..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="52-19. CICADA NYMPH -- Adult cicada females tear slits in twigs of living trees to lay their eggs. Tiny nymphs hatch from the eggs, drop to the ground, and dig into the soil to live several years underground where they feed and grow bigger by sucking sap from roots. This photo of a late stage moulted instar just before it crawls to the ground surface at night, climbs up a vertical object with its grappling-hook forelegs, and splits their nymphal skin exoskeleton to allow the winged adult to emerge. (See a shed nymphal skin and freshly emerged adult in the Insect Section.) This nymph was uncovered while digging with a spade under a flowering crab apple tree in Lancaster County, Nebraska. Photographed with a 60 mm lens, F-32, 1:1 ratio, and flash on a dead leaf on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-7378418804201..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="52-20. UNKNOWN CUTWORM LARVA (?) -- This larva was uncovered while digging in garden soil in Lancaster County, Nebraska. Photographed with a 60 mm lens, F-11, 1:1 ratio, and fill flash on lichen covered wood on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-7378418804501..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="52-21. GOMETRID MOTH LARVA -- While photographing butterflies on Ironweed flowers, I happened to notice a clump of dried plant debris move! Upon closer examination, I saw a larva covered with rust-brown, dried Ironweed flower pieces that camouflaged it on the flower making it nearly invisible. The lower right of the rust-brown, dried flower fragment clump to the left of center in the photo shows the head and 3 thorasic legs of the larva. The abdominal body of the larva covered with dried flower pieces in arched up over the flower petals. Treiber, 1979 describes a geometrid larva with a feeding/camouflage-decorating behavior that continually loads flower fragments onto the back and sides of the larval body. The flower pieces are passed through the mouth of the larva to supply a mucous material on the fragments apparently to help deep them fresh from desiccation as they are passed onto specialized hair-like setae with hooks on the dorso-lateral area of the body to hold the fragments in place. Canfield, Chang, and Pierce, 2009, with the Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology at Harvard University report that the geometrid moth larva, Synchlora frondaria has evolved two methods of camouflage to hide it even more effectively on their host plants. These larvae are capable of both body color and texture modification by means of phenotypic plasticity, and simultaneously with self-decorating behavior to better camouflage themselves on 3 different host plants. Their feeding on 3 different host plants produced color and texture phenotypic plasticity responses to correspond with the color and cryptic background of the host plants. (see Amphibians Section for phenotypic plasticity in #20-51 Cricket Frog as an adaptive response to environmental factors). These two simultaneous adaptations, undoubtedly, increase this geometrid larva's ability to elude predators and thus increase its survival on different host plants. (Of course, natural selection did not proceed with foresight toward a goal of protective coloration, texture, and self-decoration camouflage for the purpose of protecting this larva from predators, but instead it is a natural, materialistic, mechanistic process of non-random accumulation of random variations of inherited genetic DNA mutations and recombination of genes over many generations of sexually reproducing geometrid moths.) Photographed on the flowers of an Ironweed plant growing in the fence line of native mixed grass prairie 1 mile southwest of Byron, Nebraska with a 60 mm lens, F-11, 1:1 ratio, and fill flash on Provia 100F film. ">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-7378418804601..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="53. LAND SNAILS -- Flash exposed these land snails feeding on fresh dung on a deciduous forest floor near a nature trail in the Amana Colonies, Iowa. The 55mm lens was used for this image on Fujichrome 100 film. ">Open Image width="688" height="483"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-7378418801101..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="53-1. LAND SNAILS -- Flash exposed these land snails feeding on fresh dung on a deciduous forest floor near a nature trail in the Amana Colonies, Iowa. The 55mm lens was used for this image on Fujichrome 100 film. ">Open Image width="696" height="483"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-737841880601..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="53-2. SUCCINEID --The large inflated first whorl and aperture opening in the shell are distinctive features of this land snail gliding on limestone. Note the darkly pigmented retractor muscle and eye of the right eyestalk on this gastropod. The 60mm lens, F-32, 1:1 ratio, and flash put this mollusk on Velvia 50 film. ">Open Image width="696" height="483"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-737841880701..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="55. Peromyscus SKULL -- This is a 30 something year old Kodachrome (64?) slide of a Deer Mouse skull. A camera mounted on a microscope produced this image. Additional slides from a graduate school taxonomy study in mammalogy are available of Peromyscus mouse skeletal bones. There are photos of a grouping of scapula, rib, and vertebrae, a pelvis, a femur, a tibia-fibula, a left mandible, and a dorsal view of skull. ">Open Image width="697" height="483"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-737841880801..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="55-10. BISON SKULL -- A bison skull from a New Jersey bison farm in the northeastern U.S. Note the horn sheaths are removed. A 60 mm lens, F-8, 1/1000 sec in bright sun, tripod, and mirror lockup put this image on Provia 100F film. ">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-7378418801201..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="55-11. RACCOON SKULL -- A Raccoon skull and mandible (lower jaw) from southeastern Nebraska. Note 4 characteristic bone features found in all mammals: 1. At the lower rear of the skull are two rounded projections called the double occipital condyle found in all mammals. It joins to the 1st vertebra (atlas) of the 7 vertebrae bones in the neck of nearly all mammals. 2. On the side of the skull below the back of the eye socket and above the back part of jaw is a bone appendage of the skull called the zygomatic arch. Muscles of the jaw attach to it. 3. The mandible is composed of a single bone called the dentary. 4. The rounded bone projection at the back of jaw fits directly up into a round socket in skull. This jaw articulation directly with the squamosal is the most diagnostic bone feature of mammals. Note number of teeth on one side of the skull and jaw starting from the front. Six incisors (only 4 are showing in this photo), 2 canines, 8 premolars, and 4 molars. The dental formula for the Raccoon is I 3/3, C 1/1, P 4/4, M 2/2 plus both sides of skull/jaw equals 40 teeth. Note the auditory bulla behind jaw bone on lower part of skull. This rounded balloon-like bulge with a hole at the top is part of the bony structure of the ear. A 60 mm lens, F-11, 1:7 ratio, 1/250 sec in full sun on black velvet cloth put this image on Velvia 50 film. ">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-7378418801301..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="55-12. WHITE-NOSED COATI SKULL -- A White-nosed Coati skull and jaw from Rara Avis in Costa Rica. Note the auditory bulla behind the jaw bone on the lower part of the skull. This round balloon-like bulge with a hole at the top is part of the bony structure of the ear. Note that its auditory bulla is much larger than that of the Raccoon. Perhaps the hearing of the White-nosed Coati is more sensitive to sound than the Raccoon. A 60 mm lens at F-13 and fill flash put this image on Provia 100F film.">Open Image width="698" height="461"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-7378418801401..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="55-13. TAPIR SKULL -- A Tapir skull and jaw from Rara Avis in Costa Rica. Note that this is an old, weathered skull and the greenish color on the skull is a growth of algae. A 60 mm lens at F-5.6 and fill flash put this image on Provia 100F film.">Open Image width="698" height="457"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-7378418801501..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="56. GNEISS ROCK -- This is a gneiss (pronounced nice) rock which is a metamorphosed ("changed form") rock. Deep burial of sandy shale or shaly sandstone with intense pressure and heat will transform sedimentary rock into metamorphic rock. In time, water, carbon dioxide, and oxygen will be pressed out of the sedimentary rock changing it into mica minerals. Despite the mineral change, this gneiss rock still preserves the banding produced by its water-laid sedimentary origin. The 60mm lens, F-8 and hand-held at 250/125 shutter speed recorded this rock in bright sun beside the Poudre River in Colorado on Kodachrome 25 film. ">Open Image width="690" height="483"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-737841880901..jpg"> height="29"/>height="29"/> tooltip="E044. WOLF LICHEN">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-1512449999201..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0661. Lichen Art-e (Image from 85 mm lens, extension tube, F-16, 1/60 sec, tripod, and electronic release on Provia 100F film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-1512449999501..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0662. Lichen Art-f (Image from 60 mm lens, F-9, 1:1.5 ratio, 1/250 sec, tripod and electronic release on Provia 100F film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-1512449999601..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E052. Inky Cap">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-1512449999101..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0521. Western Giant Puffball (Image from 17 mm lens, F-16, tripod, and mirror-lockup on Velvia 100 film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-1512449999401..jpg"> height="29"/>height="28"/> tooltip="48-44. COMMON LACCARIA -- This tricholoma has a reddish-brown cap (½-2 in.) usually with a depression in the center. It has a thin stalk (1-3 in.) that is reddish or pinkish-brown. It is widely distributed in North America. This individual was in a moist thick moss/lichen bed in a northern Minnesota forested area in the fall. Photographed near the Vermilion River with a 60 mm lens, 1:3.5 ratio, F-11, tripod, mirror lock-up, and foil reflector at 1/30 sec. on Kodachrome 25 film.">Open Image width="478" height="708"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-1289723937401.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="48-50. STACKA HYDNUM -- Climacodon septentrionale is in the spine or tooth fungi family Hydnaceae. It is also known as the genus Hydnellum or Hydnum. These fungi have a cap that is continuous with the stalk. The 4-6 in. wide cap is in clusters that are connected to a 6-12 in. long stalk attached to a tree as seen in this photo. The caps are smaller near the top and bottom of the cluster and their color is off-white at first, then turning yellowish brown later with age. Instead of spore containing gills and tubes of most fungi, their spores are on spines or teeth that hang down underneath the caps. They are present on deciduous hardwood trees in central and eastern North America in late summer and early fall. Photographed in Lancaster County, Nebraska growing on a dead Walnut tree with an 85 mm lens, extension tube, F-16, tripod, and mirror lock-up at 1/15 sec. on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="478" height="708"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-1289723937301.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="48-71. FLY AGARIC -- The term "agaric" in the common name refers to the presence of gills under the mushroom cap, but the term "fly" has a longer historical explanation. It probably comes from Europe when this mushroom was used as an insecticide sprinkled on milk to keep flies away. Another explanation claims that "fly" does not refer to insects, but to a medieval myth that delirium from eating this poisonous mushroom enabled flies to enter one's head and caused mental illness. All amanita fruiting bodies develop and grow from a round or oval structure called a button that is covered by a protective layer know as a universal veil. This small young structure as it matures is called a volva that contains the immature mushroom fruiting body's cap, gills, and stalk that grow from the volva after it pushes through the soil surface. As the mushroom grows out of the volva, the universal veil is stretched and breaks apart into light-colored remnants on the usual red-orange color (darkest in the center) of the cap. Note the scaly veil remnants on the surface of the stalk, ring bands of veil remnants at the base of the stalk, and the skirt ring at the top of the stalk which is the remnant of a separate, different partial veil that originally covered the developing gills. Most of these key mature fruiting body features can be seen in this photo of a Fly Agaric mushroom. Photographed near Little Blake Lake in Wisconsin with a 60 mm lens, F-8, tripod, and mirror lock-up on Provia F-100 film.">Open Image width="478" height="708"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-1289723937201.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="E053. VELVET FOOT">Open Image width="478" height="708"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-1289723937101.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="E0531. White Mushroom (Image from 60 mm lens, F-11, ½ sec, in shade, tripod, and mirror-lockup on Velvia 50 film)">Open Image width="478" height="708"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-1289723937501.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="E0657. Lichen Art-a (Image from 60 mm lens, F-9, 1:2.5 ratio, 1/320 sec, tripod, and electronic release on Provia 100F film)">Open Image width="467" height="708"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-1289723937601.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="E0658. Lichen Art-b (Enlarged upper left quadrant of EO657 image from 60 mm lens, extension tube, F-16, 1/100 sec, tripod, and electronic release on Provia 100F film)">Open Image width="478" height="708"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-1289723937701.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="E0659. Lichen Art-c (Image from 60 mm lens, F-10, 1:2 ratio, 1/250 sec, tripod, and electronic release on Provia 100F film)">Open Image width="478" height="708"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-1289723937801.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="E0660. Lichen Art-d (Image from 60 mm lens, F-9, 1:1.5 ration 1/250 sec, tripod, and electronic release on Provia 100F film)">Open Image width="478" height="708"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-1289723937901.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="R000. The adventure begins here at the Rara Avis office in the small town of Las Horquetas. ">Open Image width="696" height="470"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg93469362101..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="R001. This Mercedes Benz 4-wheel drive truck has been retired from transport to Rara Avis-a broken axle and transmission going out.">Open Image width="696" height="470"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg93469362201..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="R004. Most people elect to hike the last two miles from the El Plastico Research Station to the waterfall lodge restaurant. The one hour hike is uphill about 450 ft. on marked trail. A gourmet meal awaits the ecotourists at about 1:00 P.M. You're at the entrance when you see this sign.">Open Image width="696" height="470"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg93469362301..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="R005. This footbridge to the lodge spans the Rio Antelopus river.">Open Image width="696" height="470"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg93469362401..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="R006. The boardwalk from the footbridge to the lodge may have a Satiny Parrot Snake (non-venomous) waiting to greet you.">Open Image width="696" height="470"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg93469362501..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="R010. A young Heliconia flower graces the entrance to the waterfall lodge.">Open Image width="696" height="470"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg93469362601..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="R014. The view from the second level of the hotel balcony. The roof of the Waterfall Lodge restaurant is to the right, the gathering place and party room is to the left. ">Open Image width="696" height="470"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg93469362701..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="R015. Here is the front of the hotel up the hill. Note the White-nosed Coati and a Casitas sign. ">Open Image width="696" height="470"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg93469362801..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="R017. The Casita. Each Casita has two double bunk beds and shared walk-in bathrooms. Note the three vat sink for washing clothes.">Open Image width="696" height="470"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg93469362901..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="R018. This is the scenic view from the riverside lodge balcony porch.">Open Image width="696" height="470"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg934693621001..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="R019. Lunch is served at 1:00 P.M. in the Waterfall Lodge restaurant. The library and reading table is in one corner of the lodge.">Open Image width="696" height="470"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg934693621101..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="R020. Rara Avis staff practicing soccer in a grassy area near the lodge.">Open Image width="696" height="470"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg934693621201..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="R021. A White-nosed Coati near the lodge.">Open Image width="696" height="470"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg934693621301..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="R022. Breakfast is at 7:00 A.M., and then at 8:30 ecotourists gather outside the lodge with the nature guide for a 3 to 4 hour hike before lunch.">Open Image width="696" height="470"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg934693621401..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="R023. Beside the trail are tall forest trees with long thick liana vines for swinging like Tarzan.">Open Image width="696" height="470"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg934693621501..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="R024. The nature guide assists hikers over difficult stream crossings.">Open Image width="696" height="470"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg934693621601..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="R025. The back of the nature guides shirt shows the Earth being choked by human hands for money. The saying pleads against excess human impact on the Earth: "Loosen Up"!">Open Image width="696" height="470"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg934693621701..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="R026. And the he means it: "LOOSEN UP"!!!">Open Image width="696" height="470"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg934693621801..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="R027. Here are a few of the over 850 species of birds in Costa Rica (the size of W. Virginia), more than all the species in North America! This is a male Slaty-tailed Trogon. They carve out a nest in termite structures located in trees.">Open Image width="696" height="470"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg934693621901..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="R028. A male Dotted-winged Antwren. It forages the foliage of thickets for insects and spiders.">Open Image width="696" height="470"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg934693622001..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="R029. A male Dotted-winged Antwren in flight.">Open Image width="696" height="470"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg934693622101..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="R030. A plain Xenops. It pecks into plants for eggs, larvae, and eats katydids, ants, and termites.">Open Image width="696" height="470"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg934693622201..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="R032. A Spotted Woodcreeper. It pokes and probes into moss tufts and masses of epiphytes and eats various insects, spiders, and a few small frogs or salamanders, beating them on its perch.">Open Image width="696" height="470"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg934693622301..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="R033. A Bay Wren. It forages by gleaning foliage, twigs, and branches, poking into hanging trash and vine tangles for beetles, roaches, crickets, caterpillars, and spiders.">Open Image width="696" height="470"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg934693622401..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="R034. A Gray-necked Wood-rail. It forages by walking and digs in soft mud with its bill for small invertebrates,frogs, seeds, berries, and palm fruits.">Open Image width="696" height="470"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg934693622501..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="R035. A Turkey Vulture. It ranges from central Canada to southern South America. It soars back and forth at medium heights following odor plumes upwind to locate hidden carcasses.">Open Image width="696" height="470"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg934693622601..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="R036. A female and male Scarlet-rumped Tanager interacting on the flower of a ginger family plant. They eat many fruits, berries, insects, and spiders amid foliage.">Open Image width="696" height="470"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg934693622701..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="R037. A Tufted Flycatcher. It darts from exposed low or high perches to catch flying insects, often by intricate aerial maneuvers, often returning to the same perch.">Open Image width="696" height="470"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg934693622801..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="R038. A Speckled Tanager. It eats berries, seeds, fruits, Cecropia spikes, and bends over to undersides of branches for insects and spiders. ">Open Image width="696" height="470"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg934693622901..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="R039. A Common Pauraque. Active at night catching beetles, bugs, moths, and other insects on circling sallies from open ground.">Open Image width="696" height="470"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg934693623001..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="R040. A Blue-gray Tanager. It eats many kinds of berries, seeds, and nectar from flowers, searches for insects and spiders in foliage by bending down to see the underside of branches.">Open Image width="696" height="470"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg934693623101..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="R041. A female Chestnut-sided Warbler. Note 2 yellowish wing-bars and white eye-ring. It hops rapidly through foliage, gleaning insects, caterpillars, and spiders and pursues fleeing prey.">Open Image width="696" height="470"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg934693623201..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="R042. A Tropical Kingbird. It likes exposed, elevated perches for eating wasps, bees, dragonflies, and butterflies, often by long aerial sallies; often waits above mud puddles to dive for butterflies and also eats many berries.">Open Image width="696" height="470"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg934693623301..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="R043. A male Green Honeycreeper. It probes flowers for nectar while perching; eats fruits, seeds, and insects caught in the air.">Open Image width="696" height="470"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg934693623401..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="R044. A Black-faced Solitaire. Its call is an ascending, nasal ghawk or a liquid quirt; alarm notes are a drier, more buzzy shwee. Its song consists of high, thin clear whistles, drawn-out and leisurely, with fluty transitions and liquid undulations, occasional metallic notes with overtones, sounding exquisitely beautiful in its natural surroundings.">Open Image width="696" height="470"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg934693623501..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="R045. An Orange-billed Sparrow. Its nest is very bulky covered structure with a side entrance of dead leaves and other coarse materials, usually including many pieces of green living ferns with more strewn in front of the front entrance, and will lined with rootlets and fibers. The nest is on the ground, often on a low bank, gentle slope, or mound.">Open Image width="696" height="470"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg934693623601..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="R046. A male Tawny-capped Euphonia. It eats a wide variety of fruits, including mistletoe, melastomas, figs, Ericaceae, and especially Anthurium, often mashing them in their bill and swallowing pulp and small seeds, discarding husks.">Open Image width="696" height="470"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg934693623701..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="R047. A Spectacled Antpitta. It searches for food by flicking leaves aside with its bill; pausing rhythmically to puff out and in its breast feathers while jerkily half-spreading and closing wings, perhaps to flush prey; eats insects, spiders, and other invertebrates.">Open Image width="696" height="470"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg934693623801..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="R048. A Slate-throated Redstart. It hops and flits through foliage, over trunks, and along branches, often opening and closing its white-edged tail, which may help flush insects captured in intricate aerial pursuits; it eats protein corpuscles of Cecropia.">Open Image width="696" height="470"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg934693623901..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="R049. A male Green Thorntail. It visits and eats nectar from small insect-pollinated flowers of trees, epiphytes, and flowering shrubs; also eats tiny flies and wasps.">Open Image width="696" height="470"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg934693624001..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="R050. A female Green Thorntail. It does not have the long, wire-like tail. Its hovering flight is very quiet and steady.">Open Image width="696" height="470"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg934693624101..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="R051. A Brown Violet-ear. Note violet patch of feathers below eye. It feeds on nectar of small, short-tubed, mostly insect-pollinated flowers of trees and epiphytes.">Open Image width="696" height="470"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg934693624201..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="R052. A male White-necked Jacobin. Note part of white on back of neck is visible. It feeds on nectar of many flowers of trees, epiphytes, and also Heliconia.">Open Image width="696" height="470"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg934693624301..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="R053. A Green Hermit. It visits flowers for nectar and gleans spiders from webs and vegetation. Up to 20 males form a lek in dense forest under story of mountain ridges or swales. They make squealling and popping sounds in chases and displays on the lek.">Open Image width="696" height="470"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg934693624401..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="R054. A male Crowned Woodnymph (back side). It visits the flowers of epiphytes (bromeliads and ericads) for nectar. After breeding, many of these hummingbirds concentrate at flowers of Heliconia, where males defend territories. Both sexes glean insects and spiders from foliage.">Open Image width="696" height="470"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg934693624501..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="R055. A male Crowned Woodnymph (front side). Its bright green iridescent color is produced mostly by the microscopic structure of the feathers rather than by pigments. The iridescent colors of hummingbirds change with the angle of viewing and appear black in poor light.">Open Image width="696" height="470"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg934693624601..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="R056. A female Crowned Woodnymph. Females are not as iridescent as males. In all carefully studied species of hummingbirds, the female carries out the entire nesting effort without direct male help. Nests are neat, tiny, compact cups of soft, downy material decorated on the outside with mosses and lichens, and held together and attached to a support with spider silk.">Open Image width="696" height="470"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg934693624701..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="R057. The Ericaceae flower. Note the large epiphyte plants on a large tree branch in the background of this flower. The large leaves in the middle above the flower a philodendron. The upper right light green plant is a bromeliad.">Open Image width="696" height="470"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg934693624801..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="R058. A young smaller Ericaceae flower. Ericaceae are among the few, if not the only flower, that blooms year around in the rain forest providing a year around nectar supply for hummingbirds.">Open Image width="696" height="470"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg934693624901..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="R060. A closeup of Centropogon flowers.">Open Image width="696" height="470"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg934693625001..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="R062. The Centropogon flower's fruit. The green base of the orange flower matures into this purple fruit.">Open Image width="696" height="470"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg934693625101..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="R063. The beautiful Hibiscus flower.">Open Image width="696" height="470"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg934693625201..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="R064. The beautiful Passion flower.">Open Image width="696" height="470"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg934693625301..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="R065. The scientific name for this flower, Psychotria elata, may reveal the imagination for the common name: "hot lips"!">Open Image width="696" height="470"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg934693625401..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="R066. Flowers of a tree in the coffee family.">Open Image width="696" height="470"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg934693625501..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="R068. An unidentified tree flower growing out of a tree trunk.">Open Image width="696" height="470"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg934693625601..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="R070. Faramea multiflora. A lavender flower with lavender stems.">Open Image width="696" height="470"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg934693625701..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="R072. An unidentified yellow flower at the El Plastico research station.">Open Image width="696" height="470"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg934693625801..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="R077. Palm fruits in a hanging bunch.">Open Image width="696" height="470"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg934693625901..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="R078. The Fishtail Palm. Note that the upper right fishtail palm has been "etched" through the leaf so that the two fishtail ends hang together forming a more sheltered area under the leaf.">Open Image width="696" height="470"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg934693626001..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="R079. Here are a group of bats under the sheltered area of the fishtail palm leaf. They chewed through the "etched" part of the leaf causing the leaf to bend down and form the shelter.">Open Image width="696" height="470"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg934693626101..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="R080. The Stained Glass Palm. Rara Avis is one of the few places this rare species, Geonoma epetiolata, of palms is still found. Commercial exploitation of this palm has caused it to become extinct in Panama.">Open Image width="696" height="470"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg934693626201..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="R083. The J.C. Blood Plant. This plant has evolved to spread the bright red color, usually confined to flower pedals, to the leaves which apparently produces a greater attraction for hummingbirds to help assure pollination.">Open Image width="696" height="470"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg934693626401..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="R084. The Poor Man's Umbrella. A very large-leaf philodendron growing by a stream. Note the lens cap on one leaf and the nature guide and an ecotourist seated near the plant.">Open Image width="696" height="470"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg934693626501..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="R085. An unidentified fine-leaf textured plant.">Open Image width="696" height="470"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg934693626601..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="R087. Unidentified large deep green colored, textured leaf.">Open Image width="696" height="470"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg934693626701..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="R091. The nest of the Oropendala bird hanging among palm trees. In the larger species of this bird, the nest can reach a length of six feet.">Open Image width="696" height="470"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg934693626801..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="R093. The common name of this tree is Broccoli Tree.">Open Image width="696" height="470"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg934693626901..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="R098. Wilberth, a Rara Avis nature guide, is dwarfed by the size of the huge Sloanea rain forest tree.">Open Image width="696" height="470"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg934693627001..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="R099. An unidentified white fungus growing on a log. Fungi are the least-known group of living things with about 70,000 known species, but about one and a half million are thought to exist.">Open Image width="696" height="470"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg934693627101..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="R100. An unidentified knob-like fungus projecting from a moss-laden log.">Open Image width="696" height="470"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg934693627201..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="R102. A Bicolored Coral Snake (Smicrurus multifasciatus) seen near the Casitas Trail sign. About half of all reptiles in Costa Rica are snakes with 135 species and only 17 are venomous. This is one of the venomous snakes with a small head and blunt tail which allows it to better move on the forest floor. The fangs are fixed to the upper jaw and can't be folder back, so they bite with a chewing motion to work the neurotoxic venom into prey.">Open Image width="696" height="470"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg934693627301..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="R103. An olive green Eyelash Viper. This viper is arboreal (lives in shrubs and trees) and has a prehensile tail to help maneuver in their habitat. They have two pits between their eyes and nose that detects heat allowing them to strike prey at night. They inject venom through long, needle-like, hypodermic fangs that fold back against the upper jaw. ">Open Image width="696" height="470"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg934693627401..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="R104. Closeup of the olive green Eyelash Viper. Note the spine like processes which are modified scales above the eyes.">Open Image width="696" height="470"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg934693627501..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="R105. Closeup of a reddish gray Eyelash Viper. Note the heat-sensing pit between the eye and nose.">Open Image width="696" height="470"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg934693627601..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="R106. A Cateye Snake. It was named for the similarity of its eye to a cat's eye.">Open Image width="696" height="470"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg934693627701..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="R017. A Tiger Rat Snake. They are mainly arboreal and have acute eyesight with the best vision of nearly all snakes, making them excellent hunters. They move their head back and forth like an owl gaging distance to prey by triangulation. They are the largest of snakes in the Colubridae family, up to 12 feet long and weighing 10 pounds.">Open Image width="696" height="470"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg934693627801..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="R108. A Red-eyed Frog with its eye closed. Note the web-like eyelid.">Open Image width="696" height="470"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg934693627901..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="R109. A female Masked Tree Frog hunkered down on a bromeliad leaf.">Open Image width="696" height="470"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg934693628001..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="R111. A Brilliant Forest Frog. It is a slinder frog with a long snout and a pointed head. It has vibrant green spots on its back. It has no sticky discs at the toe and finger tips like tree frogs, but instead has expanded toe and finger tips to help it climb.">Open Image width="696" height="470"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg934693628101..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="R112. A Pigmy Frog about Ā½ inch long found on a night tour.">Open Image width="696" height="470"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg934693628201..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="R113. An unidentified one inch long frog found on a night tour.">Open Image width="696" height="470"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg934693628301..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="R114. A Smoky Jungle Frog. It is a large frog about 7 inches long. It spends most of its time away from ponds and streams. To keep eggs moist, the female secretes a liquid and beats it into a frothy foam with her back legs. After depositing her eggs into the foam, the outside of the foam nest hardens to protect the eggs from drying out. ">Open Image width="696" height="470"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg934693628401..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="R116. An Orange Nectar Bat. During the day hummingbird feeders provide hours of bird watching at the Waterfall Lodge. At night the bats come out to feed. About 90 percent of rain forest flowering plants are pollinated by animals, including many bat species. ">Open Image width="696" height="470"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg934693628501..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="R118. Army Ants. This name applies to over 200 ant species. Hundreds of Army Ants from a colony of 100's of thousands are mobbing a large spider. Their scent trail to and from the ant colony is at the upper right of the photo. ">Open Image width="696" height="470"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg934693628601..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="R119. Closeup of Army Ants mobbing a large spider. Note a leg of the spider. These ants do not construct permanent nests like the Leaf-cutter Ants. The army ant colony moves almost incessantly over the time it exists. Their nest is made of army ants themselves, hanging together with their jaws and claws. Their living ant-body nest (called a bivouac) houses the queen, her brood, and castes of sterile female workers and large soldiers for defense. They can kill a 100,000 animals in a day. They eat lizards, snakes, small livestock, birds, spiders, and many insects including other ants. ">Open Image width="696" height="470"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg934693628701..jpg"> height="29"/>height="28"/>Open Image width="696" height="470"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg934693628801..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="R121. A Walking Stick. This arthropod was found by the Rara Avis nature guide on a night tour. To date, about 1.8 million species of organisms on Earth have been named. Scientists estimate in the arthropod group alone that 10's of millions of species are in the tropical rain forest.">Open Image width="696" height="470"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg934693628901..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="R122. A green Katydid. Katydids and grasshoppers are insect arthropods. About 75 percent of all animals on Earth are insects!">Open Image width="696" height="470"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg934693629001..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="R123. A Dead-leaf Mimicking Katydid. Another insect discovered on a night tour.">Open Image width="696" height="470"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg934693629101..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="R124. A Grasshopper. Note the conspicuous projections on this insect.">Open Image width="696" height="470"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg934693629201..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="R126. A Tick. This is one of the two ticks I found trying to embed into my body in the 16 day period that I was in Rara Avis. It is very small, about 1/16 inch. (Shot is 3X life size of my index finger)">Open Image width="696" height="470"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg934693629301..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="R127. Horseback mode of travel. After 16 wonderful days in Rara Avis, I had to leave for home. I recommend everyone experience this 2-3 hour mode of transportation to the Rara Avis office at least one time.">Open Image width="696" height="470"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg934693629401..jpg"> height="29"/>height="28"/> tooltip="R002. There are two available modes of transportation to the Rara Avis eco-tourism reserve-by 4-wheel drive tractor pulling a trailer of people, or by horseback.">Open Image width="477" height="707"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg49528799101.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="R003. It takes about two hours for the 10 mile bone-jarring ride by tractor and trailer to reach the reserve. It takes two to three hours by horse.">Open Image width="477" height="707"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg49528799201.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="R007. You then pass the Catarata (waterfall) sign showing the trail to the waterfall swimming pool to cool off before lunch.">Open Image width="477" height="707"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg49528799301.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="R008. This is your scenic view of the waterfall during your swim.">Open Image width="477" height="707"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg49528799401.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="R009. This is a more distant scenic view of the waterfalls from the Mirador (overlook) trail.">Open Image width="477" height="707"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg49528799501.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="R011. This is what a mature Heliconia flower looks like.">Open Image width="477" height="707"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg49528799601.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="R012. This beaten path in a grassy area parallels the concrete path to the Hotel Lodge. This 4-6 inch wide beaten path was produced by the tiny feet of 8 to 15 million leaf-cutter ants.">Open Image width="477" height="707"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg49528799701.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="R013. Here is one of the millions of foraging leaf-cutter ants carrying a piece of fern leaf with circular, brown spore producing structures. Note the smaller attendant ant hitching a free ride. Leaf-cutter ants were the first farmers and they've been farming for about 50 million years. They cut leaves into pieces from the rain forest and carry them to their nest 100's of feet wide and up to 20 feet deep in the forest floor. They consume 20 percent of rain forest foliage each year! The toxic leaves are chewed up by worker ants and detoxified to become nutrients for a fungus garden. This one species of fungus is the ants' only food. Just as human farmers have pests in their crops, it has recently been discovered that a mold pest invades the ants' fungus garden. Worker ants tending the garden were found to have a whitish covering over their bodies. Scientists discovered that the whitish material was a living colony of bacteria that produces an antibiotic that kills the mold pest. Humans discovered antibiotics only about 60 years ago!">Open Image width="477" height="707"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg49528799801.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="R016. This shows the circular tree pads and plank to the Casitas (cabins). Note the hardware wire on this foot path. It can be found on most of the hiking trails to prevent slipping on the wet pads. A hiking pole is highly recommended for safety when hiking.">Open Image width="477" height="707"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg49528799901.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="R031. A Plain-brown Woodcreeper. It usually clings vertically to tree trunks and regularly accompanies army ants.">Open Image width="477" height="707"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg495287991001.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="R059. The Centropogon flower. A common name for this bright orange flower is the flamingo beak flower.">Open Image width="477" height="707"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg495287991101.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="R061. Closer still of a Centropogon. Imagine a hummingbird with a curved beak probing into the tube of this flower for nectar, and one can see that pollination of the long white fuzzy reproductive structure will be accomplished by brushing against the backside of the bird.">Open Image width="477" height="707"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg495287991201.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="R067. An unidentified tree flower.">Open Image width="477" height="707"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg495287991301.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="R069. A flower in the African violet family.">Open Image width="477" height="707"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg495287991401.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="R071. An unidentified lavender flower in front of the waterfall lodge.">Open Image width="477" height="707"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg495287991501.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="R073. An unidentified orange flower at the El Plastico research station.">Open Image width="477" height="707"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg495287991601.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="R074. Palm flowers growing along the main stem of the plant.">Open Image width="477" height="707"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg495287991701.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="R076. Palm fruits in a hanging narrow band.">Open Image width="477" height="707"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg495287991801.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="R082. Closeup of the Stained Glass Palm.">Open Image width="477" height="707"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg495287991901.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="R086. Unidentified large variegated green colored leaves.">Open Image width="477" height="707"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg495287992001.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="R088. Iriartea deltoides is commonly called the Black Palm with its buttressed prop roots. Note the young growing black prop root with a cap on the tip growing toward the ground.">Open Image width="477" height="707"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg495287992101.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="R089. Note the bare trunk of the Inga Tree in contrast to the epiphyte laden trunk of the tree beside it. The Inga Tree secretes the amino acid lysine in its bark that attracts the Pigmy Squirrel and causes the squirrel to glean the surface of the bark of all epiphytes.">Open Image width="477" height="707"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg495287992201.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="R090. A closeup of an epiphyte laden tree trunk. Epiphytes are not parasites. They use the tree as a substrate to grow on instead of the forest floor. Epiphytes can actually produce soil on the tree and branches, and their diverse growth buildup can contribute to the majority of weight of the tree. Many trees fall because of this increased weight. ">Open Image width="477" height="707"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg495287992301.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="R092. The Rara Avis tree house about 80 feet up.">Open Image width="477" height="707"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg495287992401.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="R094. A liana vine (an epiphyte) hanging from a tall rain forest tree.">Open Image width="477" height="707"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg495287992501.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="R095. A large Mahogany Tree by the Guacimo Trail. Note the hanging butterfly trap to the upper left of the hikers.">Open Image width="477" height="707"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg495287992601.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="R096. This is a prop-root buttressed tree beside the hiking trail.">Open Image width="477" height="707"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg495287992701.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="R097. The ancient Tree Fern had its origin early in the 100 million year evolution of the tropical rain forest.">Open Image width="477" height="707"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg495287992801.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="R101. A Striped Basilisk (Casque-headed Iquana was a common name) can be seen near the Rara Avis office.">Open Image width="477" height="707"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg495287992901.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="R110. A male Masked Tree Frog in a shallow pond. Note his color and pattern are much different than the female. Also, note the sticky discs at the toe and finger tips.">Open Image width="477" height="707"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg495287993001.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="R115. A Watson's Climbing Rat. In the middle of the night I heard a gnawing sound in my Casita cabin. I put on my headlamp and located the sound coming from a storage cabinet. I grabbed my camera and got this photo.">Open Image width="477" height="707"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg495287993101.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="R117. A Golden Orb Weaver Spider. The silk of this spider's web is eight times stronger than steel of the same diameter. Four proteins form this extremely strong spider silk. Recently, scientists have synthesized two of the proteins in an effort to develop a useful strong fiber for commercial application.">Open Image width="477" height="707"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg495287993201.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="R125. A Mosquito. This is one of those few mosquitoes found at Rara Avis. They are very small, dainty, slow-moving insects, and are easy to swat and kill. (Shot with extension tubes at 3X life size)">Open Image width="477" height="707"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg495287993301.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="18. RED RAT SNAKE -- Fill flash gave a close-up of the head and keeled scales of this colorful snake climbing on a tree trunk (controlled conditions). A Rat Snake's belly scales are at angles that help grip the bark of trees for good climbing ability. More commonly called Corn Snake probably because of the similarity of the belly (ventral) markings to the checkered pattern of kernels on Indian corn. The orange blotches on top (dorsal) are outlined in black, and a pair of lengthwise neck blotches unite to form a spear point between the eyes. It eats small mammals (including bats), birds, lizards, and frogs killing them by constriction causing suffocation and then swallowing them whole. The 60mm lens was used for this image on Kodachrome 25 film.">Open Image width="690" height="483"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg1939198109101..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="18-10. BLACK RAT SNAKE -- It is shiny black as an adult (up to 6 ft. long), but young have dark brown blotches on a light background. The upper lip and chin are usually white, and its scales are weakly keeled. Note that all snakes' eyes are always open and appear to have no eyelids, but in fact natural selection has produced a fusion of ancestral upper and lower eyelids which have become a transparent "spectacle" scale called a brille that is permanently closed over the eye. When cornered, many Rat Snakes will rear up in a S-curve, standing ready to fight, and lunge forward with an open hissing mouth similar to threatening Cobra snake behavior. Their habitat is rocky, wooded hillsides or forests along streams and rivers. They overwinter in rock outcrops and even share their winter den with copperheads, rattlesnakes, and other snake species. This rat snake was clinging onto a cottonwood tree trunk at the Loess Hills Seminar near Onowa, Iowa. A 60 mm lens at F-11, and fill flash put this image on Provia F-100 film.">Open Image width="700" height="473"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg1939198109801..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="18-11. RUBBER BOA -- I almost stepped on this snake (14-33 in.) laying on a trail beside the Little Queen River in the Sawtooth Mountains of Idaho. It has a broad snout and short blunt tail that gives it a "two-headed" appearance. Its body feels like rubber. It has small smooth scales on its dorsal (top) body and large scales on top of its head. It has a small eye and vertical pupil. As this snake's name indicates, it is a member of the family Boidae. This family of snakes includes the giant snakes of the Earth such as the Reticulated Python of southeast Asia and Anaconda of South America. The Rubber Boa is one of two much smaller species of boids found in the U.S. Boids feed on birds and mammals which they suffocate to death by rapping and constricting coils of their body around their prey. When feeding on baby mice, natural selection evolved a behavior that deters protective adult mice attacks by imitating threatening strike movements of its blunt, elevated taila as a "second head". When feeding on babies, constricting in unnecessary-they swallow them whole. Some boid species have heat-sensing areas on the lip scales of their mouth that aid in locating warm-blooded prey (evidence of a transitional stage for natrual selection to evlove a sophisticated, infrared heat-sensing pit adaptation which is in fact present in the recently evolved rattlesnakes of the U.S. for accurate location of warm-blooded prey-of course, this fact must not be interpreted to mean that natural selection proceeded with foresight to an evolutionary goal of a heat-sensing pit adaptation). They have a vestigial pelvic girdle and vestigial hind legs present externallly as "spurs", more so in males, beside the vent (digestive/reproductive opening). The hind leg "spurs" and pelvic girdle are evidence of snakes' evolutionary history of descent from an ancient, four-legged, reptile-like, common ancestor whose descendants began burrowing underground and subsequently selection favored reduction and eventual elimination of legs. Now, natural selection has co-opted the hind leg "spurs" as claspers used by males during sexual copulation. Fill flash and a 60 mm lens at F-8 put this image on Provia F-100 film.">Open Image width="700" height="473"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg1939198109901..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="18-12. PRAIRIE RATTLESNAKE -- I almost stepped on this snake (35-45 in.) while walking in the Sand Hills of Nebraska. I've lost much of my hearing and did not hear the rattle, but I did see movement and brought my foot back from a step that would have landed within 18 inches of the snake and a certain strike on my shoe or ankle. I remembered reading snakebite instructions. The best treatment for a venomous snakebite is your car keys-calmly get to your car and drive to the nearest hospital for anti-venom shots. The nearest hospital is in Broken Bow, Nebraska about 70 miles away! Natural selection has evolved a powerful venom in rattlesnakes' salivary glands that immobilizes and digests their prey from the inside out. Note that large blotches anteriorly (front) become cross bands posteriorly (rear) near the tail, and two diagonal white lines on the side of the head. It lives in prairie dog towns and feeds on young prairie dogs and burrowing owls as well as kangaroo rats and mice. An 85 mm lens and extension tube put this image on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="700" height="473"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg19391981091001..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="18-13. NORTHERN WATER SNAKE -- The only large water snake (24-42 in.) in most northern states. Note dark dorsal (top) cross bands on the anterior (front) that dissipate into alternating dorsal and lateral (side) blotches on posterior (rear) of the snake. The total number of bands and blotches from the neck to the anus is usually always 30 or more. It is active day and night feeding on frogs, crayfish, salamanders, minnows, small fishes, turtles, and mammals. This is a nonvenomous snake that will bite if cornered and the wound will bleed profusely because natural selection has evolved an anticoagulant in the saliva for an adaptation to help subdue their prey (evidence of a transitional stage for natural selection to evolve powerful venom in the recently evolved pit vipers of the U.S.--of course, this does not mean goal directed evolution). Photographed in The Nature Conservancy Niobrara Valley Preserve in Nebraska. A 60 mm lens at F-8 put this image on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="700" height="473"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg19391981091101..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="18-14. EASTERN GARTER SNAKE -- This snake (18-26 in.) was photographed in the Boundary Waters Canoe Area in northern Minnesota. Garter snakes (genus Thamnophis) are the most common and widely distributed snakes in North America. They range from coast to coast and from southern Canada to Costa Rica. The Eastern Garter Snake is the only garter snake with lateral stripes confined to scale rows 2 and 3 (counting up from the belly scales). Note that dorsal scales are keeled (a ridge in the middle of scale), and more prominently visible in the yellow lateral stripe of the 2nd and 3rd scale rows in this individual. They are often found near water where they feed mostly on frogs, toads, salamanders, fish, tadpoles, and earthworms, but also leaches, small mammals, birds, and carrion are eaten too. A 35-105 mm zoom lens at 105 mm put this image on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="700" height="473"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg19391981091201..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="18-15. RED-SIDED GARTER SNAKE -- This snake (16-26 in.) was photographed in Lancaster County, Nebraska. The red or orange bars vary in size and intensity, so some snakes are redder than others. A 35-105 mm zoom lens, F-8, and extension tube put this image on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="700" height="473"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg19391981091301..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="18-16. WESTERN TERRESTRIAL GARTER SNAKE -- This snake (18-43 in.) was photographed in the Rock Creek Wilderness Study Area in Wyoming. They are mostly terrestrial, but some subspecies are aquatic. Note the upper 8 labials (lip) with the 6th and 7th enlarged, and higher than wide. There are usually 10 lower lip labials. A 300 mm lens, F-8 and tripod put this image on Provia F-100 film.">Open Image width="700" height="473"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg19391981091401..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="18-17. GOPHER SNAKE -- Gopher Snake is its common name and its scientific name is Pituophis melanoleucus. There are many subspecies of this snake from coast to coast, one is in the Midwest, the Bullsnake whose scientific name is P. m. sayi ( sayi is the subspecies name and P. m. are the first letters of the Gopher Snake's scientific name). The P. melanoleucus species is classified in up to 15 subspecies by one field guide, and this may indicate recent natural selection pressure to evolve subspecies diversity into new species similar to the subspecies diversity in Kingsnakes, Milk Snakes, Rat Snakes, and Garter Snakes. However, perhaps subspecies based primarily on color pattern are features resulting from adaptive neutral traits that have evolved through random chance genetic drift, rather than adaptive guided selection (compare this notion with recent publications and explanation given under the Prairie Kingsnake). They are all in the largest family of snakes in the world-Colubridae. Over three-fourths of all the world's snake species are in this family, and none have ancestral vestiges of hind legs or a pelvic girdle. Gopher Snakes are large (36-110 in.), powerful, constricting snakes that hiss loudly, vibrate their tails rapidly and lunge forward at an intruder when first approached, but they are nonvenomous. This adaptive behavior may have evolved for survival value against their predators when snakes vibrate their tails in dry leaves producing a rattling sound similar to rattlesnakes. Note the snout of the head has a pointed rostral scale (somewhat raised above other scales) that projects up between the internasal scales and almost touches the four prefrontal scales instead of two prefrontal scales in most other snakes in this family. This snake was photographed near the Middle Fork Boise River in Idaho. An 85 mm lens, F-8 put this image on Ectachrome 100 G film.">Open Image width="700" height="473"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg19391981091501..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="18-18. PRAIRIE KINGSNAKE -- Kingsnakes and Milk Snakes are classified in the genus Lampropeltis, meaning shiny snakes with smooth scales. Kingsnakes range from coast to coast across the central and southern U.S. The Peterson Field Guides describe 29 subspecies of Kingsnakes and Milk Snakes in North America alone! A 2009 publication of comprehensive research by biologists Pyron and Burbrink on the reclassification of Kingsnakes supports doing away with the 17 subspecies of Kingsnakes in the U.S. and returning to the original 5 species classification to reveal a more accurate evolutionary history of these snakes. They put forth the notion that color pattern variation in Kingsnakes probably evolved as responses to changes in ecological or environmental variables rather than gene flow or hybridization. Zweifel, 1981 found that genetic polymorphism produced color pattern variation in the California Kingsnake. All are powerful constrictors and they kill and eat other snakes, including venomous rattlesnakes, copperheads, and coral snakes. Perhaps natural selection produced this adaptation, including eating their own species, to survive famine when rodent prey populations crashed periodically over thousands of years. Photographed at the Loess Hills Seminar near Onowa, Iowa. A 60 mm lens at 1:5 ratio and fill flash put this image on Velvia 50 film. ">Open Image width="700" height="473"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg19391981093401..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="18-19. MILK SNAKE -- Lampropeltis triangulum gentilis's common name is Central Plains Milk Snake (16-24in.) and it has 20 to 39 red or orange rings (this individual has 33) on its body. The scales are not keeled, but smooth. The bright color pattern of this nonvenomous snake probably evolved to mimic venomous coral snakes and thus provide protection from predators. A saying to remember which of these snakes in the U.S. are venomous and which are not is: "red to black venom lack, red to yellow kill a fellow!" This Milk Snake was photographed near Jeffery Reservoir in central Nebraska south of the Platte River. L. t. multistriata, the Pale Milk Snake, is found north of the Platte River in central and western Nebraska. The Milk Snake has been found in cow barns and at one time it was the tale of a ridiculous myth that it could suck milk from cows, and this is the origin of its common name. An 85 mm lens and extension tube put this image on Provia F-100 film.">Open Image width="700" height="473"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg19391981091601..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="18-50. NORTHERN EARLESS LIZARD -- Note a pale stripe from behind the eye to the base of tail, and another pale stripe from the armpit to the front of hind leg. Note the absence of a pair of black bars behind the armpit, but the presence of reduced lateral black bars indicating this is a female. This lizard (4-5 in.) was photographed in the Sand Hills of the Nebraska National Forest. Natural selection has adapted these lizards with long legs and toes for running across sandy surfaces, and their heads are shaped for quick burrowing when they dive head first and bury themselves in sand (selection against external ear openings may have occurred because of this behavior). They eat spiders and insects. An 85 mm lens, extension tube, F-16, and fill Flash put this image on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="700" height="473"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg19391981091701..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="18-51 NORTHERN EARLESS LIZARD (gravid) -- Females heavy with eggs are orange or orange-red with color brightest on the two lateral stripes. This lizard was photographed in the same location and with the same lens and film as the previous described Northern Earless Lizard.">Open Image width="700" height="473"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg19391981091801..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="18-52. NORTHERN PRAIRIE LIZARD -- The prominent, light longitudinal stripes are good field marks. Note external ear opening above shoulder. It feeds on spiders and insects with a preference for beetles. Photographed in the Sand Hills of the Nebraska National Forest with an 85 mm lens, extension tube, F-16, and fill flash on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="700" height="473"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg19391981091901..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="18-53. SHORT-HORNED LIZARD -- This is the gray color phase in this species. Natural selection camouflaged this lizard (1Ā¾-4Ā¼ in.) to its light gray surroundings in the Agate Fossil Beds National Monument in western Nebraska where it was photographed. This is a flat-bodied lizard with short stubby spines around the head except for the deep notch in back of its head. One row of spike-like scales is on the sides of its body. It is most active during the midday heat and feeds mostly on ants. A diet of ants may seem like insufficient food, but one must realize that in most ecosystems ants are so numerous that they are about 10 per cent of the total animal biomass! A 60 mm lens, F-11, 1:5 ratio, tripod, and electronic release put this image on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="700" height="473"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg19391981092001..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="18-54. WESTERN FENCE LIZARD -- A most common western lizard (2Ā¼-3Ā½ in.) and it is known as a "blue-belly" especially the males in early spring breeding season. Scales on its back are keeled and pointed. They range from central Idaho through Nevada and west to the Pacific Coast. This lizard is found in a variety of habitats such as grassland, chaparral, sagebrush land, woodland, open coniferous forest, and farmland. This lizard was photographed in the foothills of Boise, Idaho. A 60 mm lens, F-11, 1:5 ratio put this image on Velvia 50 film. ">Open Image width="700" height="473"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg19391981092101..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="18-55. SIDE-BLOTCHED LIZARD -- A female (4-6 in.) showing the bluish black blotch on the side of chest behind foreleg. Females have no blue speckling on their backs. They range from central Washington south to Baja California. They are abundant lizards in the arid and semiarid regions of the West. They are ground dwellers and active all year in the South. They eat insects, scorpions, spiders, mites, ticks, and sowbugs. Photographed near Lake Havasu city by the Colorado River in Arizona in January. A 400 mm lens, F-8, tripod, and electronic release put this image on Provia F-100 film.">Open Image width="700" height="473"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg19391981092201..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="18-56. SIDE-BLOTCHED LIZARD -- A male showing blue speckling on its back, light spots on its sides, orange on throat, and a gular fold of skin around the neck. Photographed near Lake Havasu City by the Colorado River in Arizona in January. A 400 mm lens, F5.6 put this image on Velvia 100 film.">Open Image width="700" height="473"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg19391981092301..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="18-57. LEOPARD LIZARD -- A large (8-15 in.) lizard with many dark spots surrounded by small white spots. Light crossbars can be seen on its body and tail. They run on their hind legs with forelegs and anterior body raised when running fast (evidence of a transitional stage for natural selection to evolve a more efficient mode of bipedal locomotion as can be seen in the excellent animated videos of fast-running extinct dinosaurs in a level teeter-toter, horizontal counter-balanced, body form over their legs, and in extant present day wild turkeys when they run fast). They eat grasshoppers, crickets, beetles, termites, spiders, lizards, pocket mice, soft leaves, blossoms, and berries. They range from southern Oregon and Idaho to Baja California and west Texas, and live in semiarid regions of sandy soil and sparse vegetation. Photographed in Bruneau Dunes State Park in southern Idaho. A 210 mm zoom lens, extension tube, F-11, tripod, and electronic release put this image on Provia F-100 film.">Open Image width="700" height="473"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg19391981092401..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="18-58. DESERT HORNED LIZARD -- Natural selection has camouflaged this lizard (3-5 in.) with its sandy soil environment. It has relatively short spines around the head with two longest spines behind its head, and one row of short fringe scales on the sides of its body. Note two large dark blotches on the neck. This is a lizard of arid sagebrush land. It was photographed at the edge of a huge sand dune in Bruneau Dunes State Park near the Snake River in Idaho. A 210 mm zoom lens, F-11, extension tube, 1/125 sec. in bright sun, tripod, and electronic release put this image on Provia F-100 film.">Open Image width="700" height="473"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg19391981092501..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="18-90. PRAIRIE RACERUNNER -- This lizard is similar to the Six-lined Racerunner and they are sexually a male and female species. They belong to the large New World family Teiidae of whiptails with one genus Cnemidophorus having 55 species ranging throughout the Americas. Ten species are native to the Central and Eastern U.S., and half of them are unisexual. Adult females produce unfertilized eggs that hatch into females only. These species are all females (no males have been found) and this type of reproduction from diploid unfertilized eggs is known as parthenogenesis. Racerunners are extremely swift and dart about so fast that one's eyes can hardly follow them as they run across the top of vegetation and literally hit the ground running. They are found in a variety of habitats from river floodplains, to open and sparse brush grasslands, to lowland and hilly terrain, and to rock outcrops. Photographed in the Steele City Canyon of southeastern Nebraska on Velvia 50 film. ">Open Image width="700" height="473"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg19391981093501..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="18-91. PRAIRIE RACERUNNER -- This is an adult racerunner with a blue tail. Note that the tail is much longer than the body of the lizard. Photographed with an 85 mm lens on Provia F-100 film in the Sand Hills of the Bessey Division in the Nebraska National Forest near Halsey, Nebraska. ">Open Image width="700" height="473"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg19391981093601..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="19. SNAPPING TURTLE -- An interesting photo of an unnatural placement of a baby Snapping Turtle on the carapace of an adult Snapping Turtle on dry land (controlled conditions). Egg laying occurs in June with a clutch of 25-50 eggs that look like ping-pong balls. The sex of snapping turtle hatchlings is determined by egg incubation temperature. Eggs incubated at 20Ā° C produce females only, at 21-22Ā° C both males and females, and at 23-24Ā° C males only are produced. The 60mm lens and fill flash were used for this image on Kodachrome 25 film.">Open Image width="690" height="483"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg1939198109201..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="19-10. SNAPPING TURTLE -- A large female Snapping Turtle laying eggs in sandy soil of the Valentine National Wildlife Refuge in Nebraska. Note moist algae growing on the carapace shell of this turtle. A 60 mm lens, F-8, and fill flash put this image on Provia F-100 film.">Open Image width="700" height="473"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg19391981092601..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="19-11. WESTERN PAINTED TURTLES -- These are the most widespread turtles (4-9 in.) in North America. This photo shows seven turtles basking in the sun on a log in the Squaw Creek National Wildlife Refuge in Missouri. The adults eat aquatic plants, snails, crayfish, insects, and fish, and the young are more carnivorous than the adults. A 400 mm lens at F-8 put this image on Astia 100 film.">Open Image width="700" height="473"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg19391981092701..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="19-12. WESTERN PAINTED TURTLE -- Up close photo of colorful yellow stripes on head and legs, and some of the intricate pattern on the plastron (lower shell) and lower margins of the carapace (upper shell). This turtle was crossing Highway 281 in Nebraska. I immediately hit the emergency flashers and slowly pulled my car over to the side of the road. I got out of the car, ran to the turtle, picked up the turtle, and carried it to the ditch on the other side of the road in the direction the turtle was traveling. This helps prevent turtle road kills which destroy many turtles especially in the spring breeding season. The 60 mm lens at F-32 gave good depth of field in this image on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="700" height="473"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg19391981092801..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="19-13. YELLOW MUD TURTLE -- This is a photo of an adult turtle (4-6 in.) in Allen Bartel's personal collection in Farwell, Nebraska. Note a key field guide characteristic by counting marginal scutes (smaller scales on lower edge of the carapace) starting with number one just above the head to the rear, that number 9 and 10 are noticeably higher than number 8. In early morning or evening, it will forage on land away from its usual aquatic habitat. I feeds on worms, arthropods, snails, and tadpoles. A 60 mm lens and fill flash put this image on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="700" height="473"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg19391981092901..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="19-14. YELLOW MUD TURTLE -- This is a photo of the underside (plastron) of a Yellow Mud Turtle on site from Dr. Iverson's research project on these turtles in the Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge in Nebraska. Note the beautiful appearance of fine grain wood. Also note light lines to the right and left of the two large middle scutes where the double-hinged plastron closes the front and rear of turtle when it retreats into its shell. Key characteristics in the Peterson Field Guide are that the two triangular pectoral scutes (above the forelegs) are... "pointed and only narrowly in contact"..., and... "the yellowish chin and throat,"... This individual is from an isolated discontinuous range area of northwestern Nebraska which is separate from the Yellow Mud Turtle range area of southern Nebraska. Note that the pointed pectoral scutes are not in contact, and the chin and throat are only slightly yellow. If almost all individuals in this population of turtles have the same features, then possibly these are adaptively neutral traits that may have evolved through random chance genetic drift, or possibly selected polymorphism. A 60 mm lens, F-11, 1:6 ratio, and fill flash put this image on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="700" height="473"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg19391981093001..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="19-1. RED-EARED SLIDER -- This turtle was sunning itself on a rock during an early spring morning in Johnson County Park in Merriam, Kansas. Commercial collecting is depleting populations of these turtles. An estimated 3-4 million sliders continue to be exported by the pet trade around the world. Even though more than 150 turtle farms were in operation in the U.S. by 1960, over 9,000 adults were taken from the wild each year for breeding stock, seriously depleting natural populations. The 35-135 zoom lens at 135mm, F-4.5 put this reptile on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="700" height="473"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg1939198109301..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="19-2. SNAPPING TURTLE -- Have a close-up look into the eye of a Snapping Turtle. The "snapper" is a large freshwater turtle with a short temper and a long tail. It has a massive head and powerful jaws. One wild-caught individual weighed 75 lbs. When taken out of the water they become aggressive, lunge, and bite, but when in water they try to hide and escape and usually do not bite. The 60mm lens, F-8, and natural light put this reptile on Velvia 50 film. ">Open Image width="697" height="483"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg1939198109401..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="19-3. BLANDING'S TURTLE -- This is a long-lived turtle with a bright-yellow throat and a smiley face. This turtle was found wandering the streets of Lincoln, NE and turned over to Angelika T.L. Byorth's Turtle Conservation Project to eventually be released into the wild. Its carapace was 8 1/2" (21.7 cm) long and based on this length about 42 years old. The oldest Blanding's in the wild was found in Minnesota in 1988 with 1926 carved in its shell. Scientists estimate this turtle had to be at least 77 years old. The 60mm lens, F- 16/11, 1:4 ratio, and fill flash put this reptile on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="690" height="483"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg1939198109501..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="19-4. SOFTSHELL TURTLE -- Looking down on top of a spiny softshell that's looking up with one eye. This turtle looks like an animated pancake with its carapace covered with soft, leathery skin instead of hard, horny scutes typical of most turtle shells. Note the ribs and backbone showing through the top of the carapace. These aquatic turtles live primarily in rivers. This native turtle was purchased at a local pet store and turned over to Angelika T.L. Byorth's Turtle Conservation Project to be eventually released back into the wild where it was undoubtedly captured to exploit for commercial profit. Surveys are needed to see why softshells are declining in midwestern states. The 60mm lens at F-11, 1:5 ratio, and fill flash were used to record this reptile on Velvia film. ">Open Image width="690" height="483"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg1939198109601..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="19-15. SPINY SOFTSHELL -- As their name indicates, they have a soft leathery shell with no scales or scutes, and small spine-like projections on the front edge of the leathery shell. Note the key diagnostic feature distinguishing the Spiny Softshell (females 6-18 in., males 5-9 in.) from the Smooth Softshell turtles in this photo is a ridge (appears as a tubercle) on both sides the septum in the nose. They are primarily aquatic in rivers and streams feeding on crayfish, insects, snails, fish, tadpoles, and salamanders. A 60 mm lens, F-11, 1:5 ratio, and fill flash put this image on Velvia 50 film. ">Open Image width="700" height="473"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg19391981093101..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="19-5. ORNATE BOX TURTLE -- This female Ornate Box Turtle is in her natural habitat in the Sandhills of the Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge in Nebraska. It takes her more than 10 yrs before she can reproduce, and then only 3 to 4 eggs per clutch. It will take her decades to produce only one surviving offspring to replace her. In spite of this, the commercial pet and food trade carelessly took over 60,000 ornate box turtles (voluntary reporting) from the wild in Nebraska between 1994 to 2000 after the Turtle Bill passed in 1993. Finally, after 30 years hard work by Angelica Turtle Lady Byorth and many volunteers, legislation to protect all reptiles and amphibians from commercial exploitation was passed in Nebraska in 2002. The 28mm lens and fill flash put this natural scene on Velvia 50 film. ">Open Image width="609" height="483"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg1939198109701..jpg"> height="29"/>height="33"/> tooltip="19-16. ORNATE BOX TURTLE -- An adult female nursed to good health and cared for by Angie Turtle Lady Byorth (in background), and yes, Turtle Lady is really her official middle name! This turtle was released into its natural Sand Hills habitat on a Ted Turner ranch in Nebraska. A 28 mm lens, F-5.6, at one foot from turtle, and spot fill flash put this image on Provia F-100 film.">Open Image width="700" height="473"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg19391981093201..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="19-18. ORNATE BOX TURTLE -- These turtles can run remarkably fast not only on open sand, but through Sand Hill's grass! This is a male (males have red eyes) on the run. It moved so fast that many shots of the camera with auto focus, motor drive, and fill flash were necessary to finally capture this stop action shot of a turtle on the run. A 60 mm lens, F-11 and manual 1/250 sec with fill flash put this running turtle image on Provia F-100 film.">Open Image width="700" height="473"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg19391981093301..jpg"> height="29"/>height="28"/> tooltip="19-17. ORNATE BOX TURTLE -- An Ornate Box Turtle in its natural Sand Hills habitat beside a sunflower in the Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge. A 28 mm lens, F-11, and available light put this image on Astia 100 film.">Open Image width="435" height="644"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-2065974672101.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="36-10. Platte River in Nebraska in winter from I-80 bridge between Lincoln and Omaha. A 60 mm lens, F-8, tripod, and mirror lockup put this image on Kodachrome 25 film.">Open Image width="699" height="472"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-925069112101..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="36-11. Sunset on the Platte River in Nebraska. A 400 mm lens, F-16, tripod, and mirror lockup put this image on Provia 100F film near Louisville State Park.">Open Image width="699" height="472"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-925069112201..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="36-12. Blue clay banks of the Dismal River in the Sand Hills of Nebraska. A 17 mm lens, F-11, polarizing filter, and 1/60 sec put this image on Provia 100F film. ">Open Image width="699" height="472"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-925069112301..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="36-13. Dismal River in the Sand Hills of Nebraska. A 28 mm lens, F-11, 1/15 sec, polarizing filter, tripod, and mirror lockup put this image on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="699" height="472"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-925069112401..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="36-14. Little Blue River near Dry Creek in Nebraska. A 35 mm lens, F-11, tripod, and mirror lockup put this image on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="699" height="472"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-925069112501..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="36-15. Vermillion River in northern Minnesota. A 70 mm lens, F-8, tripod, and mirror lockup put this image on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="699" height="463"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-925069112601..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="36-16. Table Rock Falls on the Vermillion River in northern Minnesota. A 70 mm lens, F-8, 1/2 sec, tripod, and mirror lockup put this image on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="699" height="463"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-925069112701..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="36-17. Little Fork River below Cook, Minnesota. KA 60 mm lens put this image on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="699" height="472"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-925069112801..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="36-18. Big Fork River and Leopard Frog in northern Minnesota. A 17 mm lens at F-11 focused at one foot from frog and fill flash put this image on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="699" height="472"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-925069112901..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="36-19. Big Falls on the Big Fork River in northern Minnesota. A 28 mm lens at F-ll put this image on Provia 100F film. ">Open Image width="699" height="472"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-9250691121001..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="36-20. Prairie Creek Falls in Big Woods State Park in Minnesota. A 60 mm lens, F-11, 1/8 sec, tripod, and mirror lockup put this image on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="699" height="472"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-9250691121101..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="36-21. South Fork Payette River by Stair Case Rapids (Class-IV) near Banks, Idaho. A 60 mm lens, F-11, 1/125 sec, and tripod put this image on Velvia 50 film. ">Open Image width="699" height="472"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-9250691121201..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="36-22. Payette River and raft in Class-III rapids. An 85 mm lens, F-4, polarizing filter at 1/250 sec, and tripod put this image on Velvia 50 film near Banks, Idaho.">Open Image width="699" height="472"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-9250691121301..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="36-23. Salmon River and three rafts near Riggins, Idaho. A 35 mm lens, F-11, polarizing filter, 1/15 sec, tripod, and mirror lockup put this image on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="699" height="472"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-9250691121401..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="36-24. Queens River and backpack trail in the Sawtooth Mountains Wilderness in Idaho. A 35 mm lens at F-8, tripod, and mirror lockup put this image on Provia 100F film.">Open Image width="699" height="472"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-9250691121501..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="36-25. Snag across Queens River in the Sawtooth Mountains Wilderness in Idaho. A 35 mm lens at F-8, tripod, and mirror lockup put this image on EctachromeVS film.">Open Image width="699" height="472"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-9250691121601..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="36-26. Snake River near Dedication Point south of Boise, Idaho. A 35 mm lens, F-11, 1/8 sec, tripod, and mirror lockup put this image on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="699" height="472"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-9250691121701..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="36-27. Snake River and Bluffs at Massacre Rocks State Park in Idaho. A 35 mm lens, F-16, 1/8 sec, tripod, and mirror lockup put this image on Kodachrome 25 film.">Open Image width="699" height="472"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-9250691121801..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="36-28. Shoshone Falls on the Snake River in Idaho. A 24 mm lens, F-8 at one sec exposure, tripod, and mirror lockup put this image on Kodachrome 25 film.">Open Image width="699" height="472"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-9250691121901..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="36-29. Pelican and Cormorant on Snake River. A 400 mm lens, F-8 at 1/125 sec, tripod, and mirror lockup put this image on Ectachrome 200 film.">Open Image width="699" height="472"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-9250691122001..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="36-30. Bear Valley Creek at high water near Stanley, Idaho. Unrecorded lens put this image on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="699" height="472"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-9250691122101..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="36-31. St. Maries River in Idaho. A 70 mm lens and F-8 put this image on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="699" height="472"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-9250691122201..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="36-32. Doe and fawn on banks of St. Maries River in Idaho. A 400 mm lens at F-8 put this image on Ectachrome 100S film.">Open Image width="699" height="472"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-9250691122301..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="36-33. Yaak Falls on the Yaak River in Montana. A 35 mm lens, F-22 at ½ sec, tripod, and mirror lockup put this image on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="699" height="466"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-9250691122401..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="36-34. Sheep Falls on the Falls River in Idaho. A 35 mm lens put this image on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="699" height="465"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-9250691122501..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="36-35. North Fork Shoshone River in Wyoming. A 28 mm lens at F-8 put this image on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="699" height="472"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-9250691122601..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="36-36. North Fork Flathead River in Montana. A 70 mm lens at F-5.6, polarizing filter, tripod, and mirror lockup put this image on Provia 100F film.">Open Image width="699" height="445"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-9250691122701..jpg"> height="29"/>height="27"/> tooltip="36-37. Stones and flower by the North Fork Flathead River in Montana. A 28 mm lens, F-22 at 1/8 sec, tripod, and mirror lockup put this image on Provia 100F film.">Open Image width="699" height="472"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-9250691122801..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="36-38. Belly River in Glacier National Park. A 28 mm lens at F-8, tripod, and mirror lockup put this image on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="699" height="472"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-9250691122901..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="36-39. Mule Deer crossing Douglas Creek in the Platte River Wilderness in the Medicine Bow Mountains of Wyoming. A 35 mm lens at F-8, tripod, and cable release put this image on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="699" height="472"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-9250691123001..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="36-40. Duck Creek near Pinedale, Wyoming. A 70 mm lens at F-11, tripod, and mirror lockup put this image on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="699" height="472"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-9250691123101..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="36-41. Colorado River in Arizona. A 300 mm lens, F-8, tripod, and electronic release put this image on Velvia 100 film. ">Open Image width="699" height="472"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-9250691123201..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="36-42. Bill Williams River (National Wildlife Area) in Arizona. A 17 mm lens at F-16, tripod, and electronic release put this image on Velvia 100 film.">Open Image width="699" height="472"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-9250691123301..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="36-43. Skunk River in Iowa. A 60 mm lens at F-11, 1/15 sec, tripod, and mirror lockup put this image on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="699" height="472"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-9250691123501..jpg"> height="29"/>height="28"/> tooltip="36-44. North Fork Payette River in Idaho. A 40 mm lens, F-8, polarizing filter, tripod, and mirror lockup put this image on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="456" height="680"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg582643411101.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="36-45. Ponderosa Pine on the banks of the Salmon River near Riggins, Idaho. A 35 mm lens, F-11, polarizing filter, tripod, and mirror lockup put this image on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="437" height="680"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg582643411201.jpg">Open Image width="27" height="42"/> tooltip="36-46. Middle Fork of Salmon River below Dagger Falls in Idaho. A 24 mm lens, F-8, 1/30 sec, tripod, and mirror lockup put this image on Kodachrome 25 film.">Open Image width="453" height="680"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg582643411501.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="36-47. Snake River west of Dedication Point in Idaho. A 35 mm lens, F-11, 1/60 sec, and tripod put this image on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="456" height="680"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg582643411601.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="36-48. Bruneau River in Idaho. A 60 mm lens, F-8, 1/60 sec, tripod, and mirror lockup put this image on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="456" height="680"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg582643411701.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="36-49. Lamar River in Yellowstone National Park. A 60 mm lens, F-8, tripod, and mirror lockup put this image on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="447" height="680"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg582643411801.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="36-50. Madison River in Montana. An 85 mm lens, f-8, 1/60 sec, tripod, and mirror lockup put this image on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="455" height="680"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg582643411901.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="36-51. Rock Creek in Wyoming. An 85 mm lens put this image on Provia 100F film.">Open Image width="457" height="680"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg5826434111001.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="36-52. Poudre River in Colorado. A 35 mm lens put this image on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="452" height="680"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg5826434111101.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="36-53. Skunk River in Iowa. A 60 mm lens, F-8, ¼ sec, tripod, and mirror lockup put this image on Velvia 50 film. ">Open Image width="459" height="680"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg5826434111201.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="56-01. PRECAMBRIAN ROCK -- Roadside geology sign at Bighorn Pass in Wyoming. Along with the images of these ancient rocks, a deep time history of the evolution of Earth's mineralogy will be presented. Scientists tell us that only about a dozen minerals or crystalline compounds were among the materials that formed our solar system about 4.6 billion years ago. The stuff of our solar system came from matter produced in supernovas. Humongous swirling masses of this supernova matter quickly fell inward producing our sun, but remnants of matter continued to rotate in a huge disk around the sun. This left-over matter gradually clumped together into larger bits of fist-sized fluff balls of primordial dust forming about 12 mineral-crystalline compounds. Photographed at Bighorn Pass in Wyoming with a 17 mm lens at F-16 on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg1448682007101..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="56-02. GRANITE GNEISS -- A closer view of Precambrian rock above the sign in the previous photo. During our solar system formation, our newly formed sun produced pulses of heat that melted and combined elements to produce crystals of 100's of new minerals. This early stage of mineral evolution produced iron-nickel alloys, sulfides, phosphides, and many oxides and silicates. Many of these minerals are found on Earth today in meteorites as chilled bits of molten rock called chondrules. The swirling disk of gas, dust, debris, and chondritic meteors accreted and clumped together in onion-like layers of minerals with a dense, metal-rich core forming planetesimals. Many collisions of meteors and planetesimals produced intense heat, and icy comet collisions added water resulting in chemical reactions producing more new minerals. By about 4 billion years ago our proto-earth was formed from much melting and solidifying of rocky crust, and weathering reactions with early oceans and atmosphere. Millions of years of many cycles of melting and solidifying of huge volumes of rock interacting with intense heat and reacting with water, eventually produced about 250 different mineral species. Photographed at Bighorn Pass in Wyoming with 60 mm lens at F-11/8 on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg1448682007201..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="56-03. GRANITE GNEISS -- Closer still of the rocks in the previous photo. At about 3.5 billion years ago the Earth is a bigger, hotter, and wetter rocky planet with volcanism pouring out basalt over its surface. The Earth now has enough inner heat to remelt basalt to form igneous rocks called granitoids. Eventually the familiar tan and gray granites were formed. These coarse-grained granites are a blend of minerals, one being quartz which is the silicon dioxide sand of beaches and feldspar which is the commonest of all minerals in the Earth's crust. At this time in the history of the Earth, the resulting rocks had more than 500 minerals, including giant crystals with lithium, beryllium, boron, cesium, and uranium. Photographed at Bighorn Pass in Wyoming with a 60 mm lens at F-11/8 on Velvia 50 film. ">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg1448682007301..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="56-04. GRANITE -- Closeup of the previous photo. Note the greenish patches on this rock are living lichens (see Fungi in the natural history section of website for description of lichens). Photographed with a 60 mm lens, 1:10 ratio, F-11/8, tripod, and mirror lockup on Velvia 50 film. The dynamic crust and mantle processes during the Earth's first 2 billion years produced about 1,500 different minerals. But on Earth today there are 4,400 different mineral species. Why did the number of minerals nearly triple? The answer is the evolution of life on Earth over 3.5 billion years ago. Most likely a process of natural accumulation (reproduction without inheritance) of organic molecules probably facilitated by adsorption to clay particles to form primitive replicating RNA-like viruses produced the initial phase in the evolution of life. This may have been the beginning stage of co-evolution of the geosphere and biosphere where minerals helped catalyze the formation of bio-molecules followed by the evolution of diverse microbes, archaebacteria, algae, protozoa, and multicellular animals. These coral and shelled animals growing carbonate skeletons forming massive limestone reefs and shells forming sedimentary deposits over deep time would eventually become the Earth's beautiful landscapes of mountains, cliffs, and canyons we see today. The newly evolved oxygen-producing photosynthesizing cyanobactria (blue-green bacteria/algae) formed stromatolites (descendants are still present today living in Australia) and gave rise to the Great Oxidation Event. By 2.2 billion years ago, atmospheric oxygen had risen to only about 1 percent of our present level today, but that was enough to transform surface mineralogy as the planet rusted. Black basalt covering the Earth turned red as soluble ions precipitated out of water, and ferrous iron of basalt minerals oxidized to hematite and other rust-red, ferric iron compounds. Once life formed and evolved reproduction with inheritance, evolution by natural selection through non-random accumulation of random inherited traits from replicating DNA molecules present in all living things diversified early life forms into an array of body plans that local environmental conditions winnowed into future evolution, and finally into present day diversity of species all over the Earth.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg1448682007401..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="56-05. GRANITE -- This is a photo of a large broken chunk of rock in the road cut at Bighorn Pass in Wyoming. Photographed with a 60 mm lens, F-11/8, 1:10 ratio, tripod, and mirror lockup on Velvia 50 film. And now, for the conclusion of a brief history of planet Earth's mineralogy. For about a billion years after the Great Oxidation Event, there is little evidence of any major happenings or transformation of mineralogical or biological interest. This deep time period has been termed the Intermediate Ocean, or more humorously, the Boring Billion. "Intermediate" of the Intermediate Ocean refers to the more oxygenated water at the ocean surface that gradually extended down to much greater depths to meet the anoxic depth zone. There appears to be very little increase in new life or mineral species during this time period. However, 800 million years ago, a remarkable, dramatic change began to transform planet Earth into a novel condition that never occurred before! At this time continents were gathered together by the equator as one large landmass called Rodinia. Over several million years, plate tectonics broke up this landmass producing much more coastline surface area resulting in greater rainfall causing rapid rock erosion, and these processes pulled heat-trapping carbon dioxide out of the atmosphere. White ice and snow masses expanded reflecting more sunlight away from the planet to further reducing heat from the sun. The more the snow and ice spread, the colder Earth's surface became. The Earth became a giant snowball for about 10 million years! Eventually the heat buildup from the planet's interior became so great that tremendous world-wide volcanism released thousands of tons of greenhouse gases to levels over 100 times more than today's levels. This warming and melting of snow and ice may have taken only a few hundred years to transform the Earth from snowball to hothouse. For the next 200 million years this snowball/hothouse cycle may have occurred from 2 to 4 times! These dramatic cycles had profound effects on surface mineral distribution, on weathering and erosion of rock, on production of fine-grained clay minerals, and on carbonate mineral precipitation into huge crystal fans covering the Earth's surface.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg1448682007501..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="56-06. GRANITE -- Closer still of the previous rock photo with a 60 mm lens, F-11/8, 1:6 ratio, tripod, and mirror lockup on Velvia 50 film. Note the small black spot in the lower right-hand corner.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg1448682007601..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="56-07. GRANITE -- Closeup of area of previous rock photo with black spot using a 60 mm lens, F-11/8, 1:2 ratio, tripod, and mirror lockup on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg1448682007701..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="56-08. GRANITE -- A 1:1 ratio photo of the previous rock photo showing detail of the black spot which appears to be a small gray-black foliose lichen growing on this rock (see Fungi in the natural history section of this website for a description of lichens). The mineral grains of coarse-grained granite range in size from 1/16 to ½ inch or more. The well-defined light tan grains appear to be feldspar about 1/16 inch in size. The larger irregular-shaped, clear-whitish grains appear to be quartz. Some of the much smaller black spots between the coarse grains may be mica, or they may be fragments of dark lichens. Photographed with a 60 mm lens, F-11/8, 1:1 ratio, tripod, and mirror lockup on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg1448682007801..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="56-09. GRANITE BOULDERS -- Granite boulders in the Humbug Spires Primitive Area south of Butte, Montana. Photographed with a 60 mm lens, F-11, tripod, and mirror lockup on Provia 100F film.">Open Image width="698" height="446"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg1448682007901..jpg"> height="29"/>height="27"/> tooltip="56-10. GRANITE BOULDERS -- Closeup of the surface of boulders in previous image. Note the tan, gray, white, and clear-whitish crystals of coarse-grained feldspar and quartz minerals. Some small black spots among the crystals may be mica minerals. The green patch, two grayish patches in the upper left of image, and the scattered large black spots are crustose lichens living on granite rock. Photographed with a macro 60 mm lens at F-11, tripod, and mirror lockup on Provia 100F film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg14486820071001..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="56-11. DIORITE AND METAMORPHIC ROCK -- The dark rock in the upper right is diorite and the angular, roundish patches of dark rock in the reddish-brown lower left are metamorphosed volcanic or sedimentary rock that magma intruded. The narrow white stripes in the dark diorite rock are intruded tonalite rock dikes discordant to the country rock. Radiometric dating puts this rock at 2.6 billion years old. Uplift and erosion brought these rocks to the Earth's surface north of Virginia, Minnesota at the Laurentian Divide which separates watersheds that flow north to the Arctic Ocean and watersheds flowing southeast through the Great Lakes to the Atlantic Ocean. Photographed with a 60 mm lens at F-11, tripod, and mirror lockup on Kodachrome 25 film. ">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg14486820071101..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="56-12. DIORITE AND TONALITE -- Closeup of white tonalite dike in dark diorite rock of the previous photo. Diorite is usually a darker rock than granite because diorite has very little quartz mineral. Quartz is about 3 percent, feldspar 75 percent, and dark amphibole minerals about 20 percent. Photographed with a 60 mm lens, F-8, tripod, and mirror lockup on Kodachrome 25 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg14486820071201..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="56-13. RED ROCK -- This unknown rock appears to be a very hard metamorphic rock. The red color is probably the result of the Great Oxidation Event when the Earth rusted oxidizing ferrous iron to ferric iron (hematite?). Photographed north of Lake Havasu City, Arizona near the Colorado River with a 28 mm lens at F-11 on Velvia 100 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg14486820071301..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="56-14. WIND RIVER CANYON -- This is a photo of the Wind River Canyon formation south of Thermopolis, Montana. The walls of this magnificent canyon are 3,000 ft. above the river bed. There is a low-angle thrust fault that dips beneath the mountain. Along this fault, Precambrian and Paleozoic rocks have overridden the deep synclinal axis of the Wind River Basin. Photographed with a 60 mm lens, F-11, polarized filter, tripod, and mirror lockup on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg14486820071401..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="56-15. PRECAMBRIAN GRANITE -- This is the roadside geology sign near Wind River, Wyoming. The precambrian 600 million years ago is just after the snowball/hothouse Earth cycle explained in the 3 billion year old granite-gneiss rock photo #56-05. Photographed with a 17 mm lens, F-16, polarized filter, and tripod on Astia 100F film. ">Open Image width="698" height="465"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg14486820071501..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="56-16. PRECAMBRIAN GRANITE -- A closer view of the granite rock across the road from the sign in the previous photo. Photographed with a 60 mm lens, F-8 in hazy sun on Astia 100F film. ">Open Image width="698" height="460"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg14486820071601..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="56-17. PRECAMBRIAN GRANITE -- An even closer view of previous photo of granite rock. Photographed with a 60 mm lens at F-8 in bright sun at 500/250 sec on Astia 100F film. ">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg14486820071701..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="56-18. PRECAMBRIAN GRANITE -- A closeup photo 5 ft. away from the granite rock in the previous photo with a 60 mm lens, F-8 in bright sun at 1000/500 sec on Astia 100F film. ">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg14486820071801..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="56-19. PRECAMBRIAN GRANITE -- A 1:4 ratio closeup of the previous photo of granite rock with a 60 mm lens at F-8 in overcast light, tripod, and mirror lockup on Astia 100F film. ">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg14486820071901..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="56-20. PRECAMBRIAN GRANITE -- A 1:1.6 ratio closeup of part of the upper left quadrant of the previous image of granite rock with a 60 mm lens at F-11/8 in overcast light, and mirror lockup on Astia 100F film. Note the major quantity of rather large crystal-like, purplish and whitish minerals of quartz and feldspar, and minor amounts of dark mica, amphibole, or pyroxene. ">Open Image width="698" height="462"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg14486820074201..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="56-21. BASALT LAVA -- A photo of the lave fields at Craters of the Moon in Idaho. The source of these massive basalt lava fields is a 62 mile long crack in the Earth's crust know as The Great Rift. There were about 60 lava flows beginning about 15,000 yrs. ago and ending with the most recent eruption about 2,000 yrs. ago. Scientists predict another eruption could occur within the next 100 yrs! There are a few areas of higher ground that became isolated islands after the lava flowed around them. These island patches of vegetation are called "Kipukas". Today, these islands in a "sea" of lava support relic stands of sagebrush, native bunchgrass, and 700 yr. old juniper trees. Note the small green plant growing from a crack on the north side of a large chunk of lichen-covered lava rock. It is pretty remarkable to see a green plant growing in a barren lava field, considering that summer soil temperatures often exceed 150 degrees F., and the very thin soil produced by weathering and lichens in a dry climate does not hold moisture for long. Photographed with a 24 mm lens, F-5.6 at 11:30 AM on Velvia 50 film. ">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg14486820074301..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="56-22. BASALT ROCK -- This appears to be Owyhee Basalt in the Owyhee upland near Battle Mountain in southeastern Oregon. Photographed with a 17 mm lens at F5.6 on Provia 100F film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg14486820072201..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="56-23. BASALT ROCK -- Basalt rock in the Snake River Birds of Prey Area near the Snake River Canyon. Photographed with a 35 mm lens at F-8 on Velvia 50 film. ">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg14486820072301..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="56-24. MELON GRAVEL -- This is a photo of a boulder field, known as Mellon gravel, near Celebration Point in the Snake River Canyon south of Kuna, Idaho. The enormous discharge of water from the Bonneville Flood may have moved these boulders down stream from canyon walls near Twin Falls, Idaho about 14 miles away! About 30,000 yrs. ago Lake Bonneville broke loose and cut through and down 300 ft. of shale, limestone, and dolomite at what is now Red Rock Pass. The maximum discharge (15 million cfs) was about 3 times the average Amazon River flow and lasted a few days, but discharge continued for about a year before the huge lake was completely drained. Photographed with 35 mm lens, F-8, tripod, and mirror lockup on Velvia 50 film. ">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg14486820072401..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="56-25. LAVA TUBE -- this is a photo of a large lava tube fragment in the Snake River Canyon near Dedication Point south of Kuna, Idaho. During volcanic eruptions, lava tends to flow in a few main streams. After many days of flow, a cooler outer top and side of the lava stream may form a crust and eventually the hot liquid lava is flowing inside a tube of cooled solidified lava crust. When the eruption stops, the insulation of the crust-formed lava tube allows the hot liquid lava inside to drain out and only the lava tube remains. In time, the lava tube may be broken up into fragments. Photographed with a 24 mm lens, F-11, tripod, and mirror lockup on Kodachrome 25 film. ">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg14486820072501..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="56-26. UNKNOWN ROCK? -- Photo of a large unusual looking rock near the Bruneau River. Photographed at 5 ft. with a 60 mm lens, F-11, tripod, and mirror lockup on Kodachrome 25 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg14486820072601..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="56-27. SEDIMENTARY BRECCIA? -- Appears to be formed by cementation of very coarse, angular fragments of rubble. Photographed in the Snake River Canyon near Dedication Point with a 24 mm lens, F-11, tripod, and mirror lockup on Kodachrome 25 film. ">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg14486820072701..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="56-28. BASALT ROCK? -- This rock was photographed beside the Blue Bunch Mountain trail above Bear Valley Creek in Idaho. Photographed with a 60 mm lens, F-8 on Kodachrome 25 film. ">Open Image width="698" height="450"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg14486820072801..jpg"> height="29"/>height="27"/> tooltip="56-31. PETRIFIED WOOD -- Photographed in the same area as the previous photo with a 28 mm lens at F-8 on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg14486820073001..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="56-32. SANDSTONE -- Photo of cemented gravel in Dakota Sandstone in a quarry near Springfield, Nebraska with a 60 mm lens, F-11, tripod, and mirror lockup in overcast light on Provia 100F film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg14486820073101..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="56-33. CONGLOMERATE? -- Photographed on the banks of the North Fork Flathead River in Glacier National Park in Montana with a 28 mm lens, F-11, tripod, and mirror lockup in overcast light on Provia 100F film. ">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg14486820073201..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="56-34. GNEISS ROCK -- This is a gneiss (pronounced nice) rock which is a metamorphosed (changed form) rock. Deep burial of sandy shale or sandstone with intense pressure and heat will transform sedimentary rock into metamorphic rock. In time, water, carbon dioxide, and oxygen will be pressed out of the sedimentary rock changing it into mica minerals. Even with this change, gneiss rock still preserves the banding produced by it water-laid sedimentary origin. A 60 mm lens, F-8, prop hand-held at 250/125 sec in bright sunlight beside the Poudre River in Colorado put this image on Kodachrome 25 film. ">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg14486820073301..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="56-35. QUARTZITE ROCK -- A water-eroded, smooth rock in Douglas Creek in the Platte River Wilderness of the Snowy Range Mountains in Wyoming. Quartzites are among the hardest of all rocks. With the intense pressure in deep burial, metamorphism of sandstone welds sand grains so tightly together that any fracture of this rock breaks across the grains rather than between the grains as in sandstone. Photographed with a 60 mm lens, F-8, tripod, and mirror lockup, in bright overcast light, on Kodachrome 25 film. ">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg14486820073401..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="56-36. UNKNOWN ROCK? -- Photo of a rock on the south shore of Crane Lake in northern Minnesota (a more distant image of this rock is also available). A 60 mm lens, hand-held, put this image on Kodachrome 25 film. ">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg14486820073501..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="56-37. SHERMAN GRANITE -- An outcrop in the Vedauwoo representing 1.4 billion year old granite rock. The uplift of the Laramie Mountains began about 70 million years ago and today after erosion of younger rock and sediment, the hard granite composed of large crystals of quartz, orthoclase, plagioclase, and some mica are now exposed. The unique rounded form of these rocks is mostly from wind erosion. Photographed in the Vedauwoo Recreation Area between Cheyenne and Laramie, Wyoming with an 85 mm lens at F-8 on Astia 100 film. ">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg14486820073601..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="56-38. WHITE ROCK? -- Unknown marble-like white rock high above trail along Rock Creek south of Arlington, Wyoming. Photographed in the proposed Rock Creek Wilderness area with a 300 mm lens, F-5.6, and tripod on Provia 100F film. ">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg14486820074101..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="56-39. GABLE MOUNTAIN -- A late afternoon photo of Gable Mountain in Glacier National Park. Note the large, fan of weathered rock at the base of this mountain. Photographed with an 85 mm lens,j F-8, and tripod on Velvia 50 film. ">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg14486820074001..jpg"> height="29"/>height="28"/> tooltip="56-29. STRATIGRAPHIC SEQUENCE -- A sequence of a section of the Snake River Canyon wall showing dark gray water deposited sediments and the bottom and yellowish-tan deposits over a short period of time from violent volcanic explosions. Photographed with a 17 mm lens at F-11 on Ectachrome 100G film.">Open Image width="459" height="680"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg941855801101.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="56-30l. SEDIMENTARY BRECCIA -- This rock appears to be formed by the cementation of large, coarse, angular fragments of rubble. Photographed in Sheep Mesa near Blackwater Creek in the Washakie Wilderness of Shosone National Forest in Wyoming. Photographed with an 85 mm lens at F-8 and tripod on Velvia 50 film. ">Open Image width="459" height="680"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg941855801201.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="56-40. GRANITE MONOLITH -- This is a popular rock climbing area and this monolith is known as "The Wedge" in the Humbug Spires Primitive Area south of Butte, Montana. Photographed with a 105 mm lens, F-8, tripod, and mirror lockup on Astia 100 film. ">Open Image width="454" height="680"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg941855801501.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="56-41. SEDIMENTARY BRECCIA -- This rock appears to be formed by cementation of coarse, angular fragments of rubble. Photographed in Sheep Mesa near Blackwater Creek in the Washakie Wilderness of Shosone National Forest in Wyoming. Photographed with a 60 mm lens, F-8, and tripod on Velvia 50 film. ">Open Image width="455" height="680"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg941855801601.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="56-42. FUCOIDAL QUARTZITE -- This rock is the cemented sand of an ancient beach deposit in the early Ordovician about 400 million years ago. The irregular branching structures in the rock are castings, filled burrows, and trails of marine worms. Photographed near Logan Canyon, Utah with a 60 mm lens, F-8, 1:7 ratio, and tripod on Velvia 50 film. ">Open Image width="459" height="680"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg941855801701.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="56-43. SHERMAN GRANITE -- A closer view of wind-sculpted, rounded hard granite in the Vedauwoo in Wyoming. Photographed near the Blair Picnic Area in the Vedauwoo Recreation Area between Cheyenne and Laramie, Wyoming with a 60 mm lens, F-8, tripod, and electronic release on Velvia 50 film. ">Open Image width="459" height="680"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg941855801801.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="29. WINTER BARN -- This photo was taken of an old barn on the Rulo Bluffs Preserve in southeast Nebraska during the winter of 1996. The old barns of our country farm heritage are vanishing from America's landscape. Two years after this photo was taken, this old barn was demolished. The 35-135 zoom lens at 35mm F-8 recorded this image on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="569" height="380"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg1144603078101..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="30. DOWNED SNAG -- Fresh snow and winter sun highlighted this fallen old tree in the Rulo Bluffs Preserve in southeast Nebraska. The 24mm lens at F-8 was used for this image on Velvia 50 film. ">Open Image width="566" height="379"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg1144603078201..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="31. BEAVER LODGE -- A lone duck swims through early morning mist in front of a beaver lodge on Pelton Creek in the Snowy Range of Wyoming. The 400mm telephoto at F-11 on a tripod was used for this image on Fujichrome 100 film. ">Open Image width="698" height="461"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg1144603078301..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="32. WINTER FROST -- Bright, overcast light around the heavy frost coating a Willow tree produced this image in the wetlands of the Squaw Creek National Wildlife Refuge in northwest Missouri. The 400mm telephoto at F-11 on a tripod and Fujichrome 100 film were used for this photo. ">Open Image width="690" height="483"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg1144603078401..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="32-1. SNOW ON BUSH -- Midday, overcast light presented a labyrinth of Choke Cherry bush twigs piled high with thick, fresh snow. The 35-135 zoom lens at 40mm, F-11 was used for this image on Kodachrome 25 film. ">Open Image width="693" height="483"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg1144603078501..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="33. MAMMATUS CLOUDS -- Late afternoon, threatening mammatus clouds hanging over Pine Bluffs in Wyoming offered this scenic view. The 35-135 zoom lens at 35mm, F-11 was used for this image on Velvia 50 film. ">Open Image width="689" height="483"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg1144603078601..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="34. WINTER MORNING MIST -- Subdued, early morning light produced this somber view of wetlands habitat in the Squaw Creek National Wildlife Refuge in northwest Missouri. The 35-135 zoom lens at 70mm, F-8 revealed this image on Velvia 50 film. ">Open Image width="698" height="459"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg1144603078701..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="35. COTTONWOOD SUNRISE -- The early morning sun behind a large cottonwood tree produced a striking contrast of light and dark in the Rainwater Basin of Nebraska. The 400mm telephoto at F-8 on a tripod put this image on kodachrome 25 film. ">Open Image width="593" height="473"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg1144603078801..jpg"> height="29"/>height="34"/> tooltip="37. BADLANDS -- Morning sun brought this section of "the wall" into clear view in the wilderness area of Badlands National Park in South Dakota. In this semiarid region natural erosion caused by infrequent rain produces a network of narrow ravines separated by sharp ridges and pinnacles. The 35-105 zoom lens at 105mm, F-8 put this image on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="698" height="481"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg1144603078901..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="39. RED BARN -- Hazy, afternoon sun in winter brightened up this barn in southeast Nebraska. The 35-135 zoom lens at 60mm, F-8 and tripod were used for this image on Kodachrome 25 film. ">Open Image width="689" height="483"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg11446030781001..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="40. FOOTBRIDGE -- Parallel lines characterize this angle of view of a footbridge in Kathryn Albertson Park in Boise, Idaho. The 35-135 zoom lens at 35mm, F-11 was used for this image on velvia 50 film. ">Open Image width="691" height="483"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg11446030781101..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="37-1. QUARTZITE CLIFFS -- A mid-morning view of metamorphic rock near Libby Flats observation site in the "Snowy Range" of the Medicine Bow Mountains in Wyoming. The metamorphism of this sandstone welds the sand grains so firmly together that fractures break across the grains. Quartzites are among the hardest of all rocks. The 60mm lens at F-11 put these cliffs on Kodachrome 25 film.">Open Image width="690" height="483"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg11446030781201..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="39-1. COUNTRY FARMSTEAD -- Early morning sunlight on a farmstead in the countryside of rural northern Idaho revealed newly painted farm buildings in this image. The 35-135 zoom at 135mm and F-11 recorded this landscape on Velvia 50 film. ">Open Image width="693" height="483"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg11446030781301..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="40-1. YUCCA SANDHILLS -- These dunes and flowers are magical in the early morning just after sunrise. The Sandhills in the Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge are like a wilderness area and they cover about a quarter of the state of Nebraska. Deer and pronghorn eat the flowers. Native Americans used the pointed tips of the yucca leaves for needles and made rope from the leaf fibers. The 28 mm lens gave close-up depth of field at F-16 for this image on Provia F100 film.">Open Image width="689" height="483"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg11446030781401..jpg"> height="29"/>height="29"/> tooltip="E067. Aspens in Rocky Mountains of Glacier National Park">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg329621069101..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0671. Grand Tetons National Park Sign (Image from lens and film unknown)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg3296210694301..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0672. Grand Tetons in Winter (Image from 105 mm lens, F-5.6, 1/8 sec, tripod, and mirror-lockup on Kodachrome 25 film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg3296210694401..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0673. Foothills in Winter South of Jackson, Wyoming (Image from 105 mm lens F-8, 1/15 sec, gradual filter, tripod and mirror-lockup on Velvia 50 film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg3296210694501..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0674. Palisade Range near Big Elk Creek in Wyoming (Image from 135 mm lens, F-8, tripod, and mirror-lockup on Velvia 50 film)">Open Image width="698" height="466"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg3296210694601..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0675. Absaroka-Bear tooth Wilderness in Montana (Image from 60 mm lens, F-11, polarized filter, tripod, and mirror-lockup on Velvia 50 film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg3296210694701..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0677. Cameron Pass Mountains East of Walden, Colorado (Image from 60 mm lens, F-11, polarized filter, 1/8 sec, tripod, and mirror-lockup on Velvia 50 film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg3296210694801..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0678. Mount Borah in Idaho (Image from 70 mm lens, F-11, polarized filter, 1/15 sec, tripod, and mirror-lockup on Velvia 50 film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg3296210694901..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0679. Wilderness Lost Sign (Image from 400 mm lens, F-5.6, tripod, and mirror-lockup on Provia 100F film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg3296210695001..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0680. Scenic View from Pistol Creek Ridge in Frank Church River-of-no-Return Wilderness (Image from 85 mm lens, F-11, polarized filter, 1/15 sec, tripod, and mirror-lockup on Velvia 50 film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg3296210695101..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0681. Scenic View from Pistol Creek Ridge After Sunset (Image from same location as photo E0680 with a 120 mm lens, F-8, 1/15 sec, tripod, and mirror-lockup on Velvia 50 film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg3296210695201..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0682. Bear and Cleveland Mountains in Glacier National Park (Image from 28 mm lens, F-11, polarized filter, and tripod on Velvia 50 film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg3296210695301..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="39-1. COUNTRY FARMSTEAD -- Early morning sunlight on a farmstead in the countryside of rural northern Idaho revealed newly painted farm buildings in this image. The 35-135 zoom at 135mm and F-11 recorded this landscape on Velvia 50 film. ">Open Image width="693" height="483"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg329621069201..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E015. Quartzite cliffs and meadow near Libby Flats in Snowy Range of Wyoming">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg329621069301..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E016. Sunrise quartzite cliffs near Libby Flats in Snowy Range of Wyoming">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg329621069401..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="37-1. QUARTZITE CLIFFS -- A mid-morning view of metamorphic rock near Libby Flats observation site in the "Snowy Range" of the Medicine Bow Mountains in Wyoming. The metamorphism of this sandstone welds the sand grains so firmly together that fractures break across the grains. Quartzites are among the hardest of all rocks. The 60mm lens at F-11 put these cliffs on Kodachrome 25 film. ">Open Image width="690" height="483"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg329621069501..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E039. Crack in granite rock">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg329621069601..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0139. Granite Rock closeup (Image from 60 mm lens, F-8, 1:4 ratio, 1/500 sec, bright sun, tripod, and mirror-lockup on Astia 100 film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg3296210698001..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E013. Indian Paintbrush by snag in Lamar Valley of Yellowstone National Park">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg329621069701..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0131. Bear Valley Creek in Idaho (Image from 60 mm lens, F-8, ¼ sec, tripod, and mirror lockup on Kodachrome 25 film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg3296210697201..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0132. Shooting Stars (Image from 60 mm lens, F-32, tripod, and mirror-lockup on Velvia 50 film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg3296210697301..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0133. Shooting Stars up Close (Image from 60 mm lens, F-32, tripod, and mirror-lockup on Velvia 50 film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg3296210697401..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0361. Threatening Clouds (Image from 35 mm lens, F-5.6, 1/30 sec, and tripod on Provia 100F film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg3296210695701..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0362. Mammatus Clouds over Pine Bluffs, Wyoming (Image from 35 mm lens, F-11 and tripod on Velvia 50 film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg3296210695801..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0363. Clouds over Hills (Image from 105 mm lens, F-8, 1/8 sec, and tripod on Provia 100F film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg3296210695901..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E036. Clouds over Wyoming">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg329621069801..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0221. Sunflower County Road (Image from 60 mm lens, F-5.6, polarized filter, 1/250 sec, tripod, and mirror-lockup on Astia 100 film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg3296210696701..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0222. Sand Hills of Nebraska (Image from 200 mm lens, F-11, 1/8 sec, and tripod on Velvia 50 film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg3296210696801..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0223. June Grass in Sand Hills (Image from 28 mm lens, F-22, and tripod on Provia 100F film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg3296210696901..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0224. Yuccas and Sand Hills of Nebraska (Image from 28 mm lens, F-8, and tripod on Provia 100F film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg3296210697001..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E022. Clouds over sandhills in Nebraska">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg329621069901..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E017. Full bloom yuccas in sandhills of Nebraska">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg3296210691001..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="40-1. YUCCA SANDHILLS -- These dunes and flowers are magical in the early morning just after sunrise. The Sandhills in the Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge are like a wilderness area and they cover about a quarter of the state of Nebraska. Deer and pronghorn eat the flowers. Native Americans used the pointed tips of the yucca leaves for needles and made rope from the leaf fibers. The 28 mm lens gave close-up depth of field at F-16 for this image on Provia F100 film. ">Open Image width="689" height="483"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg3296210691101..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E018. Early morning rolling sandhills in Nebraska">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg3296210691201..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E019. Sandhills yuccas panorama #1 (position to left of #2)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg3296210691301..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E020. Sandhills yuccas panorama #2 (position between # 1 and # 3)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg3296210691401..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E021. Sandhills yuccas panorama #3 (position to right of #2)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg3296210691501..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E014. Rolling hills north of Boise, Idaho">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg3296210691601..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E011. Shoshone Falls on Snake River in Idaho">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg3296210691701..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0371. Scenic State Park in Minnesota (Image from 60 mm lens, F-8, and tripod on Velvia 50 film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg3296210696601..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="37. BADLANDS -- Morning sun brought this section of "the wall" into clear view in the wilderness area of Badlands National Park in South Dakota. In this semiarid region natural erosion caused by infrequent rain produces a network of narrow ravines separated by sharp ridges and pinnacles. The 35-105 zoom lens at 105mm, F-8 put this image on Velvia 50 film. ">Open Image width="698" height="481"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg3296210691801..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0372. Scott's Bottoms near Green River, Wyoming (Image from 60 mm lens, F-32, tripod, and mirror lockup on Fuji 100 film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg3296210697101..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0684. Winter Cattails in the Squaw Creek National Wildlife Refuge in Missouri (Image from 135 mm lens, F-4.5, tripod, and mirror-lockup on Velvia 50 film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg3296210695501..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="34. WINTER MORNING MIST -- Subdued, early morning light produced this somber view of wetlands habitat in the Squaw Creek National Wildlife Refuge in northwest Missouri. The 35-135 zoom lens at 70mm, F-8 revealed this image on Velvia 50 film. ">Open Image width="698" height="459"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg3296210691901..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0685. Wetlands Sunrise in Tamarac National Wildlife Refuge in Minnesota (Image from 28 mm lens, F-11, tripod, and mirror-lockup on Velvia 50 film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg3296210695601..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0683. Early Morning Beaver Pond on Pelton Creek in the Snowy Range of Wyoming (Image from 105 mm lens, F-11, 1/8 sec, tripod, and mirror-lockup on Kodachrome 25 film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg3296210695401..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="31. BEAVER LODGE -- A lone duck swims through early morning mist in front of a beaver lodge on Pelton Creek in the Snowy Range of Wyoming. The 400mm telephoto at F-11 on a tripod was used for this image on Fujichrome 100 film. ">Open Image width="698" height="461"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg3296210692001..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0231. Before Sunrise (Image from 28 mm lens, F-8, 1/8 sec, and tripod on Provia 100F film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg3296210696001..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0232. Sunrise near Rock Springs, Wyoming (Image from 135 mm lens, F-8, 1/15 sec, and tripod on Kodachrome 25 film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg3296210696101..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0233. Cottonwood Sunrise (Image from 400 mm lens, F-8, 1/1000 sec, tripod and mirror-lockup on Kodachrome 25 film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg3296210696201..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E066. Sunrise and Sandhill Cranes over Platte River in Nebraska">Open Image width="698" height="462"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg3296210692101..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0234. Sunset over Lake Superior (Image from 400 mm lens and tripod on Velvia 50 film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg3296210696301..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0235. After Sunset (Image from 85 mm at F-4 on Provia 100F film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg3296210696401..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0236. Clouds after Sunset (Image from 60 mm lens at F-5.6 on Velvia 50 film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg3296210696501..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E023. Sunset on sandhills lake in Nebraska">Open Image width="698" height="470"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg3296210692201..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E064. Big Bluestem grass sunrise">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg3296210692301..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E065. Big Bluestem grass moonrise">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg3296210692401..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E011a. Open Range Grass">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg3296210692501..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E009a. Grass Sculptured Sand">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg3296210692601..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E010a. Sand Dune in Red Desert">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg3296210692701..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0101. Begonias on Sand Dune in Red Desert (Image from 85 mm lens, F-8, polarized filter, tripod, and mirror lockup on Velvia 50 film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg3296210692901..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0102. Avocet Over Vernal Pool in Red Desert (Image from 85 mm lens, F-8, and tripod on Provia 100F film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg3296210693001..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0103. Ripples on Sand Dune in Red Desert (Image from 85 mm lens, F-8, 1/60 sec, tripod, and mirror lockup on Velvia 50 film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg3296210693101..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0104. Sunset Light on Sand Dune (Image from 35 mm lens, F-11, 1/15 sec, tripod, and mirror lockup on Velvia 50 film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg3296210693201..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0114. Mesquite Sand Dunes (Image from Death Valley National Park with a 300 mm lens, F-5.6, polarizing filter, 7:30 AM, tripod, and electronic release on Provea 100F film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg3296210698301..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0134. Continental Peak in Red Desert (Image from 85 mm lens, F-8, tripod, and mirror-lockup on Velvia 50 film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg3296210697501..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0135. On Top of Oregon Butte in Red Desert (Image from 17 mm lens, F-16, 1/8 sec, tripod, and mirror-lockup on Velvia 50 film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg3296210697601..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0136. Adobe Town in Red Desert of Wyoming (Image from 28 mm lens, F-11, polarized filter, tripod, and Mirror-lockup on Velvia 50 film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg3296210697701..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0137. Adobe Town Stones (Image from 17 mm lens, F-16, polarized filter, tripod, and mirror-lockup on Velvia 50 film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg3296210697801..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0138. Adobe Town Stones Closeup (Image from 35 mm lens, F-11, tripod, and mirror-lockup on Velvia 50 film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg3296210697901..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0105. Bulrush on Mud Cracks (Image from 35 mm lens, F-11, polarized filter, tripod, and electronic release on Velvia 50 film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg3296210693301..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0106. Mud Cracks (Image from 35 mm lens, F-11, tripod, and electronic release on Velvia 50 film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg3296210693401..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0107. Mud Cracks (Image from 60 mm lens, F-8, tripod, and electronic release on Velvia 50 film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg3296210693501..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0108. Mud Cracks (Image from 35 mm lens, F-11, tripod, and electronic release on Velvia 50 film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg3296210693601..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0109. Mud Cracks (Image from 60 mm lens, F-8, tripod, and electronic release on Velvia 50 film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg3296210693701..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0110. Clam Shell and Bird Tracks on Mud Cracks (Image from 60 mm lens, F-8, 1/60 sec, tripod, and electronic release on Velvia 50 film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg3296210693801..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0111. Clam Shell and Raccoon Tracks on Mud Cracks (Image from 60 mm lens, F-8, tripod, and electronic release on Velvia 50 film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg3296210693901..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0112. Clam shell in Mud Crack (Image from 60 mm lens, F-8, 5 ft., and tripod on Velvia 50 film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg3296210694101..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0113. Clam in Dried Mud by Green Plant (Image from 500 mm lens, F-5.6, 1/125 sec, 15 ft., tripod, and electronic release on Velvia 50 film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg3296210694201..jpg"> height="29"/>height="28"/> tooltip="36. NORTH FORK PAYETTE RIVER -- Polarized, bright sunlight enriched the scenic view of this whitewater river north of Banks, Idaho. This river has long stretches of continuous class V whitewater. The 35-135 zoom lens at 40mm F-8 with linear polarizer was used for this image on Velvia 50 film. ">Open Image width="490" height="704"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg1599218168101.jpg">Open Image width="29" height="42"/> tooltip="38. TWO WINDMILLS -- An old wood and new metal windmill side by side in rural Nebraska. The 35-135 zoom lens at 105mm, F-5.6 was used for this image on Kodachrome 25 film.">Open Image width="490" height="706"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg1599218168201.jpg">Open Image width="29" height="42"/> tooltip="E0146. Lizard Tracks in Sand (Image from 28 mm lens, F-11, tripod, and electronic release on Provia 100F film)">Open Image width="477" height="707"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg7051748571301.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="E0140. Tangled Rebar (Image from 28 mm lens at F-8, 1/30 sec, tripod and mirror-lockup on Provia 100F film)">Open Image width="477" height="707"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg705174857801.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="E0141. Reflections (Image from 35 mm lens, F-8, 1/30 sec, tripod, and mirror-lockup on Velvia 50 film)">Open Image width="477" height="707"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg705174857401.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="E0145. Water Falls in Costa Rica (Image from Rara Avis with a 60 mm lens, F-8, tripod, and electronic release on Provia 100F film)">Open Image width="477" height="707"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg7051748571401.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="E0142. Rainbow Over Forest and Lake (Image from 28 mm lens at F-8 on Velvia 50 film)">Open Image width="477" height="707"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg705174857501.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="E0143. Aspen in Vedauwoo Rocks (Image from 85 mm lens, F-8, tripod, and mirror-lockup on Velvia 50 film)">Open Image width="477" height="707"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg705174857601.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="E0144. Fucoidal Quartzite Rock (Image from 60 mm lens, F-8, tripod, and mirror-lockup on Velvia 50 film)">Open Image width="477" height="707"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg705174857701.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="36. NORTH FORK PAYETTE RIVER -- Polarized, bright sunlight enriched the scenic view of this whitewater river north of Banks, Idaho. This river has long stretches of continuous class V whitewater. The 35-135 zoom lens at 40mm F-8 with linear polarizer was used for this image on Velvia 50 film. ">Open Image width="490" height="704"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg705174857101.jpg">Open Image width="29" height="42"/> tooltip="E063. Big Bluestem grass">Open Image width="477" height="707"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg705174857201.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="E0631. Big Bluestem Grass Sunrise (Image from 400 mm lens, F-16, 1/1000 sec, and tripod on Provia 100F film)">Open Image width="477" height="707"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg705174857301.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="E037. Wind sculptured snow">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg546016329101..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E038. Snow drift">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg546016329201..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0381. Tree and Shadow on Snow Drift (Image from 28 mm lens, F-22, 1/125 sec, tripod, and mirror lockup on Provia 100F film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg546016329501..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0382. Tree Shadow on Snow Drift (Image from 28 mm lens, F-16, 1/250 sec, tripod, and mirror lockup on Provia 100F film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg546016329601..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0383. Snow Drift and Bush (Image from 35 mm lens, F-11, 1/15 sec, polarized filter, tripod, and mirror lockup on Kodachrome 25 film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg546016329701..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E008a. Frost (Image from 60 mm lens, F-32, 1:4 ratio, and flash on Velvia 50 film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg5460163291201..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E051. Iced leaf in snow">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg546016329301..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="32-1. SNOW ON BUSH -- Midday, overcast light presented a labyrinth of Choke Cherry bush twigs piled high with thick, fresh snow. The 35-135 zoom lens at 40mm, F-11 was used for this image on Kodachrome 25 film. ">Open Image width="693" height="483"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg546016329401..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0384. Coyote Tracks in Fresh Snow (Image from 60 mm lens and tripod on Velvia 50 film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg546016329901..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0385. Duck Tracks in Fresh Snow (Image from 60 mm lens, F-5.6, and warm filter on Kodachrome 25 film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg5460163291001..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0386. Deer Mouse Tracks in Fresh Snow (Image from 60 mm lens on Velvia 50 film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg5460163291101..jpg"> height="29"/>height="28"/> tooltip="E049. Rabbit tracks in snow">Open Image width="478" height="708"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg794155842101.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="E0387. Fresh Cottontail Rabbit Tracks in Snow (Image from 35 mm lens on Velvia 50 film)">Open Image width="463" height="708"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg794155842301.jpg">Open Image width="27" height="42"/> tooltip="E050. Coyote tracks in snow">Open Image width="474" height="705"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg794155842201.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="E0388. Fresh Coyote Track in Snow (Image from 60 mm lens, F-11, mid-day light, 1/500 sec, 1:6 ratio, and tripod on Provia 100F film)">Open Image width="467" height="708"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg794155842401.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="E0389. Little Bird Tracks Walking in Fresh Snow (Image from 60 mm lens, F-11, mid-morning light, warm filter, tripod, and mirror lockup on Velvia 50 film)">Open Image width="470" height="708"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg794155842501.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="E0390. Little Bird Tracks Walking in Fresh Snow (Image from 35 mm lens, F-16, early-morning light, warm filter, tripod, and mirror lockup on Kodachrome 25 film)">Open Image width="473" height="708"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg794155842601.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="E0391. Little Bird Tracks Hopping in Fresh Snow (Image from 60 mm lens, F-8, mid-morning light, tripod, and mirror lockup on Kodachrome 25 film)">Open Image width="456" height="708"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg794155842701.jpg">Open Image width="27" height="42"/> tooltip="E0392. Beaver Tracks in Fresh Snow (Image from 28 mm lens, F-11, 1/500 sec, 3 ½ ft., mid-day bright overcast light, tripod, and mirror lockup on Provia 100F film)">Open Image width="478" height="708"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg794155842801.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="E0393. Mink Tracks in Fresh Snow (Image from 28 mm lens, F-16, 1/125 sec, 5 ft., tripod, and mirror lockup on Provia 100F film)">Open Image width="478" height="708"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg794155842901.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="E0394. Snow Covered Shrub (Image from 24 mm lens, F-11, tripod, and mirror lockup on Kodachrome 25 film)">Open Image width="478" height="708"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg7941558421201.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="47. RABID WOLF SPIDER -- Up close and personal in the face of a Rabid Wolf Spider guarding its egg case. Despite its name, this spider is harmless to people. About 3,000 species of wolf spiders are known and they are a large proportion of the spider population in the Arctic and on high mountains. It has eight eyes. The 60mm lens, F-32 at 1:1 ratio with extension tubes was used with flash for this 2x life size image on Velvia 50 film. ">Open Image width="691" height="483"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-1233698525101..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="47-1. BLACK-AND-YELLOW ARGIOPE -- This female garden spider was resting on the purple flower of a Tall Thistle with a skipper in the background. When disturbed, it drops suddenly to the ground and hides. The 35-135 zoom lens with extension tube at 105mm, F-11/8 and fill flash produced this image on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="686" height="483"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-1233698525201..jpg"> height="29"/>height="30"/> tooltip="47-2. DEWY SPIDER WEB -- Morning sun provided backlight to transmit a sparkle to this dew covered web with a Banded Argiope resting in the center. They always hang head down in the center of the orb web. Web silk is a fibrous protein in liquid form that hardens by polymerizing as it is pulled out of the spider's spinnerets to make the web. Silk may stretch 1/4 its length before breaking and is the strongest natural fiber known. The 60mm lens recorded this image on Fujichrome 100 film. ">Open Image width="686" height="483"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-1233698525301..jpg"> height="29"/>height="30"/> tooltip="47-3. FEMALE CELLAR SPIDER -- This is a daddy-long-legs spider that has unusually long, slender legs with flexible ends. Its body is only about 0.3 inches (8mm) long. It is cosmopolitan, one of the most common spiders found in home basements and cellars all over the world. Flash and F-32 at 1:1 ratio give full side view of this Long-bodied Cellar Spider with her silk-rapped prey. The 60mm lens was used for this image on Velvia 50 film. ">Open Image width="592" height="472"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-1233698525401..jpg"> height="29"/>height="33"/> tooltip="47-4. MALE CELLAR SPIDER -- Cellar spiders hang upside down in a loose web and shake so rapidly when alarmed that both spider and web blur and seem to disappear. Flash and F-32 at 1:1 ratio gave this top view of the carapace and abdomen design pattern, and caught this Long-bodied Cellar Spider cleaning his leg. The 60mm lens was used for this image on Kodachrome 25 film. ">Open Image width="590" height="472"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-1233698525501..jpg"> height="29"/>height="34"/> tooltip="47-5. LONG-BODIED CELLAR SPIDER (side view of male) -- There are a little over 1000 species of cellar spiders in the Pholcidae family and about 20 species are in North America. The first record for science of the cellar spider was by a Swiss entomologist in 1775. Their extensive web building can be seen under kitchen cabinets, under sinks, in dark corners, behind doors, in closets and in house crawl spaces. They hang upside down in their highly irregular patterned web, and when disturbed, they rapidly shake their body so violently that they become a blur difficult to see in the web. If disturbed too much, they drop down out of the web to escape. An insect caught in the web becomes more entangled when the spider detects the vibration and shakes the web. The cellar spider then moves onto the prey to rap it in silk to immobilize it ( see silk-rapped prey in #47-3). They easily catch and eat other spiders (even larger than themselves), and when food is scarce, even other cellar spiders. Because of the unusually long, thin legs(about 6 times their body length), they are called daddy longlegs spiders. However, cellar spiders are unrelated to another arthropod, that is not a spider, and it is also called daddy longlegs (see #47-47 Brown Daddy Longlegs). Pholcus phalangioides (about 1/3 inch body length) is commonly found in human-built dwellings and caves all over the Earth. Photographed in a home basement with a 60 mm lens, 1:1 ratio, F-32, and flash on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-1233698525601..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="47-6. LONG-BODIED CELLAR SPIDER (ventral view of male) -- Note the enlarged, dark pedipalps between the 1st pair of legs of this male (about 1/4 inch long body). Males deposit a drop of sperm on a special web and then suck it into the pedipalps. During the mating process, the palp is inserted into an opening of the hardened epigynum on the underside of the female's abdomen to transfer the sperm into the female's body for fertilizing the eggs (see epigynum in next photo #47-7). Photographed with a 60 mm lens, extension tubes (3x), F-11/16, and flash on Provia 100F film. ">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-1233698525701..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="47-7. LONG-BODIED CELLAR SPIDER (ventral view of female) -- Note the dark-colored epigynum on the abdomen behind the 4th pair of legs. The male transfers sperm from his enlarged pedipalps into the female through the epigynum. Note the small, thin pedipalps in front of the 1st pair of legs in this female. Photographed with a 60 mm lens, 1:1 ratio, F-32, and flash on Velvia 50 film. ">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-1233698525801..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="47-8. BLACK AND YELLOW ARGIOPE (female) -- Black and Yellow Argiopes are also called garden spiders and they are in the orb-weavers family Araneidae (also called Argiopidae) with about 3,500 species found on Earth. About 180 species are in North America. Note the large abdomen with contrasting black and yellow. They build very large silk orb-webs over 2 ft. wide stretched between shrub branches and across paths between tall grass or weeds. Spider webs are engineering marvels. Construction begins when a spider crawls up a plant stalk or branch and spins a long silk line from its spinnerets near the rear end of the abdomen. If wind blows the silk to span a gap and touches other plant material, it sticks and both ends of the silk line are fastened to make a bridge. The spider walks back and forth on the silk line bridge laying down more bridge lines. Then a new silk line is fastened near the middle of a bridge line and the spider drops down releasing a vertical line, eventually landing on plant material below the bridge. The vertical line is then pulled stretching the bridge line down into a V to form a Y by pulling the vertical line tight and fastening it. The spider then crawls up the vertical line to the fork of the Y to fasten another silk line and then crawls onto one of the V lines back to the bridge attachment and down a short distance on the plant material to tighten and fasten this line. This is repeated several times on both V lines, and the lines radiating out from the V point are like spokes of a wheel from a hub at the V point of the Y. Then a silk line is fastened to the silk spokes in spaced spirals from the hub outward to produce the orb-web. The spiral lines are sticky for catching insects in the web and spoke lines are not. This allows the spider to move across the web to capture entangled prey. This is a brief description of web building. A comprehensive description and explanation of spider web building is presented in Chapter 2 "Silken Fetters" of Richard Dawkin's book Climbing Mount Improbable, 1996. Photographed with a 60 mm lens, F-5.6, and tripod on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-1233698525901..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="47-9. BLACK AND YELLOW ARGIOPE (male) -- Note that the male is much smaller (about 1/4 inch body length) than the female (about 1 inch body length). This is a photo of the underside of the male and the previous photo is the upper side of the female. Note the enlarged pedipalps in front of the head that is characteristic of all male spiders. The pedipalps are male copulatory organs used to transfer sperm into the female's reproductive opening under her abdomen (epigynum) and stored in a seminal receptacle to be used later by the female in fertilizing the eggs. The males' testes and sperm ducts are not connected directly to the pedipalps. The male fills the pedipalps with sperm by first spinning silk into a small sperm web, then he ejaculates a globule of semen from his reproductive pore onto the sperm web, and finally he dips the pedipalps into the semen globule to suck the semen into the palp reservoirs. Now he is ready to search for and mate with a female. Mating with the much larger female puts the smaller male in a dangerous situation because he is in the prey range size of a feeding female spider. Spiders feed mostly on insects, but also on other spiders, including their own species. The male spider performs a delicate, pre-mating courtship behavior to avoid being killed and eaten by the female after mating, or worse still before mating and not passing his genes on to future generations. Most of the time, however, males are not killed. The male spider spins his own web too, usually near the outside edge of the female's orb-web. Photographed with a 60 mm lens at F-8 with a tripod on Velvia 50 film. ">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-12336985251001..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="47-10. BANDED ARGIOPE (female) -- Banded Argiopes are in the orb-weaver family Araneidae. Spiders are animals classified in the phylum Arthropoda and class Arachnida that is subdivided into 11 orders. Argiope spiders and all other spiders are in the order Araneae (over 42,000 species) and this order is subdivided into 110 families. Arachnids are the largest group of non-insect animals on Earth with over 75,000 named species (it is estimated that at least another 125,000 unnamed species may exist). About 4,000 named species are in North America. Arachnids differ from insects in not having antennae or wings and in having 8 legs instead of 6 legs in insects. They also differ from insects in having 2 body segments, instead of 3, with the head and thorax fused into a cephalothorax in front of the abdomen. Arachnids appear as fossils about 350 million years old. Their ancestors were most likely the giant water scorpions originally in marine environments, and then evolved to live in freshwater where they became amphibious and eventually moved permanently onto land. Arachnids probably evolved from these ancestral forms and may have been the first terrestrial arthropods to evolve on Earth. Photographed with a 60 mm lens, F-11/8, 1:3 ratio, and fill flash on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-12336985251101..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="47-11. BANDED ARGIOPE (male) -- This male spider's web was near the edge of the female's larger web. The male is about 1/10 the size of the female (about 1 inch body length). Again, as noted in the previous male argiope, the pair of pedipalps in front of the head are more enlarged than the smaller thin female pedipalps. The reproductive structures and mating behavior of male argiopes is described in the previous photo #47-9. Photographed with a 60 mm lens, tripod and release on Fuji 100 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-12336985251201..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="47-12. ORB WEAVER -- There are several hundred species of orb weaver spiders in the Araneidae family in North America. Their body ranges from 1/16 to 1 1/8 inch long, they have 8 eyes with 4 eyes in each of 2 rows across the front of the cephalothorax, and their abdomen is large and bulging. The male is much smaller than the female. They usually hang head down from the central hub of the orb-web, and if suddenly disturbed or threatened, they drop down to the ground and hide. Most orb weavers spin a new web every day, and many do it at night in the dark by touch alone. They conserve old web silk by eating it to recycle it. Photographed in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem Area with a 60 mm lens, F-11, 1:3 ratio, and fill flash on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-12336985251301..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="47-13. Aculepeira sp. (?) -- Note the yellowish legs with black bands and hairy cephalothorax of this orb weaver in the Araneidae family of spiders. Photographed in the Lamar River Valley of Yellowstone National Park with a 60 mm lens, F-11, 1:3 ratio, and fill flash on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="698" height="469"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-12336985251401..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="47-14. Larinia sp. (?) -- An orb weaver that spins its web in tall grasses. Photographed in Lancaster County, Nebraska with a 60 mm lens, F-8, and 1:1 ratio on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-12336985251501..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="47-15. AMERICAN HOUSE SPIDER (male) -- It is a comb-footed spider in the Theridiidae family. They are named for the comb-like bristles on the last segment (tarsus) of their hind legs. They are small spiders (1/8-1/4 inches in body length) that use the combs on the hind legs to fling strands of silk from their spinnerets over insect prey caught in their web. The silk covered prey is hauled to a captive site on the web, injected with venom from the fangs, and eaten later. Note the orange, rust-colored, long, slender legs of the male. The female has yellow legs with black bands. They spin silk webs (called cobwebs) in corners of houses, barns, and other buildings throughout the U.S. and Canada. Photographed with a 60 mm lens, extension tubes (3x), F-11, and double flash on Velvia 50 film. ">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-12336985251601..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="47-16. Steotoda borealis -- The steotoda genera are usually dark brown with a white line around the front of the abdomen. Note the tan line on the abdomen and the enlarged pedipalps of this male steotoda (about 1/3 inch long body). Photographed in Lancaster County, Nebraska with a 60 mm lens with extension tubes at 3x life size, F-11, and double flash on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-12336985251701..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="47-17. Steotoda hespara (?) -- Note the white line around the front of the black abdomen and the narrow, thin pedipalps of this female steotoda (about 1/4 inch long body). Photographed in the Red Desert of Wyoming with a 60 mm lens with extension tubes at 2x life size, F-11, 1/250 sec,in bright sun on Provia 100F film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-12336985251801..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="47-18. Steotoda triangulosa -- Note the dark brown and light tan abdomen, the paired eyes on cephalothorax in focus, and the thin pedipalps of this female steotoda cobweb weaver spider (about 1/4 inch long body). This spider is found on all parts of the Earth (cosmopolitan). Photographed in Lancaster County, Nebraska with a 60 mm lens with extension tubes at 3x life size, F-11, and double flash on Velvia 50 film. ">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-12336985251901..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="47-19. BURROWING WOLF SPIDER -- Geolycosa sp. is in the Lycosidae family of spiders. The Greek word "lycosa" means "wolf" and "geo" means earth. Most wolf spiders live on the ground and some dig burrows in the ground. Except for one genus, most wolf spiders do not spin webs to catch insect prey. They have dark mottled colors for camouflage among leaves, stones and debris, where they hunt and pounce on prey for food. There are about 3,000 known species of wolf spiders on Earth with about 200 in North America. Wolf spiders are the most common spider in the Arctic and on high mountains. Note the lowest row of 4 small black eyes below the 2 large black eyes on the front of the cephalothorax. Two more large eyes are visible behind the 2 large black eyes for a total of 8 eyes. Also note the 2 large, hairy chelicerae with fangs below the eyes. Photographed in Lancaster County, Nebraska with a 60 mm lens, F-11, and fill flash on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-12336985252001..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="47-20. CAROLINA WOLF SPIDER -- This is the largest wolf spider in North America (body length of 3/4 to 1 3/8 inches long). The cephalothorax and abdomen are about the same size in width as their length. Note the freshly killed grasshopper in its fangs, and both rows of 4 small eyes and 4 large eyes are visible in this photo. They are found in open fields on the ground throughout the U.S. and southern Canada. The female digs a 6 to 8 inch deep burrow in the ground where she guards her egg sacs. Photographed in southeastern Nebraska with a 60 mm lens, F-11, and fill flash on Provia 100F film. ">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-12336985252101..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="47-21. RABID WOLF SPIDER -- Note that Lycosa rabida is a large spider (about 1 inch body length) with 2 wide dark stripes on top of the cephalothorax (only 1 dark stripe shows in photo), and one wide dark stripe between 2 narrow light stripes on top of the abdomen (only 1 and part of the 2nd light stripes show in photo). Also note that this female has spun a spider silk cocoon around her egg mass and attached it to her spinnerets at the rear of her abdomen to drag along as she moves about. The name "rabid" comes from an unwarranted fear of their harmless bite, and the myth that the only way to save oneself from a hairy, large, tarantula-like spider bite is to dance the "tarantella" (a lively folk dance of southern Italy in 6/8 time). Photographed in Lancaster County, Nebraska with a 60 mm lens, F-32, 1:1.5 ratio, and flash on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-12336985252201..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="47-22. RABID WOLF SPIDER (protective posture) -- This is the same female spider as the previous photo. Note the spider's defensive posture of protecting her eggs by clutching the round cocoon of eggs under her body with the pedipalps and 3rd pair of legs. When the young spiderlings emerge from the cocoon, they climb on the mother's back. If they fall off, they climb up the mother's legs to return to top side on her back. Photographed with a 60 mm lens, F-32, 1:1 ratio, and flash on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-12336985252301..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="47-23. PIRATE WOLF SPIDER -- Pirata piraticus can be found in wetlands habitat, around the edges of ponds, or running on the water surface. It is a small spider (about 1/3 inch body length) and has V-shaped marks on top of the carapace (top part of cepalothorax). Note two rows of white spots on top of its abdomen. Photographed in early Spring on ice of a marsh with a 60 mm lens, extension tube (2x), F-11, and fill flash on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-12336985252401..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="47-24. INCONSPICUOUS CRAB SPIDER (?) -- This small (about 1/3 inch body length ) male has camouflage grayish-brown coloring, dark spots on legs, dark banding on abdomen with a pale tip, and 8 eyes appear to be in 2 parallel curving rows of 4 eyes in each row, indicating it may be Philodromus sp. Note a pair of small hole-spots on the anterior top and a larger pair toward the posterior top of abdomen. Photographed in Lancaster County, Nebraska with a 60 mm lens, extension tubes (3x), F-11, and fill flash on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-12336985252501..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="47-25. INCONSPICUOUS CRAB SPIDER (?) -- This small (about 1/3 inch body length) male has camouflage mottled-brown, blackish coloring with dark bands on body and legs, and its 8 eyes appear to be in 2 parallel curving rows of 4 eyes in each row indicating it may be Philodromus sp. Photographed in Lancaster County, Nebraska with a 60 mm lens, extension tubes (3x), and double fill flash on velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-12336985252601..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="47-26. INCONSPICUOUS CRAB SPIDER (?) -- This small (about 1/3 inch body length) spider has camouflage black, yellowish-reddish colors with wide black bands on the front 4 legs, and 8 eyes appear to be in 2 parallel curving rows of 4 eyes in each row, indicating it may be Philodromus sp. Photographed Lancaster County, Nebraska with a 60 mm lens, extension tubes (2x), F-11, and fill flash on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-12336985252701..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="47-27. PLATORID CRAB SPIDER (?) -- This flat bodied spider of about 1/2 inch body length has a carapace (top part of cephalothorax) shape and eye arrangement similar to the spider family Platoridae found in Asia and tropical America. It was found and photographed in a back yard of a house adjacent to the foothills of east Boise, Idaho. Photographed with a 60 mm lens, extension tubes (3x), F-11, and double fill flash on Ectachrome VS film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-12336985252801..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="47-28. FLOWER CRAB SPIDER -- It is in the crab spiders Thomisidae family with over 200 species in North America. They hold their legs outstretched to the side similar to marine crabs and can move forward, sideways, or backward like a crab. Their eyes are in two curved rows of 4 eyes in each row. They wander over the ground and climb plants with flowers where they wait motionless on a flower to capture and eat prey. They do not spin silk orb webs, but the male sometimes covers a female with loose silk webbing to tie the female down for mating. Photographed with a 60 mm lens, F-11, 1:1 ratio, and fill flash on Velvia 50 film. ">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-12336985252901..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="47-29. FLOWER CRAB SPIDER AND GREEN INCH LARVA -- Another common name for this spider is "Goldenrod Spider" because it can readily change from creamy white to a yellow color to help camouflage it on yellow flowers. However, this individual was yellow on a pinkish thistle flower. Crab spider venom is more potent than most other spiders and produces quick paralysis of insects such as bees. Their venom is generally not dangerous to humans. Photographed in Lancaster County, Nebraska with a 60 mm lens, 1:2 ratio, F-8, tripod, 1/125 sec, and release aide on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-12336985253001..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="47-30. RUNNING CRAB SPIDER -- Tibellus sp. is in the crab spider Philodromidae family. This spider was found and photographed in Lancaster County, Nebraska with a 60 mm lens, extension tubes (3x), F-11, and double flash on Velvia 50 film. ">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-12336985253101..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="47-31. Thanatus sp. CRAB SPIDER (?) -- They live on vegetation and bark in North America. This spider is about 1/8 inch in body length. Photographed in the foothills of Boise, Idaho with a 60 mm lens, extension tubes (3x), F-11, and double flash on Ectachrome 100VS film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-12336985253201..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="47-32. FAMILIAR JUMPER -- Salticid spiders are the most abundant spiders on Earth, and they are in the large Salticidae family (over 5,400 species) of jumping spiders that get their name from the quick, long leaps they make to pounce on prey. There are about 300 species in North America. They are small to medium size (1/8 to 5/8 inch body length), and they are especially active during sunny days. Their jumping strength comes mostly from the 4th pair of hind legs that propel them 10 to 40 times their own length. Two of jumping spiders' 8 eyes are large and face forward for binocular vision to accurately judge distance. They have the sharpest vision of all spiders and can recognize prey or other spiders 4 to 8 inches away, and they can change the color of their eyes. Before making a jump, they fasten a silk drag line (safety line) from the spinnerets at their rear end so that they can climb back with prey, or if they miss their aim and are left hanging in mid air. Drag lines are laid down by most other spiders too. Photographed on old wood with a 60 mm lens, extension tubes (2x), F-11, and double fill flash on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-12336985253301..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="47-33. FAMILIAR JUMPER (female) -- Note the wide white cross band below the 2 large eyes characteristic of the Platycryptus undatus female. The male Familiar Jumper has a wide orange cross band below the two large eyes. Like other salticids, they can run forward, backward, or sideways. Photographed on a leaf with a 60 mm lens, extension tubes (3x), F-11, and double fill flash on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-12336985253401..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="47-34. FAMILIAR JUMPER (male) -- Note the orange cross band below the 2 large eyes in this individual that indicates it is a male. Photographed with a 60 mm lens, extension tubes (3x), F-11, and double fill flash on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-12336985253501..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="47-35. FAMILIAR JUMPER (top view) -- This is a dorsal view (top side) of most likely a Familiar Jumper spider. Photographed with a 60 mm lens, extension tubes (3x), F-11, and double fill flash on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-12336985253601..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="47-36. DARING JUMPING SPIDER -- Phidippus audax (about 1/2 inch long body) is in the jumping spiders Salticidae family. It has a light colored cross band on front of its abdomen and its chelicerae (jaws) are metallic green. It is a common species often entering a house to hunt prey on windowsills. Photographed with a 60 mm lens, extension tubes (3x), F-11, and fill flash on Velvia 50 film. ">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-12336985253701..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="47-37. BRILLIANT JUMPER -- Phidippus clarus (about 1/3 inch body length) has a white cross band on front of its abdomen and metallic green chelicerae. It is in the Salticidae family of jumping spiders. Photographed with a 60 mm lens, extension tubes (3x), F-11, and double fill flash on Provia 100F film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-12336985253801..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="47-38. NYMPH JUMPER -- Note the hairless (bristleless) dark patches on the cephalothorax and abdomen of this salticid. Photographed with a 60 mm lens, extension tubes (3x), F-16/11, and double flash on Provia 100F film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-12336985253901..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="47-39. UNKNOWN JUMPER (?) -- Note the large, bulbous, green-colored abdomen of this salticid (about 1/3 inch long body). Photographed in the Red Desert of Wyoming on a Big Sagebrush branch with a 60 mm lens, extension tubes (3x), F-11, and double fill flash on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-12336985254001..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="47-40. GNAPHOSID SPIDER (?) -- Photographed in early Spring on ice on a marsh in northwestern Missouri with a 60 mm lens, extension tubes (2x), F-11, and fill flash on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-12336985254101..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="47-41. PARSON SPIDER -- Its name comes from the light-colored stripe on top of its abdomen that is similar to a cravat worn by ministers in the 18th century. The "tail-like" structures at the rear end are spinnerets for producing spider silk. Herpyllus ecclesiasticus (about 1/2 inch body length) is in the ground spiders Gnaphosidae family. Photographed with a 60 mm lens and flash on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-12336985254201..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="47-42. GROUND SPIDER (?) -- This appears to be a gnaphosid ground spider. Photographed near the foothills of east Boise, Idaho with a 60 mm lens, extension tubes (2x), F-11, and fill flash on Ectachrome 100VS film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-12336985254301..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="47-43. BROWNISH-GRAY FISHING SPIDER -- Dolomedes tenebrosus is a uniformly brownish- gray spider with blackish-brown marks on both body and legs. It is a large spider, the female body is about 1 inch in length and her leg span can be over 3 inches. They look like a wolf spider. Note the appearance of 2 "false eyes" on top of this individual's abdomen. Fishing spiders are usually found near ponds or streams, but often they are some distance from water. They can run on the water surface, even while carrying a rather large egg sac in their jaws. When disturbed or pursued, they will dive under the water surface and even stay below water for over 30 minutes. Air bubbles in its body hair (bristles) allow it to breathe underwater. Sometimes they catch small fish or tadpoles to eat, but mostly they hunt insects on the water surface and on land. They are in the nursery web spiders Pisauridae family with about 100 species found all over the Earth, and about 12 species in North America. Photographed near a stream in southeastern Nebraska with a 60 mm lens, 1:2 ratio, F-11, and fill flash on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-12336985254401..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="47-44. SPIDERLINGS -- Nursery web spiders in the Pisauridae family do not construct orb-webs to catch prey. The female carries a round egg sac in her jaws, and when the hatching begins, she spins silk from her spinnerets to build a nursery web in vegetation and suspends an egg sac inside. The female watches over the nursery web until all the spiderlings have hatched and dispersed from the nursery. Spiderlings climb up on high places to release long strands of silk from their spinnerets. The long strands of silk are caught by the wind that lifts and floats them up into the air in a behavior known as ballooning. This method of dispersal to new areas occurs in the fall of the year when much silk (gossamers) are floating in the air. Photographed in grass with a 60 mm lens, 1:1 ratio, F-32, and flash on Velvia 50 film. ">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-12336985254501..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="47-45. SAC SPIDER -- Sac spiders are in the Clubionidae family with about 1,500 species on Earth, and about 36 species north of Mexico in North America. They live mostly outdoors among dead leaves, grass, and on shrubs and tree trunks, but sometimes they go into homes. They use their silk to construct tube-like sacs to hide in during the day, and this behavior gave them their common name, sac spider. They usually actively hunt at night running and darting about in search of prey. They pounce on and capture insect prey, bite with their fangs to inject venom to paralyze prey, and then feed immediately or return to their tube sac to feed. Sac spiders have a rather unusual mating behavior compared to most spiders in that there is no courtship prior to sperm transfer. When a male finds a female, he immediately grabs her abdomen with his jaws and does not let go until sperm transfer is accomplished. After struggling a short time, the female stops moving, then the male climbs on top of her abdomen facing her rear end, then he pinches her several times with his fangs, then he leans over from one side to the other side of her abdomen, and finally he inserts his pedipalp into the epigynal opening under her abdomen to transfer his sperm into her body. When ready to lay her eggs, she curls a leaf up and holds it together with silk to form a leaf tube. Inside the leaf she spins a silk mat to lay the eggs on and then she spins much more silk to completely cover them into a thick egg sac. In homes, the round silken cocoon-like egg sacs can be found in corners of rooms and windows. During the night sac spiders run on walls and ceilings, and if disturbed, they suddenly drop to the floor to escape. Sac spider bites can occur when they are in clothing or bedding that traps then against the skin. Their bite is usually painless to humans, but the cytotoxic venom produces a reddish bump with pus buildup within 8 hours. Occasionally a sensitive person may have a systemic reaction of fever, nausea, stomach cramps, and necrosis (death) of underlying skin. Normally, even in extreme cases, the bite site heals after a few weeks. Even though sac spiders are likely responsible for most spider bites on people, its important to remember that about 80 percent of suspected spider bites are actually other arthropods such as fleas, ticks, mites, bedbugs, flies, bees, wasps, or some other chronic disease. Photographed on vegetation beside the Big Fork River in northern Minnesota with a 60 mm lens, extension tubes (3x), and double flash on Velvia film. ">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-12336985254601..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="47-46. SPINED MICRATHENA (female) -- These are spiders with spiny, hard and glossy abdomens. There are several species in North America, and they are found in woodland and garden habitats. Photographed with a 60 mm lens, 1:1 ratio, F-11, and flash on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-12336985254701..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="47-47. BROWN DADDY LONGLEGS -- Even though this arachnid looks like a spider, it is not a spider (8 legs does not a spider make). They're also called harvestmen to boot (obviously they are not men). They supposedly acquired their 2nd common name because the first discovered daddy longlegs species was named during the fall farm harvest. Phalangium opilio is an introduced European species in the Phalangiidae family that is widespread on much of the Earth. These arthropods are classified in the Arachnid order Opiliones, indicating they are considerably different than spiders in the order Araneae. There are about 200 species of daddy longlegs in North America out of about 3,500 species on Earth. Unlike spiders with their cephalothorax and abdomen separated by a "waist", daddy longlegs have their body fused together into an oval shape about 1/8 to 1/4 inch long. Also unlike spiders, daddy longlegs do not have fangs or venom, they do not produce silk, and they cannot regrow lost legs (spiders can regrow lost legs). But most unlike any other arachnid, a male daddy longlegs has a penis. Male and female meet and mate face to face, he inserts his penis between her jaws into an oviduct and ejaculates his sperm inside her body (male spiders do not have a penis and instead use their pedipalps to place sperm through the epigynum into the female). Shortly after mating, the female deposits her eggs through a very long, narrow, extended, tube-like ovipositor poked into moist soil, moss or rotten wood in the fall, and the eggs hatch the following spring. Unlike carnivorous spiders, daddy longlegs are omnivores not limited to liquified insides of insects sucked up by muscle action in the pharynx (throat). They can suck up small pieces of food crushed by their chelicerae (jaws) and pedipalps for a more varied diet of other daddy longlegs, spiders, flies, aphids, leafhoppers, snails, earthworms, bird droppings, mushroom gills, fruits and vegetables. Note the reddish-brown body with 8 long (up to 20 times their body length in some species), thin, stilt-like dark legs, and the prominent white area on the coxae at the base of the legs. Unlike most spiders with 8 eyes, daddy longlegs have only 2 eyes on black, turret-like protuberances on top and near the front of their body. Note in this photo, one of the eyes is just above the coxa of the left first leg, and note the claw at the tip of pedipalps. Also note, a green insect riding on top of its back, and a brown insect below its abdomen. Photographed in Lancaster County, Nebraska with a 60 mm lens, 1:1 ratio, F-11, and fill flash on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-12336985254801..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="47-48. HARD TICK AND BEETLE MITES -- Ticks and mites are classified in the arachnid order Acarina with about 1,000 tick species and over 30,000 known mite species on Earth. Ticks are the largest of the mites in the Ixodidae family with bodies that can stretch from about 1/8 inch to about a 1inch long bulging body after feeding on a blood meal. All are external parasites on mammals, birds and reptiles. Hard ticks have a "questing" behavior of crawling up on blades of grass (they don't drop from tree branches!), and then extend their front legs outward to latch onto a potential host passing by. Movement, heat and carbon dioxide cause questing behavior. Hard ticks get their name from the hard plate on top of the body, and their mouth parts are visible when looking at them from above, unlike the soft ticks (family Argasidae) with mouth parts underneath the front part of the body. This individual appears to be Dermacentor variabilis, the dog tick (about 1/8 inch long). Note that typical arachnid spider head region appendages have evolved into specialized mouth parts in the tick. In the photo, one can see that the front body wall projects forward to form the rostrum base of the mouth, the two appendages in front of the rostrum are modified pedipalps, and the partially visible appendages below the pedipalps are modified chelicerae (jaws) with pointed, dart-like barbs to pierce and anchor the tick into the skin of the host. Also, note 2 shiny beetle mite oribatids (about .04 inches long) and their spun silk threads entangling one of the tick's legs on top of the tick's body. Most oribatids are free-living detritus feeders, but some are predators that feed on small arthropods and other mites. Photographed in Lancaster County, Nebraska with a 60 mm lens, extension tubes (3x), F-11, and double flash on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-12336985254901..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="47-49. VELVET MITE (adult) -- Mites are in the arachnid order Acarina with over 30,000 named species and probably about a million more species yet to be discovered! Mites are ubiquitous (found everywhere) on Earth, even polar regions, deserts, and hot springs have mites. Terrestrial species are extremely abundant, and individual numbers far exceed total numbers of all other arachnid orders combined. A small handful of leaf litter mold from a forest floor often contains hundreds of individuals. When eyes are present, they usually have a pair of eyes on each side of the head or front of the body, and some water mites have a 5th median eye. Most mites have poorly developed eyes. Very little is known about mite mating behavior. After several weeks incubation, 6-legged larvae hatch from mite eggs. The larvae develop through several successive molts to transform into protonymphs, deutonymphs, tritonymphs, and finally into 8-legged adults. The red mite (about 1/8 inch long) in this photo may be a Velvet Mite in the Trombidiidae family, or a Chigger (Harvestmite) in the Trombiculidae family. About 50 species of chigger mite 6-legged larvae attack humans by crawling to areas where clothing is tight against the skin, and there they bite to feed on cell fluids causing red bumps with severe itching. After feeding, they fall off. Some people do not have a reaction to chigger bites. Chiggers are most abundant in vegetation of the humid central and southern U.S. Photographed with a 60 mm lens, extension tubes (3x), F-11, and double flash on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg-12336985255001..jpg"> height="29"/>height="28"/> tooltip="28-1. DOUGLAS-FIR CONES -- Light shade from morning sun reduced contrast on these maturing cones beside a mountain hiking trail near the Poudre River in Colorado. The Douglas-fir tree is named after the Scottish botanical collector, David Douglas (1798-1834). Sadly, only about 10% of these original ancient tall trees remain in the severely fragmented native forests of the Pacific Northwest. The 35-135 Macro lens, F-22, +1 stop at 2 sec. put these cones on Kodachrome 25 film. ">Open Image width="694" height="483"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg1155158975101..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="27-1. PAPER BIRCH GROVE -- For about ten autumns I traveled by this grove of Paper Birch trees north of Grand Rapids, Minnesota, but the light was never right for a good photo. Finally in 1999 this scenic view materialized on Velvia 50 film. The 60mm lens, F-16 and tripod were used for this image at high noon. ">Open Image width="690" height="483"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg1155158975201..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="26-10. CLUMP OF PAPER BIRCH TREE TRUNKS -- This is one of the most beautiful native trees in North America and is also called white or canoe birch. It is in the birch tree family Batulaceae. Its smooth, thin bark separates into papery strips and its chalky to creamy white color has short, thin, dark horizontal lines. These trees may grow 50 to 70 ft. tall, but usually no more than 30 ft. Native Americans made birch bark canoes by stretching thin strips of bark from large trees over White Cedar tree wood frames, sewing the bark together with thread made from Tamarack tree roots, and caulking seams with Balsam Fir tree resin. Paper Birch wood is very hard and they used it for sleds, snowshoes, paddles, arrows, and even needles. Deer and moose feed on its twigs and leaves and many species of small birds eat its seeds. Recent research indicates a compound (betulic acid) that makes birch bark white may help prevent and be useful in treating skin cancer. Birch bark souvenirs must always be collected from dead fallen logs and not from living trees because bark removal could kill the tree. Paper Birch trees grow in moist upland soils across North America from Alaska, throughout most of Canada, east to Labrador, south to New York, and west to Oregon. Local populations occur in some Central and Eastern states. Photographed in Scenic State Park in northern Minnesota with a 28 mm lens, F-11, tripod, and mirror lockup on Provia 100F film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg1155158975301..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="26-11. ASPEN TREE TRUNKS -- Trembling Aspen trees are also known as quaking, golden and mountain aspen, and popple or poplar trees. It is in the willow tree family Salicaceae. Trembling in its name refers to the thin, flattened leaf stems that allow leaves to vibrate in a slight breeze. The most frequent method of reproduction in Trembling Aspen is by putting up shoots (called suckers) from its widespread root system. This asexual reproduction produces outward spreading stands of aspens called clones that are connected by underground roots and all these trees are genetically identical. These clones (essentially one huge living organism) can cover many acres and live for thousands of years! They grow 40 to 70 ft. tall and are the most widely distributed tree in North America ranging from Alaska to Newfoundland, south to Virginia and in the Rocky Mountains south to New Mexico, and into the western U.S. They grow in dry to moist soils near sea level, in foothills, and in mountains up to 10,000 ft. elevations. Aspens are a favorite food and building material for beavers. Beaver and rabbits eat the bark, leaves, and buds. Deer, elk and moose eat the twigs and leaves, and during famine, they will eat the bark too. Grouse and quail feed on the winter buds. Old aspen trees are susceptible to rot, and many birds and small mammals nest in their hollow tree trunk cavities. New aspen wood does not splinter and so it is used for sauna benches and playground equipment. In some sites where trees are exposed to bright sun, natural selection has adapted aspen tree bark to produce a white powdery material that protects it from UV-radiation sunburn (Of course, natural selection did not proceed with foresight of purpose toward a goal to protect aspen trees from sunburn, but instead it is a natural materialistic, mechanistic process of non-random accumulation of random inherited variations in genetic DNA mutations and recombination of genes over time from many generations of reproducing aspen trees.). There is evidence that Native Americans used this easily rubbed off white powder as sunscreen on their skin. Photographed in the Rock Creek proposed wilderness area in Wyoming with a 28 mm lens, F-11, tripod, and electronic release on Provia 100F film. ">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg1155158975401..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="26-12. HACKBERRY TREE IN FOOTHILLS -- The native Netleaf Hackberry is a small tree 20 to 30 ft. tall with a short trunk and an open, spreading crown. This hackberry tree has been moved from the elm tree family into the hemp Cannabaceaea family based on recent genetic analysis by the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group. The gray trunk has rough, fissured bark with large, cork, wart-like ridges. The ovate leaves are alternate in 2 rows on its twigs and the leaves are asymmetrical at their base attachment to the leafstalks. The leaves are dark green with a rough, leathery texture above, and yellow-green with a prominent, raised network of veins below. The sweet brown to purple fruit is eaten by wildlife and was food for Native Americans. This native hackberry is widely distributed in the west and southwestern U.S., but also extends its range east into the grassland states. It ranges from central Kansas into Texas, west to southern California, and north to eastern Washington. It is usually found at 1,500 to 6,000 ft. elevation, and also occurs in north and central Mexico. Photographed on a early summer morning growing in the dry soil of the medium high desert sagebrush/bunch grass foothills near Boise, Idaho with a 60 mm lens, F-8, 1/30 sec, tripod, and mirror lockup on Velvia 50 film. ">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg1155158975501..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="26-13. HACKBERRY TREE IN WINTER -- Note the gray trunk of this native Netleaf Hackberry with rough, fissured bark and the large, cork, wart-like ridges showing in this photo. Photographed in winter in a sandstone outcrop of the foothills near Boise, Idaho with an 85 mm lens, F-8, polarized filter, tripod, and electronic release on Provia 100F film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg1155158975601..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="26-14. BIG SAGEBRUSH -- Big Sagebrush is an erect, much branched shrub usually about 1 ½ to 6 ft. tall. In draws and wash areas in the hills of the Red Desert in Wyoming, many patches of Big Sagebrush grow 8 to 10 ft. tall. Its common name is Big Sagebrush in the sunflower family Asteraceae. Its genus/species scientific name is Artemisia tridentata. The genus name comes from Artemis, the Greek virgin goddess of the hunt and wild nature, and the species name means 3-toothed leaves. The blue-green leaves produce an aromatic sage fragrance pretty much year round. It blooms in late summer and one bush can produce about a million flake, pepper-sized seeds. It is important winter food for small mammals, Mule Deer, Pronghorn antelope and Sage Grouse. About 70 percent of Sage Grouses' food is sagebrush leaves and buds, and leaves are nearly 100 percent of their diet when heavy snows cover most of the ground in winter. Natural selection has adapted sagebrush plants for a long growing season by evolving leaves that can photosynthesize at near freezing. Native Americans used sagebrush wood for fuel and building material, used the leaves and seeds for food, used the leaves (camphor component) for treating colds, fever and pain, for poultices to reduce swelling, and for medicine to stop internal bleeding from battle wounds and childbirth. It is Nevada's state plant. Note the light-tan Sage Grouse droppings on the ground in this photo. Photographed near Battle Mountain in the Owyhee canyon lands of southeastern Oregon in early spring with a 60 mm lens at F-8 on Provia 100 F film. ">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg1155158975701..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="26-15. WHITE BLOSSOM FLOWERING CRAB -- Flowering crab apple trees are planted in the North and Midwest where cold winters and heavy clay soils prevent other spring-flowering trees from doing well. It is a small deciduous tree usually 15 to 25 ft. tall in the rose family Rosaceae. Many crab apple trees hold their small fruit all winter which provides food for a variety of bird species. The wild ancestor of the apple tree is still present in its place of origin in Western Asia. Hundreds of years of cross-breeding through artificial selection by people have evolved about 7,500 known cultivars of apple trees. Cultivar varieties can be preserved by grafting onto tree trunk root stalks. Their strong hard wood can be made into excellent, durable tool handles. Photographed in mid morning sun with a 60 mm lens, F-8, tripod, 1/30 sec, and mirror lockup on Kodachrome 25 film in Lancaster County, Nebraska. ">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg1155158975801..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="26-16. PINK BLOSSOM FLOWERING CRAB -- This closeup of flowers on a flowering crab apple tree shows 5 similar-type petals in the corolla which is a key characteristic found in all flowers of plants in the family Rosaceae. Photographed in morning sun with a 28 mm lens, F-5.6, 1/60 sec, tripod, and mirror lockup on Velvia 50 film in Lancaster County, Nebraska.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg1155158975901..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="26-17. REDBUD TREE -- This tree is in the 3rd largest family of seed plants, Leguminosae, that have the key characteristics of pea-like flowers and pods. Natural selection has adapted these trees to grow in a low-light environment as an understory tree under the canopy of taller forest trees. They are typically less than 20 ft. tall, but can grow up to 50 ft. when in an open area. Unlike most flowering trees, the Redbud blooms with flowers all over the tree and sometimes even on the trunk before leaves appear on the tree. Note the short trunk, rounded crown of spreading branches, and the showy beautiful magenta pink flowers that cover the leafless twigs. The Redbud is the state tree of Oklahoma. This is a photograph of a volunteer Redbud tree in early spring with a 120 mm lens, F-8, 1/30 sec, tripod, and mirror lockup on Velvia 50 film in Lancaster County, Nebraska.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg11551589751001..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="26-18. REDBUD TREE BLOSSOMS -- These showy flowers are a light to dark magenta pink. This flower has a corolla of 5 petals: a central vertical petal (called a banner) that is flanked with 2 petal wings, and below are 2 petals called keels. The keel petals enclose 10 stamens (male) and one pistil (female). When an insect lands on the flower, the keel petals bend down opening the flower, and as the insect (usually a bee) feeds on nectar, it is dusted with pollen from the exposed stamens. Bees carrying pollen from flowers on one tree to flowers on another tree is called cross-pollination. Even though male and female structures are in the same flower, the process of natural selection has evolved mechanisms for cross-pollination. In some species the stamens mature first (young flowers) producing pollen before the pistil matures later (older flowers) to accept pollen. Thus, the young flowers cannot self-pollinate their pistils. Therefore, trees with older flowers having mature pistils and stamens depleted of pollen will be cross-pollinated from trees with mature stamens of young flowers. In other species, the opposite occurs when the pistil matures before the stamens. (Of course, this does not mean that natural selection proceeded with foresight toward a purposeful goal of producing conditions necessary for cross-pollination by deliberately causing genetic recombination or a mutation for early or late maturation of stamens and pistils, but rather it was a natural mechanistic, materialistic process of non-random accumulation of inherited random trait variation. I think this example of cross-pollination adaptation may have evolved very rapidly in a few generations or instantaneously in a few trees because a rather simple genetic variation in timing of maturation in reproductive structures can have far-reaching beneficial consequences that would quickly be established in a population of plants.) The co-evolution of flowering plants and insect pollination is a cooperative beneficial interrelationship that began about 100 million yrs. ago, and is an example of evolutionary mutualism. This is a photograph of flowers on a volunteer Redbud tree with a 60 mm lens, F-8, 1/60 sec, tripod, and mirror lockup on Kodachrome 25 film in Lancaster County, Nebraska. ">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg11551589751101..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="26-19. CLOUDS OVER BOREAL FOREST -- A distant view of a Tamarack, Black and White Spruce forest with adjacent Aspen grove, and shrubs in foreground. Photographed west of Floodwood, Minnesota with a 35-210 zoom lens at F-8, 1/250 sec, and car door tripod on Velvia 50 film in the fall.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg11551589751201..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="26-20. TAMARACK FOREST -- The Tamarack tree, also called American Larch (see a closeup of its trunk in the vertical tree section), is an unusual conifer because it is deciduous. Its needles turn yellow and drop from the tree in autumn, and new needles grow back in spring. These trees have less dense- spaced, long, feathery-needled branches than most conifers, and this allows more light to pass through for shrubs to grow under and near tamarack forests. Willows, Dwarf Birch, Alder, Dogwood, Bearberry, Huckleberry, Blueberry and Cranberry shrubs are associated with Tamaracks. Tamarack trees are adapted to persist in wetlands of Boreal Bogs where the wet acidic soil prevents other trees from invading. They grow 40 to 70 ft. tall, but most old (150 yr.+) trees in Minnesota have been killed by the larch sawfly. Farther north in severe, cold climatic conditions of down to 85 degrees F. below zero, Tamaracks only grow no more than 15 ft. tall. They range from Alaska, eastern Yukon, Northwest Territories, east to Newfoundland, and south to northeastern U.S. and northern Minnesota. Photographed in the Aggassiz National Wildlife Refuge in northwestern Minnesota with a 35-210 zoom lens at 85 mm, F-5.6, polarized filter, and tripod on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg11551589751301..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="26-21. RED PINE TREES -- These trees are native to North America and are in the pine family Pinaceae. They usually grow 60 to 80 ft. tall (some grow 100 ft.) and a maximum age of about 350 yrs. old. The Red Pine is self-pruning, and so it tends not to have dead branches on a very long trunk below the canopy. Its leaves are needle-like in bundles of 2 that are 4 to 6 inches long, and brittle which is a key characteristic (as in some other pines) of Red Pine. Their needles snap or break apart when bent sharply instead of just bending over and not breaking as in most pines. It is the state tree of Minnesota. It ranges in southeastern Canada, around the Great Lakes states and in the northeastern U.S. Photographed just before sunset on Chase Point in Scenic State Park in northern Minnesota with a 35-210 zoom lens at 35mm, F-5.6, and tripod on Velvia 50 film. ">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg11551589751401..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="26-22. RED PINE TRUNK -- This is a closeup of a Red Pine tree trunk at eye level of one of the trees in the previous photo #26-21. A mature older tree has gray-brown bark at its base and flaky, thin orange-red bark near the top that gives this conifer its name. Some of the reddish color can be seen in the fissures of thick bark near the base of older trees. Note that at eye level in this photo of a younger tree, some of the thin gray-brown bark has flaked off exposing the reddish bark beneath. Photographed with an 85 mm lens at F-8, tripod, and electronic release on Provia 100F film. ">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg11551589751501..jpg"> height="29"/>height="28"/> tooltip="27-1. PAPER BIRCH GROVE -- For about ten autumns I traveled by this grove of Paper Birch trees north of Grand Rapids, Minnesota, but the light was never right for a good photo. Finally in 1999 this scenic view materialized on Velvia 50 film. The 60mm lens, F-16 and tripod were used for this image at high noon. ">Open Image width="689" height="482"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg1168837560101..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E012. Aspen and birch trees in northern Minnesota">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg1168837560601..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="28-1. DOUGLAS-FIR CONES -- Light shade from morning sun reduced contrast on these maturing cones beside a mountain hiking trail near the Poudre River in Colorado. The Douglas-fir tree is named after the Scottish botanical collector, David Douglas (1798-1834). Sadly, only about 10% of these original ancient tall trees remain in the severely fragmented native forests of the Pacific Northwest. The 35-135 Macro lens, F-22, +1 stop at 2 sec. put these cones on Kodachrome 25 film. ">Open Image width="693" height="482"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg1168837560301..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E047. Tree in Winter Mist">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg1168837560401..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0451. Winter Ice on Willow Tree (Image from 17 mm lens, f-11, tripod, and mirror lockup on Provia 100F film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg1168837560701..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0452. Winter Frost on Willow Tree (Image from 400 mm lens, F-11, 500/250 sec, tripod, and mirror lockup on Fuji 100 film)">Open Image width="698" height="463"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg1168837560801..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0453. Hackberry tree in Snow (Image from 700 mm lens, F-5.6, tripod, and electronic release on Velvia 100 film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg1168837560901..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0454. Foothills Hackberry Tree (Image from 500 mm lens, F-5.6, tripod, and electronic release on Velvia 100 film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg11688375601001..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0455. Winter Oak Tree in Native Grassland (Image from 60 mm, F-2.8, 1/8 sec, fill flash, tripod, and mirror lockup on Kodachrome 25 film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg11688375601101..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0456. Early Winter Morning Ice on Tree Branch (Image from 105 mm lens, F-11, +1 stop, tripod, and mirror lockup on Provia 100F film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg11688375601201..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0457. Cold Winter Morning Ash Tree in Native Mid-grass Prairie (Image from 28 mm lens, F-8, 1/125 sec, tripod, and electronic release on Provia 100F film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg11688375601301..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0458. Arch-way Trees Over Road in Winter (Image from 400 mm lens, F-5.6, +1 stop, tripod, and mirror lockup on Fuji 100 film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg11688375601401..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0459. Downed Log in Winter (Image from 24 mm lens, F-8, +1/2 stop, tripod, and mirror lockup on Velvia 50 film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg11688375601501..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0460. Falling Petals from Flowering Crab Tree (Image from 28 mm lens, F-22, and 1/8 sec on Velvia 50 film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg11688375601601..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0461. Old Dead Krummholz at Bighorn Pass (Image from 17 mm lens, F-16, 60/30 sec, polarizing filter, tripod, and mirror lockup on Velvia 100F film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg11688375601701..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0462. Yellow Flower and Natural Downed Logs in Wilderness (Image from 105 mm lens, F-5.6, 1/15 sec, +1 stop in overcast light, tripod, and mirror lockup on Kodachrome 25 film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg11688375601801..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0463. Red Pines in Northern Minnesota (Image from 85 mm lens, F-8, tripod, and electronic release on Provia 100F film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg11688375601901..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0464. Redbud Tree Blossoms (Image from 28 mm lens, F-2.8, 1/250 sec, and tripod on Velvia 50 film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg11688375602001..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0465. Maple Tree Leaves (Image from 500 mm lens, F-8, tripod, and electronic release on Velvia 50 film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg11688375602101..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0466. Burning Bush Leaves (Image from 300 mm lens, F-8, 1/60 sec, overcast light, tripod, and electronic release on Provia 100F film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg11688375602201..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0467. Highbush Cranberry (Image from 60 mm lens, F-8, ½ sec, tripod and mirror lockup on Kodachrome 25 film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg11688375602301..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0468. Old Pines Loop Trail in Boundary Waters (Image from lens not recorded on Velvia 50 film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg11688375602401..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0469. Aspen Grove in Sand Hills of Nebraska (Image from 60 mm lens, F-8, tripod, and electronic release on Velvia 50 film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg11688375602501..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0470. Autumn Aspen in Bighorn Mountains (Image from 85 mm lens, F-8, polarizing filter, tripod and mirror lockup on Velvia 100 film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg11688375602601..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0471. Autumn Aspen in Gallatin National Forest (Image from 60 mm lens, F-11/8, tripod, and mirror lockup on Velvia 50 film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg11688375602701..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E0472. Crooked Aspen in Glacier National Park (Image from 28 mm lens, F-11, tripod, and mirror lockup on Velvia 50 film)">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg11688375602801..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="E007a. Aspen Tree Trunks">Open Image width="698" height="471"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg1168837560501..jpg"> height="29"/> tooltip="26. SHAGBARK HICKORY -- Diffuse, overcast light in early spring revealed this hickory tree trunk in the deciduous forest of the Rulo Bluffs Preserve in southeast Nebraska. The bark breaks into thin plates 1-3 ft. long giving the tree a shaggy appearance. The 60mm lens at F-8 and tripod were used for this image on Kodachrome 25 film. ">Open Image width="331" height="476"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg1302816078101.jpg">Open Image width="29" height="42"/> tooltip="26-321. WESTERN JUNIPER -- An evergreen conifer tree (usually 15 to 30 ft. tall) with a short wide trunk base and a side crown of stout, spreading branches that become gnarled and ragged with age. It is in the family Cupressaceae. Some giant trees grow a trunk diameter of 16 ft. and are more than 2,000 yrs. old. One very old Western Juniper of Deadman Creek in California is over 85 ft. tall with a 14 ft. diameter trunk, and an estimated age of between 3 to 6,000 yrs. old. About half of Western Junipers have both male and female sexes on one tree (monecious), and half one sex only per tree (dioecious). Their mature reproductive structures are small blue-black, berry-like cones containing only 2 to 3 seeds per cone. Their habitat is mostly on dry foothills, plateaus, and mountain slopes on rocky soils up to 10,000 ft. elevation. This tree lacks a central taproot, but it has long, strong lateral roots that spread out and entwine into rock outcrops, and often the roots penetrate deep into cracks of bedrock. Its range area is greatest in Oregon and California with small populations in SE. Washington, SW. Idaho, and NW. Nevada. Photographed in the upper reach of the North Fork Owyhee River in Idaho with an 85 mm lens, F-5.6, 1/1000 sec, tripod, and electronic release on Provia 400X film.">Open Image width="321" height="476"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg1302816078801.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/>Open Image width="321" height="476"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg1302816078901.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="26-23. BUR OAK AND WILD GRAPE VINES -- This photo was taken in early spring when trees are just starting to leaf out. Note two large old Wild Grape vines that have "climbed" up into the Bur Oak tree and are now hanging down on each side of the tree trunk. There is also a thin young vine "climbing" on the right side of the tree between the old hanging vine and the trunk (note higher up the trunk that the young vine has Y-branched off behind the old vine and has attached at two locations up on the oak tree). These woody vines can "climb" over 30 ft. tall into a tree by using tendrils (somewhat like above-ground roots) near the top of the vine to attach to the tree as the vine grows. Wild Grape vines produce up to 20 large purplish-black berries in fruit clusters in late summer that are eaten by wildlife. Also, to the right of this living oak tree, note the standing dead tree called a snag. The Bur Oak tree is native to North America and is in the beech family Fagaceae. It usually grows 60 to 80 ft. tall. As its scientific name (Quercus macrocarpa) implies, it has the largest acorn of the native oaks. It is a very drought resistant tree and grows in dry uplands, but it also grows in moist bottomlands near streams with other deciduous hardwood trees. It also invades prairie grasslands and in these open areas Bur Oak taproots can grow 10 to 20 ft. deep in soil. Studies show that weight of this tree below ground is about equal to weight of tree above ground (as in many tree species). Their best acorn bearing years are at about 100 yrs. old, but this oak will still reproduce up to the age of 400 yrs. old. Abundant acorn seed crops occur every 2 to 3 yrs. on individual trees with few or no acorns in between abundant years. Bur Oaks range from parts of southeastern Canada and the northern Great Plains states, the Great Lakes states south to Tennessee, west to the Midwest states, and south into Texas. Photographed in bottomlands near a stream in the Steele City Canyon of southeastern Nebraska with a 17 mm lens, F-16, ½ sec, tripod, and mirror lockup just before sundown on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="321" height="476"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg13028160781001.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="26-24. BUR OAK TREE TRUNK -- This photo shows the gray-brown, very thick, deeply furrowed and rigid bark at the lower trunk of an old Bur Oak tree. An explanation for the heavily textured, thick bark of this tree is in the stretching capacity of bark tissue. The bark of all trees must yield to an outward growing trunk as it increases its diameter by stretching, splitting, and infilling the bark. Photographed in the Rulo Bluffs Preserve on The Nature Conservancy land in southeastern Nebraska with a 60 mm lens, F-8, tripod, and mirror lockup in shaded sun on Kodachrome 25 film. ">Open Image width="321" height="476"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg13028160781101.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="26-25. SYCAMORE TREE -- This sycamore was photographed from the ground up in early spring. It is in the sycamore family Platanaceae. The sycamore grows best in riparian soils of river bottomlands like the Mississippi and Ohio River Valleys, and some trees grow up to 175 ft. tall and 14 ft. in diameter. Some huge sycamores are over 500 yrs old! The London Plane Tree is from a cross between the American Sycamore and Oriental Sycamore, and is frequently planted as a street tree in cities. Photographed with a 17 mm lens at F-16 on Velvia 50 film in Lancaster county, Nebraska.">Open Image width="321" height="476"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg13028160781201.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="26-26. SYCAMORE TREE TRUNK BARK -- A key characteristic of an American Sycamore is its colorful, mottled, and exfoliating bark. Large, irregular, plate-like patches of rust-brown and thin bark flakes that fall off leave the surface of remaining bark mottled, greenish-white, white, pale yellow, gray and brown. The bark of all trees must yield to an outward growing trunk as it increases its diameter by stretching, splitting and infilling (see previous photo #26-24 of Bur Oak bark). An explanation for the condition of sycamore bark is that it has a very rigid tissue texture, and so it is not capable of stretching to accommodate wood growth underneath and this causes the bark to flake off. This is a photo of the sycamore tree in the previous image #26-25 at about 8 ft. above the ground and 5 ft. from the tree. Photographed with a 60 mm lens, F-11, 1/125 sec, tripod, and mirror lockup in early morning sun on Provia 100F film. ">Open Image width="321" height="476"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg13028160781301.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="26-27. ASPEN TREE -- An aspen tree in autumn emerging high above a forest canopy in Scenic State Park in northern Minnesota. This aspen is about 70 ft. tall. Photographed with a 300 mm lens, F-5.6, tripod, and electronic release on ?Ectachrome 100VS film. ">Open Image width="321" height="476"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg13028160781401.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="26-28. DOUBLE ASPENS -- Two aspen trees joined together at their base in the Rock Creek proposed wilderness area in Wyoming. Photographed with a 28 mm lens at F-13 from the ground up on Provia 100F film.">Open Image width="316" height="476"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg13028160781501.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="26-29. ASPEN AND MAPLE LEAVES -- Three aspen and maple leaves in autumn in Scenic State Park in northern Minnesota. Photographed with a 300 mm lens, F-8, tripod, and electronic release on Ectachrome 100VS film. ">Open Image width="321" height="476"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg13028160781601.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="26-30. PONDEROSA PINE AND SNAG -- A snag (standing dead tree) beside a living Ponderosa Pine tree. A dead tree provides as much wildlife habitat as a living tree. For about a third of all native wildlife, life begins when a tree dies. Snags provide food, shelter and nesting for over 80 species of birds such as Brown Creepers, nuthatches, swifts, Wood Ducks, owls, hawks, eagles, and woodpeckers which are the only birds capable of making large cavities in dead wood with their strong bills and neck muscles. Snags are habitat for butterflies, amphibians, reptiles, deer mice, squirrels, martens, raccoons and bats. Even when a snag eventually falls to the ground to become a downed log, it provides habitat for opossums, skunks, bobcats, coyotes and bears, and as it decomposes it benefits, salamanders, snakes, shrews, isopods, centipedes, millipedes, spiders, beetles, larvae and many other insects. As a dead snag ages it drops woody debris onto the forest floor, and the decomposition of the stored nutrients in decaying wood eventually end up back into the soil to nourish living trees. Photographed near French Creek in Custer State Park in South Dakota with a 35-105 zoom lens at 35 mm, F-16, and polarized filter on Fuji 100 film. ">Open Image width="321" height="476"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg13028160781701.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="26-31. OLD SNAG -- This old lichen-covered snag (standing dead tree) was photographed on Pistol Creek Ridge in the Frank Church River-of-no-Return Wilderness in Idaho. A snag ages and decays to a condition where it eventually falls down, and then it is called a downed log. Snags 10 inches or more in diameter are most valuable to wildlife. Small clumps of snags scattered throughout the landscape are even better than single snags because they provide more nesting and foraging opportunities for more species diversity. A continual supply of snags and downed logs in a forest ecosystem are essential for wildlife habitat and renewing the soil with nutrients. Photographed with a 35-105 zoom lens at 35 mm, F-11, 1/15 sec, tripod, and mirror lockup in late afternoon on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="321" height="476"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg13028160781801.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="26-32. DECAYING SNAG -- This is the tree trunk base of an old decaying Western Redcedar snag. Photographed in the bottomlands of the riparian area beside the St. Maries River in Idaho with a 60 mm lens, F-5.6 at 6 sec, tripod, and mirror lockup on Kodachrome 25 film. ">Open Image width="321" height="476"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg13028160781901.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="26-33. DOUGLAS-FIR -- The base of a Douglas-fir tree trunk just before sunset. This very old tree has lichen-covered bark that is very thick, deeply furrowed with wide ridges, often corky, and reddish-brown in color. Its common name comes from the Scottish botanist, David Douglas, who sent samples of the tree to Europe in 1827. The flattened, needle-like leaves are eaten by deer, elk and grouse, and birds and mammals eat the seeds. Douglas-fir trees produce some of the hardest and heaviest wood of the soft wood conifers. Photographed beside the Blue Bunch Trail near Bear Valley Creek in the Boise National Forest in Idaho with a 60 mm lens, F-8 at 1/15 sec, tripod, and mirror lockup at 25 ft. on Kodachrome 25 film. ">Open Image width="321" height="476"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg13028160782001.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="26-34. BASE OF WESTERN REDCEDAR TREE -- The buttressed base of a living Western Redcedar tree in the Settler's Grove of Ancient Cedars in northern Idaho. They are 100 to 175 ft. tall and 2 to 8 ft. in diameter (one of the largest measured 21 ft. in diameter). It ranks 2nd to the Giant Sequoia as the largest of trees in North America. Large old trees may be over 1000 yrs. old. Its wood is naturally resistant to rot. The Native Americans of the Northwest Coast made their totem poles from this tree, and their special war "canoe-cedar" was made from a huge redcedar tree trunk. It ranges from southeastern Alaska along the coast to northwestern California, and from southeastern British Columbia south to western Montana and northern Idaho. Photographed with a 60 mm lens, F-8, 1/15 sec, tripod, and mirror lockup at 25 ft. on Kodachrome 25 film. ">Open Image width="321" height="476"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg13028160782101.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="26-35. WESTERN REDCEDAR TREE TRUNK -- The base of a large Western Redcedar tree in the DeVoto Memorial Cedar Grove in the Clearwater National Forest by the Lochsa River in Idaho. Photographed with a 28 mm lens, F-11, 1/125 sec, and tripod on Provia 100F film. ">Open Image width="321" height="476"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg13028160782201.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="26-36. TAMARACK TREE TRUNK -- It is also called American Larch and is in the Pinaceae family. The thin bark is flaky and gray-brown, but underneath the flakes, the bark is a reddish color. It has the smallest cones of larch species at only ½ to less than 1 inch long. Tamarack has a tough, durable wood that is flexible in thin strips, and was used by Native Americans to make snowshoes and arrows. The inner bark was use as a poultice to treat cuts, infected wounds, frost bite, boils and hemorrhoids. Much of its range in the U.S. is mostly in wetlands of coniferous forest regions of northern Minnesota. Photographed with a 28 mm lens, F-11 at 1/8 sec, tripod, and mirror lockup on Velvia 50 film in the Agassiz National Wildlife Refuge in northwestern Minnesota.">Open Image width="321" height="476"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg13028160782301.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="26-37. PONDEROSA PINE TREE -- A full length photo of a Ponderosa Pine about 100 ft. tall with a snag cluster nearby. They are 60 to 130 ft. tall and 2 to 4 ft. in diameter. This is the most widely distributed and common pine in North America. The Scottish botanist, David Douglas, named it for its "ponderous", heavy wood in 1826. It ranges scattered in suitable habitats throughout the western half of the U.S. from sea level in the north to 9000 ft. in the south, and grows best between 4000 to 8000 ft. Squirrels, quail, nutcrackers and other wildlife eat the pine cone seeds. Chipmunks store seeds in caches underground and this helps to promote new tree growth. Photographed in the Sawtooth Wilderness in the Little Queen River drainage watershed in Idaho with a 28 mm lens, F-11 at 1/30 sec, tripod, and mirror lockup on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="321" height="476"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg13028160782401.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="26-38. PONDEROSA PINE TRUNK -- A closer view of the pine tree trunk in the previous photo #26-37. Note the yellowish rust-colored, large irregular, flat, scale-like plates of bark outlined in black that look similar to the graphic reproductions of dinosaur skin texture. Also note the thick accumulation of dead pine needles on the ground around the base of the tree. Photographed with a 28 mm lens, F-11 at 1/15 sec, polarizing filter, tripod, and mirror lockup on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="321" height="476"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg13028160782501.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="26-39. PONDEROSA PINE TRUNK BASE -- Closer still of the pine tree trunk in the previous photo #26-38. If one comes very close to the furrowed, thick bark of a Ponderosa Pine, the fragrance of vanilla can be detected. An enlarged print of this image shows the puzzle-like texture on the large plates of bark. Photographed with an 85 mm lens, F-8 at 1/125 sec, polarizing filter, tripod, and mirror lockup on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="321" height="476"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg13028160782601.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="26-40. LIMBER PINE TREE -- A medium sized tree (25 to 50 ft. tall) with a short trunk and short, stout branches growing from its crown all the way down the trunk near the ground. It ranges mostly in the Rocky Mountains from Canada to Mexico at 4,000 to 12,000 ft. elevations, but it is also found locally in foothills and rocky ridges in the Black Hills of South Dakota, North Dakota, Wyoming and western Nebraska. Its name refers to its tough and very flexible twigs that can be tied into a knot. Photographed on a rocky ridge in the Jack Morrow Hills in the Red Desert of Wyoming with a 35 mm lens at F-8 just before sunset on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="321" height="476"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg13028160782701.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="26-41. LIMBER PINE CONES AND NEEDLES -- The Limber Pine tree cones are 3 to 6 inches long and the needles are 1 ½ to 3 ½ inches long in bundles of 5. Birds and small mammals eat the large seeds from these cones. Photographed with an 85 mm lens at F-16 and tripod on Astia 100 film.">Open Image width="321" height="476"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg13028160782801.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="26-42. BLUE SPRUCE TREE -- A young nursery Blue Spruce about 8 ft. tall with new spring growth. They can grow 70 to 100 ft. tall. Photographed with a 60 mm lens, F-8, 1/15 sec, tripod, and mirror lockup in early morning on Kodachrome 25 film. ">Open Image width="321" height="476"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg13028160782901.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="26-43. BLUE SPRUCE BUDS -- Newly emerged nursery Blue Spruce buds in early spring showing young and mature needles in focus. Photographed with a 60 mm lens, F-11, 1:3 ratio, and fill flash on Velvia 50 film.">Open Image width="321" height="476"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg13028160783201.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="26-44. PACIFIC MADRONE TREE -- It is a beautiful evergreen tree (20 to 80 ft. tall) with glossy foliage, large clusters of bell-shaped white flowers, orange-red fruits and showy, reddish, peeling bark. It is in the heath family Ericaceae. Most species (3000) in this family are shrubs. The scientific name for this tree (Arbutus menziesii) is in honor of the Scottish physician and naturalist, Archibald Menzies (1754-1842), who discovered this tree. Photographed on San Juan Island off Washington State with a 28 mm lens, F-16, tripod, and electronic release on Provia 100F film.">Open Image width="314" height="476"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg13028160783101.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="27. PAPER BIRCH -- Early morning sunlight scattered by Red Pines found its way to this Paper Birch tree trunk on Chase Point in Scenic State Park in northern Minnesota. The bark from this tree is still used to make birchbark canoes at Hafeman Boat Works near Bigfork, Minnesota. The 60mm lens at F-16 and tripod produced this image on Kodachrome 25 film. ">Open Image width="333" height="476"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg1302816078201.jpg">Open Image width="29" height="42"/> tooltip="28. POISON IVY ON OAK -- Shaded, midday sun revealed Poison Ivy climbing a Burr Oak tree trunk in the Mahoney Park campground in Nebraska. About 50% of the people are allergic to an oily, resinous urushiol found in Poison Ivy plants. The 60mm lens at F-8 and tripod were used for this image on Kodachrome 25 film. ">Open Image width="333" height="476"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg1302816078301.jpg">Open Image width="29" height="42"/> tooltip="E0473. Paper Birch by Kekekabic Trail in Boundary Waters (Image from 35-105 zoom lens at 35 mm, F-11, 1/30 sec, tripod and mirror lockup on Velvia 50 film)">Open Image width="468" height="708"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg1693801521801.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="27. PAPER BIRCH -- Early morning sunlight scattered by Red Pines found its way to this Paper Birch tree trunk on Chase Point in Scenic State Park in northern Minnesota. The bark from this tree is still used to make birchbark canoes at Hafeman Boat Works near Bigfork, Minnesota. The 60mm lens at F-16 and tripod produced this image on Kodachrome 25 film. ">Open Image width="490" height="701"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg1693801521101.jpg">Open Image width="29" height="42"/> tooltip="E048. Snag on Pistol Creek Ridge in Frank Church-River-Of-No-Return Wilderness">Open Image width="478" height="708"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg1693801521201.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="E046. Corkscrew vines on oak tree">Open Image width="478" height="708"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg1693801521301.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="E045. Sycamore bark">Open Image width="478" height="708"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg1693801521401.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="E0474. Sycamore Tree Bark (Image from 60 mm lens, F-11, 1:5 ratio, 1/500 sec, -1/3 stop, tripod, and mirror lockup on Provia 100F film)">Open Image width="478" height="708"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg1693801521901.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="E006a. Ponderosa Pine Bark">Open Image width="475" height="708"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg1693801521501.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="E0475. Ponderosa Pine Tree Bark (Image from 60 mm lens, F-8, 1/250 sec, tripod, and mirror lockup on Velvia 50 film)">Open Image width="478" height="708"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg16938015211001.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="E0476. Engelmann Spruce Tree Bark (Image from 60 mm lens, tripod, and mirror lockup on Velvia 50 film)">Open Image width="478" height="708"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg16938015211201.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="E0477. Russian Olive Tree Bark (Image from 60 mm lens, F-11, tripod, and mirror lockup on Velvia 50 film)">Open Image width="478" height="708"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg16938015211301.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="E0478. Engelmann Spruce Tree Trunk (Image from 60 mm lens, F-8, 1/60 sec, tripod, and mirror lockup on Velvia 50 film)">Open Image width="478" height="708"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg16938015211401.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="E0479. Ponderosa Pine Tree (Image from 28 mm lens at F-16 on Velvia 50 film)">Open Image width="478" height="708"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg16938015211501.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="E0480. Tree Trunk Wire and Trillium Flower (Image from 28 mm lens, F-5.6, tripod, and mirror lockup on Provia 100F film)">Open Image width="478" height="708"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg16938015211601.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="E0481. Three Autumn Aspen Trees (Image from 28 mm lens, F-8, 1/250 sec, +1 stop, tripod, and mirror lockup on Provia 100F film)">Open Image width="466" height="708"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg16938015211701.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="E0482. Autumn Cottonwood Trees (Image from 500 mm lens, F-8, 1/320 sec, tripod, and electronic release on Provia 100F film)">Open Image width="478" height="708"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg16938015211801.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="E0483. Spruce Tree in Aspen Grove (Image from 400 mm lens, F-5.6, 1/1000 sec and tripod in river raft on Provia 400F film)">Open Image width="478" height="708"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg16938015211901.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="E0484. Sycamore Tree (Image from 17 mm lens at F-16 on Velvia 50 film)">Open Image width="478" height="708"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg16938015212001.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="E0485a. Aspen and Maple Leaves (Image from 300 mm lens, F-8, tripod, and electronic release on Provia 100F film)">Open Image width="478" height="708"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg16938015212101.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="E0485b. Aspen and Maple Leaves (Image from 300 mm lens, F-8, tripod and electronic release on Ectachrome 100VS film)">Open Image width="478" height="708"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg16938015212201.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="E0485c. Aspen and Maple Leaves (Image from 300 mm lens, F-8, diffuser, tripod and electronic release on Ectachrome 100VS film)">Open Image width="478" height="708"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg16938015212301.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/> tooltip="E0486. Sugar Pine Tree Bark (Image from 17 mm lens, F-16, 1/8 sec in shade, tripod, and mirror lockup on Provia 100F film)">Open Image width="478" height="708"/>/assets/swf/photogallery/pg16938015211101.jpg">Open Image width="28" height="42"/>